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Eddy Li Eric Wong Martin Ho Kitty Wong Introduction to.

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Presentation on theme: "Eddy Li Eric Wong Martin Ho Kitty Wong Introduction to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Eddy Li Eric Wong Martin Ho Kitty Wong Introduction to

2 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Presentation Outline 1) Introduction to Neural Networks 2) What is Neural Networks? 3) Perceptrons 4) Introduction to Backpropagation 5) Applications of Neural Networks 6) Summary

3 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Background - Neural Networks can be : - Biological models - Artificial models - Desire to produce artificial systems capable of sophisticated computations similar to the human brain.

4 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 How Does the Brain Work ? (1) NEURON - The cell that perform information processing in the brain. - Fundamental functional unit of all nervous system tissue.

5 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Each consists of : SOMA, DENDRITES, AXON, and SYNAPSE. How Does the Brain Work ? (2)

6 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Brain vs. Digital Computers (1) - Computers require hundreds of cycles to simulate a firing of a neuron. - The brain can fire all the neurons in a single step. Parallelism - Serial computers require billions of cycles to perform some tasks but the brain takes less than a second. e.g. Face Recognition

7 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Brain vs. Digital Computers (2) Future : combine parallelism of the brain with the switching speed of the computer.

8 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Definition of Neural Network A Neural Network is a system composed of many simple processing elements operating in parallel which can acquire, store, and utilize experiential knowledge.

9 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neurons vs. Units (1) - Each element is a node called unit. - Units are connected by links. - Each link has a numeric weight.

10 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neurons vs. Units (2)

11 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Computing Elements A typical unit:

12 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Presentation Outline 1) Introduction to Neural Networks 2) What is Neural Networks? 3) Perceptrons 4) Introduction to Backpropagation 5) Applications of Neural Networks 6) Summary

13 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Planning in building a Neural Network Decisions on: - The number of units to use. - The type of units required. - Connection between the units.

14 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Learning a Task - Initializing the weights. - Use of a learning algorithm. - Set of training examples. - Encode the examples as inputs. - Convert output into meaningful results.

15 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neural Network Example

16 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Simple Computations - 2 components: Linear and Non-linear. - Linear: Input function - calculate weighted sum of all inputs. - Non-linear: Activation function - transform sum into activation level.

17 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Calculations Input function: Activation function:

18 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 A Computing Unit

19 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Activation Functions - Use different functions to obtain different models. - 3 most common choices : 1) Step function 2) Sign function 3) Sigmoid function - An output of 1 represents firing of a neuron down the axon.

20 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© Activation Functions

21 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Units in Action - Individual units representing Boolean functions

22 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Network Structures Feed-forward : Links can only go in one direction. Recurrent : Links can go anywhere and form arbitrary topologies.

23 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Feed-forward Networks - Arranged in layers. - Each unit is linked only in the unit in next layer. - No units are linked between the same layer, back to the previous layer or skipping a layer. - Computations can proceed uniformly from input to output units. - No internal state exists.

24 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Feed-Forward Example I2 t = -0.5W 24 = -1 H4 W 46 = 1 t = 1.5 H6 W 67 = 1 t = 0.5 I1 t = -0.5W 13 = -1 H3 W 35 = 1 t = 1.5 H5 O7 W 57 = 1 W 25 = 1 W 16 = 1

25 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Multi-layer Networks and Perceptrons - Have one or more layers of hidden units. - With two possibly very large hidden layers, it is possible to implement any function. - Networks without hidden layer are called perceptrons. - Perceptrons are very limited in what they can represent, but this makes their learning problem much simpler.

26 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Recurrent Network (1) - The brain is not and cannot be a feed-forward network. - Allows activation to be fed back to the previous unit. - Internal state is stored in its activation level. - Can become unstable or oscillate.

27 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Recurrent Network (2) - May take long time to compute a stable output. - Learning process is much more difficult. - Can implement more complex designs. - Can model certain systems with internal states.

28 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Presentation Outline 1) Introduction to Neural Networks 2) What is Neural Networks? 3) Perceptrons 4) Introduction to Backpropagation 5) Applications of Neural Networks 6) Summary

29 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Perceptrons - First studied in the late 1950s. - Also known as Layered Feed-Forward Networks. - The only efficient learning element at that time was for single-layered networks. - Today, used as a synonym for a single-layer, feed-forward network.

30 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Perceptrons

31 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 What can Perceptrons Represent ? - Some complex Boolean function can be represented. For example: Majority function - will be covered in the next presentation. - Limited in the Boolean functions they can represent.

32 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Linear Separability in Perceptrons

33 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Learning Linearly Separable Functions (1) What can these functions learn ? Bad news: - There are not many linearly separable functions. Good news: - There is a perceptron algorithm that will learn any linearly separable function, given enough training examples.

34 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Most neural network learning algorithms, including the perceptrons learning method, follow the current-best- hypothesis (CBH) scheme. Learning Linearly Separable Functions (2)

35 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© Initial network has a randomly assigned weights. - Done by making small adjustments in the weights to reduce the difference between the observed and predicted values. - Main difference from the logical algorithms is need to repeat the update phase several times in order to achieve convergence. - Updating process is divided into epochs, each epoch updates all the weights of the process. Learning Linearly Separable Functions (3)

36 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neural-Network-Learning

37 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Presentation Outline 1) Introduction to Neural Networks 2) What is Neural Networks? 3) Perceptrons 4) Introduction to Backpropagation 5) Applications of Neural Networks 6) Summary

38 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Introduction to Backpropagation - In 1969 a method for learning in multi-layer network, Backpropagation, was invented by Bryson and Ho. - The Backpropagation algorithm is a sensible approach for dividing the contribution of each weight. - Works basically the same as perceptrons

39 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Backpropagation Learning There are two differences for the updating rule : 1) The activation of the hidden unit is used instead of the input value. 2) The rule contains a term for the gradient of the activation function.

40 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Backpropagation Algorithm(1)

41 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Backpropagation Algorithm(2) The ideas of the algorithm can be summarized as follows : - Computes the error term for the output units using the observed error. - From output layer, repeat propagating the error term back to the previous layer and updating the weights between the two layers until the earliest hidden layer is reached.

42 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Examples of Backpropagation Learning

43 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Examples of Feed-Forward Learning

44 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Examples of Backpropagation Learning

45 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Presentation Outline 1) Introduction to Neural Networks 2) What is Neural Networks? 3) Perceptrons 4) Introduction to Backpropagation 5) Applications of Neural Networks 6) Summary

46 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neural Network Applications - May provide a model for massive parallel computation. - More successful approach of “parallelizing” traditional serial algorithms. - Can compute any computable function. - Can do everything a normal digital computer can do. - Can do even more under some impractical assumptions.

47 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neural Network in Practice For classification and function approximation or mapping problems which are: - Tolerant of some imprecision. - Have lots of training data available. - Hard and fast rules cannot easily be applied.

48 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neural Network Approaches ALVINN - Autonomous Land Vehicle In a Neural Network

49 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neural Network Approaches - Developed in Performs driving with Neural Networks. - An intelligent VLSI image sensor for road following. - Learns to filter out image details not relevant to driving. Hidden layer Output units Input units

50 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Neural Network Approaches Hidden UnitsOutput unitsInput Array

51 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Actual Products Available Enterprise Miner: - Single multi-layered feed-forward neural networks. - Provides business solutions for data mining. Nestor: - Uses Nestor Learning System (NLS). - Several multi-layered feed-forward neural networks. - Intel has made such a chip - NE1000 for VLSI.

52 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Enterprise Miner - Based on SEMMA (Sample, Explore, Modify, Model, Access) methodology. - Statistical tools include : Clustering, decision trees, linear and logistic regression and neural networks. - Data preparation tools include : Outliner detection, variable transformation, random sampling, and partition of data sets (into training, testing and validation data sets).

53 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Nestor - With low connectivity within each layer. - Minimized connectivity within each layer results in rapid training and efficient memory utilization, ideal for VLSI. - Composed of multiple neural networks, each specializing in a subset of information about the input patterns. - Real time operation without the need of special computers or custom hardware.

54 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Presentation Outline 1) Introduction to Neural Networks 2) What is Neural Networks? 3) Perceptrons 4) Introduction to Backpropagation 5) Applications of Neural Networks 6) Summary

55 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Summary - Neural network is a computational model that simulate some properties of the human brain. - The connections and nature of units determine the behavior of a neural network. - Perceptrons are feed-forward networks that can only represent linearly separable functions.

56 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 Summary - Given enough units, any function can be represented by Multi-layer feed-forward networks. - Backpropagation learning works on multi-layer feed-forward networks. - Neural Networks are widely used in developing artificial learning systems.

57 Presented by Martin Ho, Eddy Li, Eric Wong and Kitty Wong - Copyright© 2000 References - Russel, S. and P. Norvig (1995). Artificial Intelligence - A Modern Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall. - Sarle, W.S., ed. (1997), Neural Network FAQ, part 1 of 7: Introduction, periodic posting to the Usenet newsgroup comp.ai.neural-nets, URL: ftp://ftp.sas.com/pub/neural/FAQ.html


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