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The Battle of the Fur Trade Chapter 4 SS 10 NAULT.

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1 The Battle of the Fur Trade Chapter 4 SS 10 NAULT

2 The Battle for the Fur Trade ( ) In 1800 the competition between HBC and NWC became fierce! The number of furs was decreasing because of over hunting Both companies moved deeper inland to gain control of new resources

3 Battle for the Fur Trade  The NWC was especially aggressive  Established new posts in present day British Columbia and in northern Canada  Both companies opened forts beside the competition and promised more valuable goods than their rivals VS

4 The NWC and the Metis People  As the NWC continued to move west, the began staying for the winter with local groups  Because they were spending extensive amounts of time with the First Nations people, a number of fur traders married the daughters of Native families Both the NWC and the Metis supported these marriages Both the NWC and the Metis supported these marriages The NWC thought it was a good idea because it would form stronger trade relations between them and the First Nations people

5 The NWC and The Metis People  Wives of fur traders enjoyed an improved standard of living and their lives were generally easier than most women  By 1800, some 4000 voyaguers were living in the Northwest and many of them had married Native women

6 The HBC and the Metis People  In contrast, to the NWC being supportive of these marriages, HBC employees were FORBIDDEN to marry First Nations people  This was because the HBC was concerned about having to support too many dependants  They tried to enforce a policy of celibacy among it’s employees HOWEVER, IT WAS UNSUCCESSFUL…

7 The Metis  By the early 19 th century, a sizable number of people living in the Northwest were of European and Native ancestry  A new culture was evolving!  They began to think of themselves as their own culture  They were originally called bois brule (means “burnt wood”) by 1800, they changed their name to Metis (means “mixed”)

8 The Metis  They usually spoke French or a combination of their Native tongue and French  They were usually Roman Catholic  They developed communities and a lifestyle that combined both French and Native customs

9 The Metis- The Bison Hunt  The Metis hunted bison seasonally  The hunt took place in the early summer and autumn and had several purposes  fresh meat  Hides  Meat and fat made pemmican

10 What is Pemmican?  To make pemmican the Indians began by cutting meat into thin slices or strips and drying it either in the sun or over a fire. After the meat was dried, it was spread out on a stone- headed mauls and then pounded. This pounded meat was called "beat meat" by the natives. "Beat meat" was then mixed with melted fat and marrow. Sometimes a paste made of fruits or berries were added to this mixture.  To make pemmican the Indians began by cutting meat into thin slices or strips and drying it either in the sun or over a fire. After the meat was dried, it was spread out on a stone- headed mauls and then pounded. This pounded meat was called "beat meat" by the natives. "Beat meat" was then mixed with melted fat and marrow. Sometimes a paste made of fruits or berries were added to this mixture.

11 The Metis- The Bison Hunt  The hunt was a spectacular event that involved the whole community  They used Red River carts and horses for the hunt  They used guns called muzzle- loaders  The hunt was extremely dangerous- death and seriously injury was common Story of Metis vs Sioux fight- pg 142

12 THINGS ARE HEATING UP! In 1812, the rivalry between the NWC and the HBC would be pushed to the point of WARFARE!! Lord Selkirk Louis Riel

13 LET’S SEE IF YOU WERE LISTENING…  Name the two fur trading companies.  Name one trading policy of each.  Explain how each company felt about employees having relationships with First Nations people.  Explain the family heritage of a Metis person.  What was the original name for the Metis people?  What animal was hunted by the Metis people for food, clothing and shelter?


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