Presentation on theme: "Redefining Fair: How to Plan, Assess and Grade for Excellence in Mixed-Ability Classrooms Damian Cooper (905) 823-6298 email@example.com Damian Cooper,"— Presentation transcript:
1Redefining Fair: How to Plan, Assess and Grade for Excellence in Mixed-Ability Classrooms Damian Cooper(905)Damian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
2Session OutcomesWe will consider “Five Imperatives” that should guide teachers’ work:Curriculum must be meaningful, coherent and relevant.Instruction must be responsive to students’ needs.Assessment must be informative.Grading must blend consistency with professional judgement.Communication about learning must be truthful and transparent
3Time to Talk About Challenges Think.Pair.ShareWhat is my burningquestion aboutmeeting the needsof all students indiverse classroomsand schools?
10A Meaningful & Relevant Curriculum for the 21st. Century Robert Sternberg, 2004
11“Backward Design” Program Planning Stage 1: Identify targeted understandings/skillsStage 2: Determine appropriate assessment of those understandings/skillsStage 3: Plan learning experiences and instruction that make such understanding/skills possibleAdapted from Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding by Design
13“Backward Design” Program Planning Stage 2: Determine appropriate assessment of those understandings and skills“What evidence would show ‘beyond a reasonable doubt’ that students have achieved the desired understandings?”Adpated from Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding by Design
14Stage 2: Determine appropriate assessment of those understandings/skills
15Matching Curriculum Targets with Assessment Tasks Worth beingfamiliar withAssessment TypesTraditional quizzes & tests-paper/pencilPerformance Tasks & Projects-open-ended-complex-authenticOral Assessments-conferences-interviews-oral questionningImportant to know and doEnduring understandings/Essential skillsAdapted from Wiggins and McTighe,Understanding by Design
16Triangulation of Data: Classroom Assessment Performance task-state & local standards-based assessment to measure how well students are meeting state or district standards. Usually a 4-point rating-Norm-referenced tests are comparative. Use percentiles or standard scores.-both of these types of assessment have little potential for immediate intervention because too much elapses before results are available. Results also typically provide insufficient data to address specific areas of need.-classroom assessments: least reliable but have the advantage of formative assessment to enable teachers to make immediate interventionsValid & Reliable Picture of Student AchievementOral defense/conferenceWritten test dataDamian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
17Inquiry Questions Engage Students Consider how these INTU questions differ from the corresponding “topics” :TopicINTU…Testing Consumer Products on AnimalsI need to understand both sides of the debate concerning whether it is right to test consumer products on animals.Video GamingI need to understand whether video gaming is helpful or harmful to learning for teenagers.Downloading MusicI need to understand the arguments for and against downloading music made by consumers, record companies and artists.
18Student Guidelines for Locating and Gathering Information 1. You must draw information for your INTU from the followingsources:• at least four print sources—books, newspapers, magazines, brochures• a student-developed public opinion survey administered to a sample of peers and adults (sample size to be negotiated with your teacher)• at least four Internet sources2. You will receive an orientation to these sources from the school librarian before beginning your project.3. All of your sources must be recorded on the Note-Taking Sheets provided by your teacher.
19Inquiry Questions Engage Students Consider how these INTU questions differ from the corresponding “topics” :TopicINTU…Grade 1: Seasonal changeI need to understand why it’s cold in Canada in winter, but much warmer in Florida.Grade 10: Canada at WarI need to understand whether killing is acceptable in time of war.Grade 11: Distributions of DataI need to understand whether the mean, the median, or the mode is the best statistical representation of my learning in math class..
20Time to Talk About Assessment Apply the INTU model to a unit of study in your own program:Assume the role of a student in your class and, working with a colleague, pose INTU questions that you intend to explore during the unitThen discuss with your colleagues the pros and cons of the INTU model
21Understand Canada’s emerging sense of identity since WW1 Stage 1: Identify targeted understandings & essential skills Example: Grade 10 - Canadian and World StudiesEnduring UnderstandingsUnderstand the contributions of specific individuals to Canadian culture and society since WW1Understand Canada’s emerging sense of identity since WW1Essential SkillsFormulate inquiry questionsEmploy the skills of historical research: locate, gather, evaluate & organize dataInterpretation & analysis of findingsCommunication of findings
22Backward Design: Matching Assessment to Curriculum Targets Example: Grade 10 - Canadian and World StudiesEnduring UnderstandingsUnderstand the contributions of specific individuals to Canadian culture and society since WW1Understand Canada’s emerging sense of identity since WW1Essential SkillsFormulate inquiry questionsEmploy the skills of historical research: locate, gather, evaluate & organize dataInterpretation & analysis of findingsCommunication of findingsTask: connect an influential Canadian and a historical time period to the broad themes of the course.You will demonstrate this thinking by answering our ESSENTIAL QUESTION:How has this historical individual’s impact on a time period helped to shape Canada politically, socially,and/or economically?
23Backward Design: Matching Assessment to Curriculum Targets Discuss with your colleagues how well this video clip exemplifies backward planning.
24Authentic Assessment Tasks Students demand relevanceTeachers respond with simulation and role-playAuthenticity is key –change a book report into a book review, a word problem into a real-world challenge!
26Time to Talk About Assessment What might a “G7” kind of task look like in your classroom? i.e. an end-of-unit or end-of-term task that requires students to synthesize their learning and it apply it in innovative ways?ORDiscuss the essential skills that Jeff can assess through the G7 task that could NOT be assessed through the written examination.Evaluate the quality of the G7 task, using the Checklist for a Well-Designed Performance Task.Damian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
28Grading Co-operative Group Tasks Damian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
29“Backward Design” Program Planning Stage 3: Plan learning experiences and instruction that make such understandings/skills possibleWhat learning experiences and instruction will promote understanding?What prerequisite (enabling) knowledge and skill must be learned if understanding is to occur (and the performance is to succeed)?Wiggins and McTighe, Understanding by Design
30Time to Talk About Planning Do I/my teachers collaborate with my course colleagues to agree upon essential learning?Do I/my teachers collaborate with course colleagues to agree upon the assessment tasks students must produce as evidence of essential learning?Do I/my teachers communicate clearly to students what comprises critical evidence of essential learning?
31Five Imperatives: #2.Instruction must be responsive to students’ needs. i.e. differentiated
32What is Our Goal as Educators? How about:To have all students working at or above grade level?Demonstrating proficiency or excellence?Doing so independently?But not all students respond to the same instructional approach …
33The “zone of proximal development” Lev Vygotsky What do students currently know and what can students currently do?Where do I want them to get to?How big is the gap?How do I ensure the gap is just right to challenge students in a way that maximizes learning?
34Differentiation Student Characteristics Students differ in readiness, interest, and learning profile.Readiness is a student’s entry point relative to a particular understanding or skill.Interest refers to a child’s affinity, curiosity, or passion for a particular topic or skill.Learning profile has to do with how students learn best. It may include information such as multiple intelligences, learning styles, and learning barriers and aptitudes.Halton DSB - January 2010
35Diagnostic Assessment Activate prior knowledgeAssess current skills and understanding in 3 ways:-through written work-through performance assessment and observation-through oral assessment: questioning, conferencing, discussion, etc.
38Cloze ProcedureWhen Britain called on Canada to go to war against Germany, thousands of Canadians rushed to enlist. Most, in fact, were born. Tensions had always in Canada whenever a call from Britain made seem more like a resource than an autonomous The call to battle reawakened tensions that been simmering since the War and the Naval
39Time to Talk About Readiness to Learn Readiness is a student’s entry point relative to a particular understanding or skill.How do I currently determine students’ readiness to learn?i.e. how do I determine their academic strengths and needs?How could I improve my assessment of students’ readiness to learn?
41Differentiating Instruction Teachers need to fully understand accommodation, modification, and substitutionTo develop skills, simplify the content e.g. Simpler texts, less depth/breadth, etc.To master content, present using a different mode suited to student’s strengths e.g. Graphics, audio, video, manipulatives, etc.For slides 32-34, provide headings only & space for notes.Damian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
42Using Assessment Data to Differentiate Instruction Examine the data from diagnostic assessments to group students according to their strengths and needsUse mini-lessons followed by practice to address these needsIdentify individual students who are most “at risk”
43Using Assessment Data to Differentiate Instruction
45Purposeful Grouping of Students Heterogeneous groups provide support and help to consolidate new learningHomogeneous groups deepen learning for those who’ve “got it”, and enable the teacher to provide specific instruction to struggling learnersFlexible grouping ensures that all students work in their “zpd”
46Using Assessment Data to Differentiate Instruction
47Time to “Talk About Assessment” To what extent do I examine the data from diagnostic assessments to group students according to their strengths and needs?ORDiscuss and apply the use of mini-lessons, followed by practice, to address these needs
48Personal ReflectionWhat was your most significant learning from this today?What do you plan to do with this learning?
49Five Imperatives: #3.Assessment must be informative.
50When the classroom culture focuses on rewards, gold stars, grades, or class ranking, then (students) look for ways to obtain the best marks rather than to improve their learning. One reported consequence is that, when they have any choice, (students) avoid difficult tasks. They also spend time and energy looking for clues to the “right answer”.“Inside the Black Box”, Black & Wiliam, 1998
51“…assessment which is explicitly designed to promote learning is the single most powerful tool we have for both raising standards and empowering lifelong learners.”Assessment for Learning: Beyond the Black Box, 1999, University of Cambridge School of Education
52Assessment for Learning “Assessment for learning is any assessment for which the first priority in its design and practice is to serve the purpose of promoting students’ learning. It thus differs from assessment designed primarily to serve the purposes of accountability, or of ranking, or of certifying competence.”Black, Wiliam et al. 2004
53Assessment as Learning “Assessment as learning is a metacognitive process in which students take ownership for improving their own learning. It involves students setting learning goals as well as monitoring, reflecting upon, and adjusting their own learning, often in response to feedback from the teacher and their peers.”Earl, 2003
54Assessment of Learning “Assessment of learning includes those tasks that are designed to determine how much learning has occurred after a significant period of instruction. The data from such assessments is often used to determine report card grades.”
55Differing Assessment Purposes Assessment for/as LearningTryoutsPracticesAssessment of LearningGamesPlayoffs
56Time to Talk About Assessment How does Andrew use assessment data to improve the learning of his students?What was your reaction to Andrew returning the test to his students, indicating the number of incorrect responses, and having them try again?
57Tiered AssessmentsDesign grade level, to demonstrate proficiency, independentlyAdapt or modify task to increase challenge: less structure, more choice, greater sophistication, etc.Adapt or modify task to reduce challenge: more structure, less choice, less sophistication, etc.
58Tiered AssessmentsTiered Assignment: Grade 5 Science Strand : Life Science: Human BodyEnduring Understandings: students will understand how the different body systems are interconnectedEssential Skills: research, organization, communicationOverview of Task:Students will select a specific disease of the human body to research. They will present their findings using one of several presentation media. The research and presentation task has been tiered to suit different strengths and needs of studentsAssessment Criteria: a common rubric is provided for all versions of the task.Research: posing questions, locating and using resources to answer questions, organizing materials to answer questionsCommunication: selection of appropriate medium, clarity of material, quality of product presented, ability to respond to questionsContent: accuracy, depth, vocabulary, level of understanding
59Tiered AssessmentsTier One Task: (designed to provide evidence of proficient achievement at grade level)The teacher provides a list of possible diseases to be researched. (alternatively, students may select their own disease to research). The teacher provides a list of presentation methods, including written report, oral report, Powerpoint presentation, etc. Students are provided with templates that guide them through the research process, as well as templates relating to each of the presentation methods. Students work in pairs, assigned by the teacher, to support each other as they conduct research, organize their findings, and prepare their presentations.
60Tiered AssessmentsTier Two Task: (designed to provide an additional level of challenge)Students work as a group to brainstorm the following: range of diseases they will research; all possible sources of information; range of media they will use to communicate their findings. They will serve as resources for each other throughout the project, collaborating as necessary to accomplish the task.
61Tiered AssessmentsTier Three Task: (scaffolded task designed to provide struggling students with an appropriate level of challenge)Students work under the direct supervision of the teacher. Using one disease, she works closely with students to model each step in the research process. Following each modeled step, she has students complete the same step independently, using a second disease that she has selected. She repeats the same modeling/independent work process for each step in the preparation of students’ presentations. The presentation medium is tailored to each student’s profile.
63Differentiating Assessment Content standards: learning outcomesPerformance standards: rubricsStudent products & performancesAssessment conditionsMust be within student’s “ZPD”Keep consistent for all studentsMay be adapted to be within student’s “ZPD”
64Time to Talk About Assessment Does tiering have application to the students I am teaching?Select one assessment task and work with colleagues to tier it.
66Assessment for Learning “Assessment for learning is any assessment for which the first priority in its design and practice is to serve the purpose of promoting students’ learning. It thus differs from assessment designed primarily to serve the purposes of accountability, or of ranking, or of certifying competence.”Black, Wiliam et al. 2004
67Components of Assessment for Learning (Cooper, 2007) Do I routinely share learning goals with my students so they know where we are heading?Do I routinely communicate to students the standards they are aiming for before they begin work on a task?Do I routinely have students self and peer assess their work in ways that improve their learning?Does my questioning technique include all students and promote increased understanding?Do I routinely provide individual feedback to students that informs them how to improve?Do I routinely provide opportunities for students to make use of this feedback to improve specific pieces of work?
68To what extent are these evident in Kim’s class? Do I routinely share learning goals with my students so they know where we are heading?Do I routinely communicate to students the standards they are aiming for before they begin work on a task?Do I routinely have students self and peer assess their work in ways that improve their learning?Does my questioning technique include all students and promote increased understanding?Do I routinely provide individual feedback to students that informs them how to improve?Do I routinely provide opportunities for students to make use of this feedback to improve specific pieces of work?
69Time to Talk About Assessment To what extent are these 6 “Look For’s” evident in your classroom or school?
70Clear Learning and Performance Targets Most students can hit the target if they can see it clearly and it stays still for them. Rick Stiggins
71Learning Skills, Learning Goals and Success Criteria -specify what behavioural skill is essential during a given task, and the “looks like/ sounds like …” indicators associated with that skillLearningGoals-specify in student-friendly language what skills, knowledge, understanding must be learnedSuccess Criteria -specify on a rubric or checklist the essential elements and quality indicators of a performance or product
74Time to Talk About Learning Skills Do my words and actions communicate the importance of learning skills to students?How do I assess learning skills?
75Math ClassLearning Goal: You will demonstrate that you understand the relationship between the numerator and the denominator in a fraction.At the end of the lesson, Linda points to the poster on the classroom wall and asks her students:What did you learn in this lesson today?Linda told me that the most effective AFL strategy for her has been to write the learning goal for each day’s lesson on the board.
76Effective Learning Goals Are derived from the curriculumIdentify what is to be learned, NOT activitiesIdentify essential learningMay be framed in age-appropriate languageUsually involve application of learning to new contexts
77Learning Goals Ineffective Effective I can figure out the meaning of words in the short story, “Across Three Millennia”I will extend patterns using coloured countersI will know what the following organizations are: the UN, the World Health Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operationI use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar wordsI will use my understanding of attributes to identify and extend mathematical patternsI will be able to debate the pros and cons of Canada’s participation in major international organizations
78Effective Learning Goals I will demonstrate that I understand the relationship between the numerator and the denominator in a fraction.I will use re-reading and context clues to make inferences about an author’s intended meaning in a textI will apply my understanding of rhythm, melody and chord patterns to interpret the intended mood of a musical compositionI will use my understanding of thermal energy transfer as well as my environmental awareness to design an original product for human use
79Time to Talk About Learning Goals Are they derived from the curriculum?Do they identify what is to be learned, NOT activities?Do they identify essential learning?Should they be framed in age-appropriate language?Do they involve application of learning to a new context?
80Communicating Success Criteria Rubrics to describe what quality looks likeChecklists to enable students to monitor their own progressAnchors to show students what quality looks like
81Developing a Quality Rubric Clear target: process, product or performanceClear audience: student, teacher, parentClear purpose: coach and judgeCaptures essence of performance or product: success criteriaInforms students how to improve: quality descriptors related to Provincial Achievement ChartStudent involvement:criteria – yes; indicators - no
83Learning Goals, Success Criteria & Rubrics Process Learning Goal:- use the stages in the writing process effectively to produce an “op-ed” piece for a newspaper.Process Criteria:- Prewriting- Drafting- Revising- Editing- Proofreading- Conferencing
88Involving Students in Identifying Success Criteria Learning Goal: students will apply the elements and principles of design to create an original sculpture to express a particular concept or ideaHomework Task: locate an image of a publicly-displayed sculpture and bring it to classIdentify Success Criteria:in small groups, examine the various images and discuss how the design elements help to convey the artist’s intended concept or ideaReach class consensus about a manageable number of criteriaTeaching Team Develop Rubric by writing indicators for each criterion at 4 levels
89Differentiating Assessment Content standards: curriculum expectationsPerformance standards: rubrics & checklistsStudent products & performancesMust be within student’s “ZPD”Keep rubric consistent for all students but adapt checklist to be within student’s “ZPD”May be tiered to be within student’s “ZPD”
96Anchors and Exemplars Anchors Exemplars Student work samples “anchored” to the 4 levels on a rubricLevel 4 anchors representing “exemplary” work
97Time to Talk About Success Criteria Do I collaborate with my colleagues to identify the success criteria for every assessment of learning task?Do I challenge students to identify the success criteria essential to work samples and real-world products and performances?Do I collaborate with colleagues to develop rubrics and checklists based on success criteria?Do I ensure that the descriptors for each criterion are aligned with local performance standards?Do I use multiple anchors and exemplars linked to these performance standards?Do I present students with achievement targets that are within their ZPD?
98Time to Talk About Targets Do I collaborate with colleagues to agree upon performance targets for students?Do I routinely communicate performance targets to my students?How?Do I use these targets with students to help them improve their work
99Make self and peer assessment routine practice in your classroom…
101Make self and peer assessment routine practice … Teach and model assessment skillsProvide weekly opportunities to practice the skillsFocus the assessment only on what was taughtUse descriptive feedback - what’s good; what’s not; what to do to fix it – NOT scoresAssessment FOR learning ONLY
102Effective Oral Questioning Instead of the quiz show with teacher as quizmaster, try …“No hands”, “Think.Pair.Share”, etc.Avoid judgement when students respond to questions. i.e. …Instead of “Well done!” or “Nice try”,how about … “Who agrees with Ken?Who disagrees? How do we resolve this?”Goal: demand that ALL students think!
103Feedback that Moves Learning Forward The best learners consistently attribute both success and failure to internal, unstable causes. They believe: “It’s up to me” (internal) and “I can do something about it” (unstable). … learning in classrooms will be considerably enhanced if students embrace this idea. Dylan WiliamIn Embedded Formative Assessment, Dylan Wiliam, Solution Tree, 2011
104Possible Response to Feedback Response typeFeedback indicates performance exceeds goalFeedback indicates performance falls short of goalChange behaviourExert less effortIncrease effortChange goalIncrease aspirationReduce aspirationAbandon goalDecide goal is too easyDecide goal is too hardReject feedbackIgnore feedbackIn Embedded Formative Assessment, Dylan Wiliam, Solution Tree, 2011
105Types of Feedback Descriptive More Effective Descriptive feedback tells the student how to improve his/her learningMore effective feedback asks the student what to do to improve his/her learningPurpose: to improve learning by indicating to the student what needs to be improvedPurpose: to improve learning, by moving student reasoning to the next level
106Feedback that Moves Learning Forward Teacher: What part don’t you understand? Student: I just don’t get it. Teacher: Well, the first part is just like the last problem you did. Then we add one more variable. See if you can find out what it is, and I’ll come back in a few minutes.In Embedded Formative Assessment, Dylan Wiliam, Solution Tree, 2011
107Peer Feedback: Music Class Students had been practising in groups of 3, playing a 3-part jazz composition. At the end of the lesson, each group performed and the teacher required peers to assess what they heard. Here is some of the conversation:Rachel: Holly went too fast.Sam: You all need to listen more to each other.Teacher: Now, who hasn’t given any feedback yet? Tam, tell Emma’s group how they did, and remember to be specific.Tam: Emma’s fill was really good. Everyone was in good time.Teacher: Are you sure about that, Tam? (Tam hesitates….)Michael, what did you think about Emma’s group?Michael: They all started out together, then Freddy seemed to get lost, but then they finished together.Teacher: Good feedback, Michael. Emma’s group, do you agree with what Michael said?
108Do NOT combine feedback with scores Oral & written feedback tell students how to improve – marks DON’TEstablish classroom routines that create opportunities for teacher & peer feedbackProvide feedback ALONE on formative assessments; do NOT include marks
109Feedback that Moves Learning Forward Feedback is ONLY formative when it is used by the learner to improve performanceMust direct student’s attention to what’s next, NOT how well or badly student has performedEffectiveness depends on degree of mindfulness, so …Feedback must cause thinkingLess is sometimes moreIn Embedded Formative Assessment, Dylan Wiliam, Solution Tree, 2011
110Characteristics of effective feedback Needs to cause thinking: don’t provide the “answer”Must not be evaluativeMust direct students towards improvementMust make reference to specific quality indicators (a rubric or checklist)Must include an expectation that it will be implementedMust include strategies for checking that it has been implemented
111Demand that feedback be acted upon … Include feedback logs in student work books, binders, etc.Hold students accountable for showing you “before” & “after” workFocus student conferencing around feedback and how to act upon it…
112Five Imperatives: #4Grading must blend consistency with professional judgement.
113Clarifying Terminology Mark:a score, letter or rubric level assigned to an individual piece of workGrade:a letter or percentage value assigned as a summary of learning, either for a subject as a whole, or for a strand within that subjectAdapted from Ken O’Connor, 2009
116Time to Talk About Grading From the perspective of a parent or student, write down four adjectives that describe quality grades. Now share these with your colleagues. Which adjectives were common to all of you?
117Conditions for Quality Grades AccurateConsistentMeaningfulSupportive of Learning Ken O’Connor, 2008
118Grades are Accurate when they … Separate achievement from behaviourBalance measurement with professional judgementAdapted from Ken O’Connor, 2008
119Accurate Grades Learning skills must be assessed They be must reported on separately from achievementThey must be seen as being of equal value to achievementDamian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
120Professional Judgement Decisions made by educators, in light of their professional experience, with reference to public standards and guidelines.
121Grades are Consistent when they … Are based on clear performance standardsAre based on clear and public policies, guidelines, and proceduresAdapted from Ken O’Connor, 2008
123Performance Standards are Clear Damian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
124Grades are meaningful when they are based on a valid sample of critical evidence: No diagnostic evidenceIncludes a variety of modes to allow for differences in learning style (write, do, say)Includes multiple (3+)pieces of evidence for each learning clusterProvides evidence of the essential learning in the subjectTasks represent polished work:Not practices or early triesFeedback has occurred previously and been implemented
125Grades are Supportive of Learning when they … Distinguish between formative and summative assessmentsEmphasize more recent evidenceAdapted from Ken O’Connor, 2008
126Grades that are Supportive of Learning The key question is, “What information provides the most accurate depiction of students’ learning at this time?” In nearly all cases, the answer is“the most current information.”If students demonstrate that past assessment information no longer accurately reflects their learning, that information must be dropped and replaced by the new information. Continuing to rely on past assessment data miscommunicatesstudents’ learning.Powerful quote from Tom Guskey.Guskey, Thomas R. (Editor), Communicating Student Learning:The 1996 ASCD Yearbook, ASCD, Alexandria, VA, 1996, 21
127Time to Talk About Grading With your colleagues, review the grading practices at your school.To what extent do they blend consistency with professional judgement?To what extent are the grades you assign accurate, consistent, meaningful, and supportive of learning?
128Five Imperatives: #5.Communication about learning must be truthful and transparent
129How would you respond to the following question: “Damian, how do I explain to the parents of a special needs student with an IEP that the “A” she has received is for a modified program and that it doesn’t mean the same as the “A’s” received by other children in the class who are working at grade level?”
130What Parents Want to Learn from a Report Card Learning outcomes(incl. IEP ref. if applicable)Rubric levelsAnecdotal commentsLearning Skills DataGrade level at which student is workingAchievement level at which student is performingLevel of independenceAttitudes and BehavioursDamian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
131Reporting Student Achievement Given that it’s a crude summary of lots of information, what do we want the report card grade to represent?The recent trend ina student’sachievement.
132Can a report card communicate both achievement and progress? The Grading Dilemma …Can a report card communicate both achievement and progress?
134Communicating with Parents… When describing achievement, reference appropriate standards:NOT other studentsNOT siblingsLocal performance standardsAvoid all labelling of students: there are NO “A” students or “Level 4” students, only “A” performances and “Level 4” performances.
136Discrepancy between Observed and Reported Behaviours Observed: Frequently flashes the teacher.Reported: Willingly participates in “Show and Tell”.Observed: Runs a gambling ring at recess.Reported: Can count up to 100; understands number concepts; applies this knowledge in real-life situations.Courtesy, Sue Amos
137Discrepancy between Observed and Reported Behaviours Observed: Looks at other students’ work during tests.Reported: She is forging ahead.Observed: Touches himself inappropriately during story time.Reported: A self-motivated, tactile learner.Courtesy, Sue Amos
138Some final thoughts... “Change is a process, not an event… beware the implementation dip.” (Fullan)Don’t work alone. Collaboration will help you problem solve and will improve the quality of your initiatives.Be proactive - communicate with parents and students before changing your practice.Damian Cooper, Plan~Teach~Assess, 2012
139Commitment to Action Spend a few moments reflecting on today …. What was your most significant learning?What specific actions do you plan to take immediately and/or between now and June 2013?Who will be involved?What results would you like to see from these actions?How will you assess the effectiveness of these actions?