2 The Battle for the Fur Trade (1800- 1810) In 1800 the competition betweenHBC and NWC became fierce!The number of furs was decreasing because of over huntingBoth companies moved deeper inland to gain control of new resources
3 Battle for the Fur Trade The NWC was especially aggressiveEstablished new posts in present day British Columbia and in northern CanadaBoth companies opened forts beside the competition and promised more valuable goods than their rivalsVS
4 The NWC and the Metis People As the NWC continued to move west, the began staying for the winter with local groupsBecause they were spending extensive amounts of time with the First Nations people, a number of fur traders married the daughters of Native familiesBoth the NWC and the Metis supported these marriagesThe NWC thought it was a good idea because it would form stronger trade relations between them and the First Nations people
5 The NWC and The Metis People Wives of fur traders enjoyed an improved standard of living and their lives were generally easier than most womenBy 1800, some 4000 voyaguers were living in the Northwest and many of them had married Native women
6 The HBC and the Metis People In contrast, to the NWC being supportive of these marriages,HBC employees were FORBIDDEN to marry First Nations peopleThis was because the HBC was concerned about having to support too many dependantsThey tried to enforce a policy of celibacy among it’s employeesHOWEVER, IT WAS UNSUCCESSFUL…
7 The MetisBy the early 19th century, a sizable number of people living in the Northwest were of European and Native ancestryA new culture was evolving!They began to think of themselves as their own cultureThey were originally called bois brule (means “burnt wood”) by 1800, they changed their name to Metis (means “mixed”)
8 The MetisThey usually spoke French or a combination of their Native tongue and FrenchThey were usually Roman CatholicThey developed communities and a lifestyle that combined both French and Native customs
9 The Metis- The Bison Hunt The Metis hunted bison seasonallyThe hunt took place in the early summer and autumn and had several purposesfresh meatHidesMeat and fat made pemmican
10 What is Pemmican?To make pemmican the Indians began by cutting meat into thin slices or strips and drying it either in the sun or over a fire. After the meat was dried, it was spread out on a stone-headed mauls and then pounded. This pounded meat was called "beat meat" by the natives. "Beat meat" was then mixed with melted fat and marrow. Sometimes a paste made of fruits or berries were added to this mixture.
11 The Metis- The Bison Hunt The hunt was a spectacular event that involved the whole communityThey used Red River carts and horses for the huntThey used guns called muzzle- loadersThe hunt was extremely dangerous- death and seriously injury was commonStory of Metis vs Sioux fight- pg 142
12 THINGS ARE HEATING UP!In 1812, the rivalry between the NWC and the HBC would be pushed to the point of WARFARE!!Louis RielLord Selkirk
13 LET’S SEE IF YOU WERE LISTENING… Name the two fur trading companies.Name one trading policy of each.Explain how each company felt about employees having relationships with First Nations people.Explain the family heritage of a Metis person.What was the original name for the Metis people?What animal was hunted by the Metis people for food, clothing and shelter?