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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry. 2 Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Define chemistry and differentiate among its traditional divisions.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry. 2 Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Define chemistry and differentiate among its traditional divisions."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry

2 2 Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Define chemistry and differentiate among its traditional divisions.

3 3 Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –List several reasons to study chemistry.

4 4 What is Chemistry? The study of matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Everyday life? The study of matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Everyday life? Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge

5 5 5 Major Areas of Chemistry Analytical Chemistry- concerned with the composition of substances. Analytical Chemistry- concerned with the composition of substances. Inorganic Chemistry- primarily deals with substances without carbon Inorganic Chemistry- primarily deals with substances without carbon Organic Chemistry- essentially all substances containing carbon Organic Chemistry- essentially all substances containing carbon Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things Physical Chemistry- describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching) Physical Chemistry- describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching)

6 6 Chemistry is central to modern science, and to almost all human endeavors. central to modern science, and to almost all human endeavors. important to all sciences - biology, geology, physics, engineers, etc. important to all sciences - biology, geology, physics, engineers, etc. a natural science. a natural science. a language with its own vocabulary. a language with its own vocabulary. a way of thinking. a way of thinking.

7 7 Why Study Chemistry? everyone and everything around us involves chemistry everyone and everything around us involves chemistry What in the world isnt Chemistry? What in the world isnt Chemistry? helps you make choices helps you make choices possible career for your future possible career for your future used to attain a specific goal used to attain a specific goal Do you remember pure and applied chemistry? Do you remember pure and applied chemistry?

8 8 Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Summarize ways in which chemistry affects your daily life.

9 9 Section 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Describe the impact of chemistry on various fields of science.

10 10 Chemistry Far and Wide Materials- perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibers Materials- perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibers Energy- greater demands Energy- greater demands –conserve it, or produce more –fossil fuels, solar, batteries, nuclear (dont forget pollution!)

11 11 Chemistry Far and Wide Medicine and Biotechnology- Medicine and Biotechnology- –vitamin C, penicillin, aspirin –materials for artery transplants and hipbones –Human Genome Project –bacteria producing insulin –cloning

12 12 Chemistry Far and Wide Agriculture- worlds food supply Agriculture- worlds food supply –plant growth hormones –ways to protect crops –disease resistant plants The Environment- both risks and benefits involved in discoveries The Environment- both risks and benefits involved in discoveries –carbon dioxide, ozone, warming

13 13 Chemistry Far and Wide Astronomy and Space Exploration- Astronomy and Space Exploration- –composition of the planets –analyze moon rocks –planet atmospheres –life on other planets?

14 14 Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Describe the steps involved in the scientific method.

15 15 Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Distinguish between a theory and a scientific law.

16 16 The Scientific Method A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. Starts with observation- noting and recording facts Starts with observation- noting and recording facts hypothesis- an educated guess as to the cause of the problem, or a proposed explanation hypothesis- an educated guess as to the cause of the problem, or a proposed explanation

17 17 Scientific Method controlled experiment- designed to test the hypothesis controlled experiment- designed to test the hypothesis only two possible answers only two possible answers –hypothesis is right –hypothesis is wrong Generates data observations from experiments. Generates data observations from experiments. Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle

18 18 Observations Hypothesis Experiment Cycle repeats many times. Cycle repeats many times. The hypothesis gets more and more certain. The hypothesis gets more and more certain. Becomes a theory Becomes a theory –A thoroughly tested model that explains why things behave a certain way.

19 19 Theory can never be proven- due to new information Theory can never be proven- due to new information Useful because they predict behavior Useful because they predict behavior Help us form mental pictures of processes (models) Help us form mental pictures of processes (models) Observations Hypothesis Experiment

20 20 Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times Scientific Law is developed (math?) Scientific Law is developed (math?) Describes how things behave Describes how things behave Law- tells how Law- tells how Theory- tells why Theory- tells why Observations Hypothesis Experiment

21 21 Law Theory (Model) Prediction Experiment Modify Observations Hypothesis Experiment

22 22 Section 1.4 How to Study Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Explain why learning chemistry requires daily effort.

23 23 Section 1.4 How to Study Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: –Describe the importance of writing in the study of chemistry.

24 24 How to Study Chemistry Understanding and Applying Concepts Understanding and Applying Concepts –requires effort on your part –read materials carefully –take thorough notes you can use –study often and effectively –quiet, well-lit, remove distractions

25 25 How to Study Chemistry Understanding and Applying Concepts Understanding and Applying Concepts –chemistry has a language of its own, so learn the vocabulary –look around you, and make the connection to the level of atoms and molecules

26 26 How to Study Chemistry Using Your Textbook Using Your Textbook –name chemical compounds –write chemical formulas –interpret graphs –techniques to solve problems Use your Teacher and Textbook! Use your Teacher and Textbook!

27 27 How to Study Chemistry Using Your Textbook Using Your Textbook –take good notes –solve Practice Problems –read, keeping objectives in mind –use the Chem ASAP! CD-ROM –Student Study Guide (p. 24) –section summaries; Key Terms

28 28 How to Study Chemistry On Your Own On Your Own –go beyond the textbook –make flashcards –reread and rewrite notes –quiz yourself and classmates –form a study group –ASK, ASK, and ASK

29 29 How to Study Chemistry Tests and Quizzes Tests and Quizzes –cramming never a good idea –set aside a certain amount of time every day –get enough rest daily; nutrition –read tests carefully / thoroughly –do easy problems first –show work, and evaluate answer


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