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How to safety check / survey a Bridge Bridge! A presentation by members of the: UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AUXILIARY First Northern, Aid To Navigation.

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Presentation on theme: "How to safety check / survey a Bridge Bridge! A presentation by members of the: UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AUXILIARY First Northern, Aid To Navigation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 How to safety check / survey a Bridge Bridge! A presentation by members of the: UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AUXILIARY First Northern, Aid To Navigation Team We verify the ATONs and PATONs, check the Bridges, and update the charts of First Northern.

3 What does it take to be a good Bridge Checker: Detail oriented. A prompt reporter. You take a lot of pride in your work and in report preparation. You have a sharp eye for potential problems. Are a good observer and a quick learner of bridge safety laws and requirements. You are not afraid of taking measurements and/or making reasonable estimates. You are familiar with the operation of a GPS. You are able to take accurate soundings and are proficient with a digital camera. You always do a complete and thorough job. You dont have a lot of time to volunteer.

4 Bridge Checking can be performed... All year long – 24 / 7. Without the use of a boat. Driving back and forth to work. On a bicycle ride. While walking or jogging. Day and night.

5 Tools that you will need: Clipboard and pencil or pen. GPS with DGPS or WAAS. Lead line or other depth taking tool. Tape measure. Digital camera. Binoculars. Good road map of the area. Current Nautical chart and Coast Pilot.

6 COAST GUARD BRIDGE ADMINISTRATION OFFICES ALAMEDA, CALIFORNIA BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS CLEVELAND, OHIO HONOLULU, HAWAII JUNEAU, ALASKA MIAMI, FLORIDA NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA NEW YORK, NEW YORK PORTSMOUTH, VIRGINIA SAINT LOUIS, MISSOURI SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

7 Scope of the 2005 Bridge Job Bridge Classes NOT AOR DIV1234 CHKD TOT Boston(3) (4) (5) (9) (12) Portland(2) SWH(1)

8 Scope of the 2005 Bridge Job Bridge Classes NOT AOR DIV1234 CHKD TOT WOODS(6) HOLE(11) BRISTOL(7) (8)

9 Summary of the 2005 Bridge Job NOT YETANNUAL 2005 AOR CHECKED CHECKTOTAL Woods Hole Bristol Boston Portland SWH TOTALS

10 Only reference you will need: D1 BRIDGE SAFETY CHECK / SURVEY REPORT This is a pre-printed computer-generated reference document that contains the bridge specifications, LNM reports, Federal Regulations concerning the bridge from the Coast Pilot, any unrepaired discrepancies and all previously reported survey history plus a Light Survey Worksheet and a Fender System Worksheet. You can print this form from the D1 (P)ATON Program CD on your home PC. The D1 (P)ATON BRIDGE DATABASE is now on-line at:

11 Page 1 This report references: Bridge name. Bridge location. Bridge specifications. LAT / LON Horizontal Clearance Vertical Clearance Depths LIGHT SURVEY Worksheet FENDER SYSTEM SURVEY Worksheet A sample Bridge Check/Survey Report is in your handout. Follow along on this form as it is explained.

12 Page 2 This page references: Federal Regulation / Note on Bridge. Reported discrepancies on bridge – not repaired by bridge owner. Marine facilities located above bridge. Bridge Check / Survey and History

13 Bridge Class One A bridge that handles large commercial ship traffic is a Class One bridge. i.e. Tankers, container ships, LNG tankers, large fishing vessels, such as the Tobin Bridge, McArdle Bridge, Chelsea Bridge. (4% of total bridges) Any problems and observed incidents should be reported by the most expeditious method to the DSO/AN. Everything is a potential problem on these bridges. Check at every opportunity. Report annually and whenever a discrepancy is observed. Make a formal Bridge Survey / Check Report to the DSO/AN once each year. Make a formal report whenever you observe a discrepancy on a bridge. At other times, when no problems are observed, report as AN activity only on a ANSC 7030 report.

14 Bridge Class Two A bridge that handles smaller commercial and larger recreational boat traffic is a Class Two Bridge. No Large vessels. Such as: ferries, commuter boats, small fishing vessels, lobster boats, high traffic rate of larger recreational vessels, such as the Long Island Bridge in Boston Harbor. (Represents 5% of the total bridges) Critical, Urgent and Routine problems and observed incidents should be reported by the most expeditious method to the DSO-AN. Check monthly when you are in the area. Report annually and when a problem is observed. Make a formal Bridge Survey / Check Report to the DSO/AN once each year. Make a formal report whenever you observe a discrepancy on a bridge. At other times, when no problems are observed, report as AN activity on a ANSC 7030 report.

15 Bridge Class Three A bridge that handles light recreational traffic is a Class Three Bridge. i.e. Morrissey Blvd Bridge in Dorchester Bay. (Represents 26% of the total bridges) In general, all problems and observed incidents are reported as a Routine discrepancy to the DSO-AN. Usually there will be a small craft marine facility, town pier, private docks or a boat ramp located above this bridge or waterway will have heavy recreational boat traffic. Check and report annually, and report as discrepancies are noted at other times.

16 Bridge Class Four and X A bridge with no marine facilities above it and with marginal small boat traffic, if any, and one that is not navigable by a recreational boat is a Class Four Bridge. i.e. Culverts, herring runs, dams. These facilities are not considered bridges by the CG. (Represents 65% of the total bridges) Class Four and X bridges should not be checked unless specifically requested by the Bridge Branch.

17 BRIDGE LIGHTING SURVEY SPECIFICATIONS

18 Bridge Lights Channel Center Lights G -360 Margin of Channel Lights R- 180 Pier Lights R- 180 Pier Axis Lights R- 180 Preferred Channel Lights 3W Movable Span Lights R > G - 180

19 Bridge Light Shapes Channel Center Light Margin of Channel lights Pier Lights Pier Axis Lights Movable Span Lights Preferred Channel Lights

20 MID-CHANNEL LIGHTS (found on Fixed Bridges) Two 360-degree lanterns. Lights are visible from both approach channels – up and down stream. Green in color. Lanterns should appear as range lights mounted under the lip of the bridges span. Lights mark the center of the navigable channel.

21 Center Channel Lights This illustration is included in your handout.

22 DRAWDRAW MOVABLE SPAN LIGHTS (found on Movable Span Bridges – Draw Bridges) 180-degree split-lanterns facing toward the traffic. RED Shows a RED light when the draw is closed. Shows a GREEN light when the draw is opened. CLOSED POSITION MOVABLE SPAN LIGHTS Show red when closed This illustration is included in the handout.

23 DRAW BRIDGES OPEN POSITION Pier Lights Red light is off. Green light is on.

24 AXIS LIGHTS 180-degree lanterns that face into the channel. RED RED in color. Marks the axis line of the bridge if there are any bends in the channel or turns in the pier structures on a bridge. Also found on Vertical Lift and Swing Bridges.

25 AXIS LIGHTS Mark turns in the channel or center line on Swing and VL bridges.. AXISLIGHTS

26 MARGIN OF CHANNEL LIGHTS 180-degree lanterns that face the traffic. RED RED in color. Mark the edges of the navigable channel. Should not be positioned above the lip of the span because most operators assume that these lights mark the lower limit of the span or the clearance point of the bridge span.

27 Margin of Channel Lights Face 180 degrees into traffic Lights define the limits of the navigable channel.

28 PIER LIGHTS 180-degree lanterns – facing the traffic. RED RED in color. Lights mark the piers on the bridge. Note that these lights are used for a different purpose than Axis lights.

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31 LIGHTS FOR BRIDGE PIERS ON SHORT PIERS THERE IS A RED LIGHT ON EACH END ON LONG TAPERED PIERS THERE IS A RED LIGHT ON EACH END AND AN ADDITIONAL RED LIGHT IN CENTER ON CHANNEL SIDE

32 TWO MAJOR TYPES OF BRIDGES 1. Fixed Bridges 2. Movable Span or Draw Bridges Lift Span Bridges Swing Bridges Bascule Bridges Single Lift & Double Lift Bridges Retractable Span Bridges

33 SINGLE SPAN FIXED BRIDGE 180° RED Margin of Channel Lights 360° GREENChannel Center Lights Appears as a range under the lip of the span. Should be mounted just above the lip of the span. 75 to 80% of your bridges.

34 33 Multiple Channel Fixed Bridge Preferred Channel Lights

35 CHESAPEAKE BAY BRIDGE NOTE LOCATION OF THREE VERTICAL WHITE LIGHTS PREFERRED CHANNEL LIGHTS

36 MULTIPLE SPAN FIXED BRIDGE 180° Red Pier & Margin Lights 360° Green Center Channel Lights 3 180° White Preferred Channel Lights

37 Swing Bridge - Closed Snags and tree trunks! A good reason to stay in the navigable channel when transiting this area. Danger

38 SWING BRIDGE - Closed Moveable Span Lights - alternate Red & Green, each 60° at 90° to each other. Show RED when the bridge is closed. 180° Red Pier Lights 180° Red Axis Lights

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40 Swing Bridge - OPEN

41 SWING BRIDGE - Open Moveable Span Lights- Alternate Red & Green, each 60° at 90° to each other. 180° Red Pier Lights 180° Red Axis Lights

42 Swing Bridge – Closed one navigable channel

43 SWING BRIDGE – CLOSED one navigable channel Swing Span-Alternate Red & Green Lights - each at 60° or 90° to each other 180° Red Pier &Axis Lights

44 SWING BRIDGE – OPEN One navigable channel Swing Span-Red & Green Each 180° 180° Red Pier &Axis Lights

45 Lift Bridge Closed

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47 VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGE – Span is closed 180° Red Pier Lights 180° Red Moveable Span Light is on. 360° Green Moveable Span Light is Out 360° Green Lights

48 Vertical Lift Bridge – Open Chart may show Hor CL and the open and closed Vert CL. This would be a Class One Bridge.

49 VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGE SPAN IS OPEN 180° Red Pier Lights 180° Red Moveable Span Light is off. 360° Green Moveable Span Light is on. 180° Red Axis Lights

50 49 A double-span Bascule Bridge - closed

51 DOUBLE BASCULE BRIDGE SPAN is CLOSED 180° Red Pier Lights 180° Red Moveable Span Light is on. 180° Green Moveable Span Light is off. 180° Red Axis Lights

52 51 A double-span bascule bridge - open

53 DOUBLE BASCULE BRIDGE Open 180° Red Pier Lights 180° Red Moveable Span Light is off. 180° Green Moveable Span Light is on.

54 A Single Bascule Bridge - Closed

55 SINGLE BASCULE BRIDGE SPAN IS CLOSED 180° Red Pier Lights 180° Red Moveable Span Light is on. 180° Green Moveable Span Light is off.

56 SINGLE BASCULE BRIDGE - Open 180° Red Pier Lights 180° Red Moveable Span Light is off. 180° Green Moveable Span Light is on.

57 Retractable Bridge - closed

58 RETRACTABLE BRIDGE - Closed 180° Red Pier Light 180º Close Light

59 RETRACTABLE BRIDGE - open 180° Red Pier Light 180° Green Open Light

60 Bridge starts to retract.

61 Bridge is half way open.

62 61 Retractable Bridge Is fully OPEN

63 Reporting and marking discrepancies Lights out Broken Pier Light Lens Flow Down River Always include a top and side view drawing of the bridge with your report. Show: Direction of flow of the waterway, The position of all lights, The location of all discrepancies.

64 Entering data to the Light Survey section. Report the quantity of each different light type that you observe on the bridge. Respond to the three questions for each light type that you report. Enter a zero 0 when a light type does not apply. Dont assume that the light configuration shown on the Bridge report is correct.

65 WALES WALES must be: In good repair. Have no sharp metal or bolts sticking into the channel. Have no metal corners. Have no metal wales without anti- sparking protection. Photographs are great evidence to support your observation of a discrepancy. Photographs greatly increase the credibility of your discrepancy reports. The Bridge Branch can take corrective action with your photographic evidence.

66 WALES

67 Special Regulation Signs must be: Readable. Located on both sides of bridge. Match the Federal Regulations in the Coast Pilot. Also reported on page 2 of the D1 Bridge Safety Check / Survey Report. If a phone is required to open a lift bridge, the phone number must be shown on the regulatory sign.

68 Special Regulation Signs

69 WOOD AND ULTRA POLY MATERIAL USED AS PIER FENDER PROTECTION SYSTEM

70 ULTRA POLY IS A TOUGH PLASTIC MATERIAL WITH A HIGH DENSITY AND A LOW COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION WHICH MAKES IT AN IDEAL MATERIAL FOR BRIDGE PIER FENDER PROTECTION SYSTEMS. IT IS COMING INTO WIDER USE TO REPLACE WOODEN RUB RAILS OR WALES. ULTRA POLY PANELS

71 BOLTS SECURING WOOD AND ULTRA POLY RUB RAILS ARE RECESSED TO PREVENT DAMAGE AND SPARKS IF A STEEL HULL VESSEL WERE TO RUB AGAINST THEM WHILE PASSING THROUGH

72 NOTICE RECESSED BOLTS USED TO SECURE WOOD AND ULTRA POLY PANELS TO BRIDGE PIER

73 BADLY DETERIORATED WOODEN FENDER SYSTEM NOTE THE RED LIGHT DANGLING ON ITS POWER CABLE

74 A VIEW OF THE DAMAGE TO THE WOODEN FENDER PROTECTION SYSTEM ON A BRIDGE PIER

75 NOTE THAT BRIDGE CONTROL SHACK IS TILTING TOWARDS WATER AND FENDER SYSTEM TIMBERS ARE COMING LOOSE AND COULD BECOME A HAZARD TO MARINE TRAFFIC.

76 Protective Piers must be: Wrapped with steel cable. Have nothing projecting into the navigable channel. Not be rotting at the waterline. Not be rotting down from the top.

77 THIS FENDER SYSTEM HAS STEEL CORNER PLATES WITH PROTRUDING BOLT HEADS. SOME OF THE TIMBERS ARE ROTTED AND BADLY DETERIORATED. THE NUMERALS 14 ON THE CLEARANCE GAUGE ARE UNREADABLE.

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79 Some will be lighted

80 Protective Piers

81 Clearance Gauges Clearance Gauges are required on Draw Bridges Should be mounted on the right side of the channel on both sides of the bridge. Should be readable from ½ mile. Must reflect the actual clearance from the lowest point of the span over the navigable channel to the mean high water line.

82 CLEARANCE GAUGES

83 Clearance gauges are not required but may be found on Fixed Bridges Clearance gauges are not required but may be found on Fixed Bridges.

84 83 NOTICE CLEARANCE GAUGE, SPEED SIGN, AND BRIDGE INFORMATION SIGN

85 84 TWO TYPES OF BRIDGE CLEARANCE GAUGES

86 85 THIS IS THE RESULT OF THE BARGES COLLIDING WITH THE BRIDGE

87 86 A TUG BOAT WITH AN INEXPERIENCED CAPTAIN RAN INTO THIS BRIDGE ON A FOGGY NIGHT WRECKING THE BRIDGE – A SHORT TIME LATER A PASSENGER TRAIN WENT INTO THE RIVER WITH CONSIDERABLE LOSS OF LIVES

88 87 SOME DISTRICTS SUCH AS DISTRICT 11 HAVE IMPLEMENTED THEIR OWN PROGRAM FOR INSPECTING BRIDGES AND REPORTING THEIR FINDINGS ON A SPECIAL REPORT FORM SUCH AS THIS FORM CG D11

89 Bridge Clearance Bridge Clearance - vertical... is measured from the lowest point of span over the navigable channel to the mean high water line. If bridge has a haunch (arc), measure the clearance from the lowest point of the bridge span within the navigable channel – often at the edge of the navigable channel to the mean high water mark. Always sanity check with the vertical clearance printed on your nautical chart.

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91 HAUNCHHAUNCH

92 How to check the vertical clearance of a bridge? Look up MHW (Mean High Water) – General Information Block on your nautical chart. MHW = 10.6 feet. Look up the advertised vertical clearance for the bridge on your nautical chart. Advertised Vert CL = 14 feet. Determine the Height of Tide for the time of your measurement. 3.6 feet. ( available on a GPS set ) Find the projected Vertical Clearance by adding or subtracting it from your MHW reading and adding the advertised Vertical Clearance – ( ) = 4.4 feet + 14 feet = 18.8 feet. Observe the reading on the Clearance Gauge feet. Compare your calculated result to the clearance gauge reading. 2.7 foot error If the clearance numbers still dont look right, measure down from the lowest point of the lip of the bridge span over the navigable channel to the waterline. Compare this measurement to your previous calculations. If the numbers dont match (reasonably), then you have a discrepancy to report. Include the method(s) that you used for calculating the clearance error on your report.

93 Vertical Clearance Range Of Tide MHW Actual Clearance Vertical Clearance Actual Height of Tide 10.6 ft 14 ft. 9.8 ft 3.6 ft. MHW – Height of Tide + Vertical Clearance ( (9.8 – 3.6) = = ft.

94 Bridge Clearance Clearance – Horizontal Measurement of the width of the span over the navigable channel. Measure the width between any Margin of Channel Lights, if so fitted. Always sanity check your measurements or estimates to the horizontal clearance printed on your nautical chart.

95 The horizontal clearance is measured between any Margin of Channel lights. The clearance is the measurement of the width of the navigable channel only and not the total width of the span of the bridge.

96 When NO Margin of Channel lights exist, the horizontal clearance is measured to the edges of the channel. Check that the channel is in fact navigable by taking soundings especially along the edges of the channel. NAVIGATE WITH CARE.

97 DRAW BRIDGES Vertical clearance Horizontal clearance Should there be clearances gauges and regulatory signs on this bridge?

98 Obstructions Obstructions in the Navigable Channel... Nothing may be hanging down from the span of the bridge into the navigable channel. Check the depth of the water: Downstream from the bridge, Under the bridge, and Upstream above the bridge. Report any shoaling or other obstructions in the channel. Is the channel navigable? What is the largest boat that can use this channel?

99 Bridge Operation Issues Is the draw operational? Were the bridge tenders courteous? Did the bridge tenders respond immediately? If a phone is required, was the phone manned? Was the person answering the phone knowledgeable? Did the horns and alarms on the bridge operate effectively?

100 Reporting Critical and Urgent bridge discrepancies Similar to Private Aids, bridges must be maintained and any discrepancies must be repaired by the owner of the bridge. Informing the bridge owner of reported discrepancies is the responsibility of the USCG Bridge Branch. CriticalUrgentRoutine The members role is to report any Critical, Urgent and Routine discrepancies by mailing a copy of the Bridge Safety Check / Survey Report to the DSO-AN within 24 hours of the observation.

101 Recording Bridge Check observations... Discrepancies should be recorded directly on the D1 Bridge Safety Check / Survey Report. If no problems are found, simply write Watching Properly on this report form. If no changes occurred to the bridge since the last time it was reported, respond YES or NO to the line No change since last reported on this report form.

102 Reporting discrepancies! What do you do when youre not sure, but you think that a bridge problem has already been reported? Report it! And, also report your activity to AUXDATA on a ANSC 7030 Mission Activity Report.

103 If a bridge is WATCHING PROPERLY, just write it across the D1 Bridge Safety Check Survey Report and forward it to the DSO-AN.

104 When you use the term Watching Properly, it is assumed that you did a complete check of the bridge and have reviewed all the reported discrepancies shown on page 2 of the D1 Bridge Safety Check / Survey Report. It is also assumed that all prior reported discrepancies have been repaired on this bridge.

105 DISTRICT 11 HAS IMPLEMENTED A PROGRAM FOR INSPECTING BRIDGES AND REPORTING THEIR FINDINGS ON A SPECIAL REPORT FORM.

106 If a bridge is NO CHANGE SINCE LAST REPORT, just answerYES or NO on the D1 Bridge Check Survey Report and forward it to the DSO-AN. Watching Properly

107 It is assumed that you did a complete check of the bridge and that you have reviewed all previously reported discrepancies shown on page 2 of theD1 Bridge Check Survey Report and found that they have not yet been repaired. It is also assumed that no new discrepancies have been found.

108 OR you can simply the DSO-AN showing: Bridge Number exactly as shown on the D1 Bridge Check Survey Report. Bridge Watching Properly or No Change since Last Report. The same rules apply!

109 Review the Bridge specification data in the heading section.

110 Complete the Fender System Survey section. Circle only the items that apply to this bridge.

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112 Always fill out a complete Light Survey and Fender System Survey whenever you report a bridge.

113 Reminder… You must report your Bridge activity to AUXDATA on an ANSC 7030 report to get Auxiliary credit.

114 113 LATERAL SYSTEM DAY MARKS MID CHANNEL RIGHT SIDE OF CHANNEL LEFT SIDE OF CHANNEL PIERS OUTSIDE OF CHANNEL SOME DISTRICTS SPECIFY THE LATERAL SYSTEM OF LIGHTS AND SIGNALS FOR BRIDGES ( RED RIGHT RETURNING)

115 114 A RACON ELECTRONIC BEACON IS SOMETIMES INSTALLED TO INDICATE THE CHANNEL CENTER WHEN VISIBILITY IS REDUCED

116 Any questions about checking a bridge? Where do you send bridge discrepancy reports? To the DSO-AN. How do you handle CRITICAL and URGENT bridge discrepancy reports? Always send a copy of your D1 Bridge Safety Check / Survey Report to the DSO-AN.

117 NAV What NAV Rule covers this problem ?

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119 An inoperative draw problem!

120 Tug approaching a bridge signaling for an opening.

121 The barge is low enough to pass under the unopened bridge.

122 Not so with the tug. The bridge has not opened.

123 OOPs

124 Where did everyone go??

125 AHOOGA! Dive!

126 Going!

127 GONE!

128 Theres life in that old hull yet! Here it comes!

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138 To some skippers, these little events are all in a days work

139 99.99% of D1 Bridges are: Fixed Bridges, and Bascule Bridges. Lets summarize with a quick review!

140 FIXEDFIXED Clearance gauges are not required but may be found on Fixed Bridges Clearance gauges are not required but may be found on Fixed Bridges. What is the difference between AXIS and MARGIN OF CHANNEL lights.

141 DRAWDRAW

142 The End

143 Each year we train many Auxiliarists to perform bridge checks. Each year we pass out many copies of training materials. However, only a few members conduct Bridge Check / Survey reports each year. …and those reporting appear to be the same members each year. Please make a commitment to check a bridge or two this year.

144 You just might find out how satisfying this Auxiliary program can be. We will work with you and help you generate professional reports. You have direct access to the DSO-AN for any questions, additional training, and even on- the-job training if it can be arranged.

145 Before you leave here today, please make a personal commitment to perform some bridge checks this season. THANK YOU VERY MUCH for your attention, support, and assistance with the 2005 BRIDGE CHECKING PROGRAM.

146 Please consider yourself a member of the: UNITED STATES COAST GUARD AUXILIARY FIRST NORTHERN AID TO NAVIGATION TEAM


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