Presentation on theme: "A presentation at the 72 nd annual convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, June 3, 2011, Toronto. Cheuk Ng, PhD Associate Professor, Psychology."— Presentation transcript:
A presentation at the 72 nd annual convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, June 3, 2011, Toronto. Cheuk Ng, PhD Associate Professor, Psychology Athabasca University, Alberta
Recent immigrants origins: Asia and Middle East Urban (89%) Visible minorities (70%) Collectivist societies: interdependence; family (Triandis, 2001) High-contact cultures (Hall, 1966)
The National Occupancy Standard (CMHC, 2005) Adequate: not requiring any major repairs Affordable: costs < 30% of before-tax household income Suitable: enough bedrooms for household composition “crowded”: > 1 person per room
Larger households: more children, multiple-families, shared accommodation Multiple families households – higher ownership, inadequate housing less likely, unaffordable less likely; “crowded” Recent immigrants from visible minority groups: South Asia; family class; home ownership Over time -- become similar to non-immigrants’ pattern Source: CMHC (2005, 2007, 2008, 2009 )
Home-sharing literature: 4 incentives (Ahrentzen, 2003; Hemmens & Hoch, 1996) emergency situation and need subsidy or residential improvement growth and change or social support dependency or caretaking Applicable to immigrants, especially recent immigrants In addition, cultural values in collectivist societies (e.g., filial piety in Asian societies)
CountryPerson/room CountryPerson/room Canada0.5Mexico1.5 U.S.0.5Bahamas1.3 France0.7Nicaragua2.6 Pakistan 3.0Egypt1.3 India2.7Syria2.0 Sri Lanka2.2Turkey1.3 South Korea1.1Czech Rep.1.0 Azerbaijan2.1Bulgaria0.6 Source: United Nations (1995, 2001). Compendium of human settlement statistics.
Distinction (Stokols, 1972) Modest linear correlation ( Gove & Hughes, 1983); Curvilinear? (Fuller et al., 1994) Cultural differences in perceived crowding? ( Evans, Lepore, & Allen, 2000) -- frame of reference ( Loo & Ong, 1984); may change over time Regulations reflect implicit values of a culture -- What is “proper” living arrangement? -- What is crowded? (Myers, Baer, & Choi, 1996; Pader,1994, 2002)
Definition and measurement (e.g., person/room) Research in North America – mostly negative on mental health (e.g., stress); some no effect Theoretical perspectives: -- social stimulation overload -- behavioral restriction /competition for resources Behavioral responses: -- social withdrawal -- aggression
Cultural differences? ( Gillis et al., 1986; Gove et al., 1983) -- Evans et al. (2000): a myth Privacy ( Altman, 1975) -- individual vs. group -- regulating mechanisms: * physical environment (e.g., territory) * Verbal * Non-verbal (e.g., personal space) * Norms
Research in Asian countries -- Thailand (Fuller et al., 1996a, 1996b): -- Japan (Homma, 1990; Omata, 1992) -- India (Jain, 1993; Lepore et al., 1991) -- Hong Kong (Chan, 1999) Curvilinear relationship? An ideal range? (Regoeczi, 2002; Gabe & Williams, 1986) -- peak at a high dwelling density in Asian cultures than in North America? Immigrants shift in perception, behavioral response/ privacy regulation mechanisms over time ?
Recent immigrants to Canada may not perceive “crowding” as problematic as the housing occupancy regulations suggest. Any effects of moving from high-density living to low-density living for these recent immigrants? Census statistics show patterns of housing occupancy change over time. Research is needed to examine the psychological process through which immigrants acculturate in terms of reactions to density and spatial needs.
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