Presentation on theme: "Click to edit Master subtitle style Wheat, Cotton, & Peanut Management Update Todd Baughman Extension Agronomist 940-552-9941 x 233"— Presentation transcript:
Click to edit Master subtitle style Wheat, Cotton, & Peanut Management Update Todd Baughman Extension Agronomist x 233
The outcome of any serious research can only be to make two questions grow where only one grew before
Timing N Applications Wheat requires very little fall nitrogen In-furrow DAP usually enough for grain-only Delay N applications until late-winter or early spring Have N moved into soil by jointing
Top Dressing Wheat Factors Soil Test Residual N Preplant N Yield Goal – 30 bu/A Stocking Rate – 1/2A Grazing Time – 105 days Total N Requirement Total N/A +10 lbs/A +20 lbs/A -45 lbs/A -24 lbs/A -39 lbs/A Yield N based on 1.5 lbs/bushel Grazing N based on 15 lbs dry matter/day/animal and 0.03 lbs N per pound of forage (105/2 * 0.45)
Prevention is the Cheapest Form of Weed Control Use good quality weed-free seed Raise a good healthy crop Rogue fields of new infestations Manage turnrows, fences, corners, and ditches Combine worst fields last Dont plant something that you cannot control later Crop rotation Graze out worst fields and control weeds with glyphosate
Proper Weed I.D. is Critical Knowing what weed you are trying to control makes decisions easier and better Crucial to proper herbicide choice and correct timing
Wild Oat Ryegrass Rescuegrass Japanesse Brome
Wildoat Seedling leaves roll counter-clockwise Hairs on margin of the leaves No hairs usually on top of leaf blade Multiple Flushes in fall and spring
Rescuegrass (Wild Rye) Large flat seedhead Leaf blades and sheath hairy Mature plant maybe hairy on upper-side of leaves only Difficult to control
Japanese Brome Leaf blades and sheath hairy Mature plant leaves hairy on both sides Dropping head, noticeable awns (beards)
Cheat/Cheatgrass No true cheat in West Texas DO NOT MAKE THE SOLUTION WORSE THAN THE PROBLEM!!!
Timing is Everything Often times weed control will be better with early (fall) applications of a herbicide However, yields will almost always be higher with early (fall, 1-4 wks after planting) applications With wheat and cotton this is due to early season competition between weeds and wheat
Weed Competition Percent Yield Loss (30 plants/yd2) Feral Rye = 51 (84) Wild Oats = 27 (41) Italian Ryegrass = 23 (46) Cheat = 21 (33) Jointed Goatgrass 21 (25) Oklahoma State University – B. J. Fast, C. R. Medlin, D. S. Murray, and L. M. Verhalen Rainfall received within 10 days of planting
Wildoat Research Hardeman County LSD = 7.5
WARNING THE DIRECTIONS ON THIS LABEL ARE ONLY GOOD IF YOU FOLLOW THEM
Marestail Control Marestail germinates in both fall and spring. Add a phenoxy herbicide and possibly ALS residual herbicide
Windmillgrass Control Windmill grass control approximately 90% with 2 lbs ai/A glyphosate (48 fl oz/A Powermax) may take 2 applications
Soil Testing Foundation of a sound fertility program Soil analysis is only as good as the sample Annual testing to credit residual nutrients. Sampling with depth to detect mobile nutrients (N, S, B) and deeper K.
Residual Nitrogen in the Soil Profile You never know what is there unless you test It is plant available and it is yours!
Effect of Nitrogen Rate on Cotton Lint Yield N Rate Yield (lbs/A) (lbs/A) Calhoun Wharton San Pat. William. Falls Means within a column are not significantly different (P<0.05). McFarland, 2009
Deep Sampling for Nitrogen inches Total Site – – – – – 6 Site 8 Site 6Site 5Site 4Site 3 Site 2 Site 1 Depth (inches) Lbs of Plant Available Nitrogen McFarland, 2009
Starter Fertilizer Rates Fine Textured SoilsSandy Textured Soils Row Spacing (in) Pop-up in side
Effects of Humic Acid on Cotton Lint Yield, Stiles Farm Cotton Lint Yield (lbs./A) P>F = CV% = 15.8 Untreated1 gal Humic acid 3 gal Humic acid Humic acid applied with liquid fertilizer prior to planting
Click to edit the outline text format Second Outline Level Third Outline Level Fourth Outline Level Fifth Outline Level Sixth Outline Level Sevent h Outline Level Eighth Outline Level Ninth Outline LevelClick to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Potassium Functions in Plant: Water use efficiency Disease resistance Fiber production Late season deficiency
Environmental conditions (effects on root system) - very wet (waterlogged soils) - very dry Yield potential - heavy boll load (relative) Severe deficiencies - secondary pathogen infection premature defoliation Late Season K Problems
Effects of Soil and Foliar Applied K on Cotton Lint Yield (San Patricio County) Lint Yield (lbs./acre) P>F = Variety FM819 Soil test = 173 ppm K (medium-high)
Potassium Management Medium/heavy soils typically sufficient. - high-end production may tax soil K- supplying potential. Foliar application possible, but may not be economical. Soil applications more cost effective. Soil tests showing marginal sufficiency (125 ppm K) may justify application.
Glyphosate Resistance to date (12/07/09) 1. Palmer amaranthGA, NC, AR, TN, MS2005, 05, 06, 06, common waterhempMO*, IL*, KA, MN2005, 06, 06, common ragweedAR, MO, KA2004, 04, giant ragweedOH, AR, IN, KA, MN, TN2004, 05, 05, 06, 06, hairy fleabaneCA, other countries horseweedOH*, 17 states SourgrassParaguay, Brazile2006, JunglericeAustralia goosegrassMalaysia* wild pointsettiaBrazil* Italian ryegrassOR, MS2004, rigid ryegrassCA, many* Ragweed parthenium Columbia buckhorn plantainS. Africa johnsongrassArgentina, AR2005, LiverseedgrassAustralia2008
Volunteer Cotton Control Buctril, Ignite, Aim, & ET all effective at 5-8 leaf Layby Pro effective at 5-8 leaf Valor somewhat effective at 5-8 leaf No product effective at leaf
Peanut Management Considerations ROTATION! ROTATION! ROTATION!!! Proper rotation is the key to maintaining high yields. High yields key to maintaining peanut profitability. WATER! WATER! WATER! Adequate water quality and quanity are needed for high yielding peanut. Timely Disease Management
Effect of Seeding Rate on Peanut Yield
THOSE WHO THROW OBJECTS AT THE ALIGATOR WILL BE ASKED TO RETRIEVE THEM ANY QUESTIONS???