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DNA Contents of the Nucleus DNA vocab  Deoxyribonucleic acid  Chromosomes  Chromatin  Genes  Genome.

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Presentation on theme: "DNA Contents of the Nucleus DNA vocab  Deoxyribonucleic acid  Chromosomes  Chromatin  Genes  Genome."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 DNA

3 Contents of the Nucleus

4 DNA vocab  Deoxyribonucleic acid  Chromosomes  Chromatin  Genes  Genome

5 Genetic Material: DNA vs RNA - compare and contrast.

6 DNA Structure  What is the structure called?

7 Building blocks of DNA  What are the building blocks of DNA?  What are the building blocks made of? (3 parts)

8  How do they fit together?

9 Try “replicating” this single strand of DNA

10  What is the significance of the order of the nitrogenous bases?

11 Protein Synthesis: Step 1: Make a Copy= “Transcription”

12 Try Transcribing this piece of DNA into mRNA

13  Why doesn’t the mRNA just stay inside the nucleus?

14 Step 2: “Reading the code to make the protein = “Translation”

15 Breaking “THE CODE”: An Analogy: “DNA is like a novel” Nitrogenous bases = “letters” Triplets = “words” A gene = “a sentence” A chromosome = “a chapter”

16 The Code:  How do you follow the mRNA code?

17  Video on Protein Synthesis (includes tRNA)   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJxobgkPEA o&mode=related&search= http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJxobgkPEA o&mode=related&search

18 Try “DECODING” this piece of DNA Code DNATACGGACAGTAAATT mRNA Amino acids DNATACGGACAGTAAATTmRNAAUGCCUGUCAUUUAA Methi- onine leucinevaline isoleuc ine stop

19  Great video on a cell’s life functions:   http://www.studiodaily.com/main/searchlist/685 0.html http://www.studiodaily.com/main/searchlist/685 0.html  Here is the explanation of what is happening:   http://sparkleberrysprings.com/innerlifeofcell.ht ml http://sparkleberrysprings.com/innerlifeofcell.ht ml  Protein Production

20 Protein Structure

21 Genes -WHAT are they? -WHERE are they? -How many genes do we have? -WHY are we storing the information for PROTEINS???

22 Enzymes  WHAT are they?  What do they do?  Why do our DNA molecules store the instructions to make them?

23 One Gene = One Protein?  Human genome = approximately 25,000 genes  Number of proteins humans make is approximately 90,000.  NOT SURE HOW THIS CAN BE!

24 Gene Mutation

25  Deletion  Addition  Substitution  Positive  Neutral  Negative  Mutagens Example: Deletion The result can be a completely non- functional protein…doesn’t make sense. i.e. --- THE CAT ATE THE RAT--- If you delete a base (letter) ‘C’ ---THE ATA TET HER ATH-----

26 Another example: Original message: THE BIG DOG BIT TED AND RAN OFF --- --- ADDITION/FRAMESHIFT THE BIG FDO GBI TTE DAN DRA NOF F--

27 What does Mutation have to do with Evolution?


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