Presentation on theme: "Casara CASARA NATIONAL NAVIGATOR COURSE CASARA Navigator’s Role & Duties."— Presentation transcript:
Casara CASARA NATIONAL NAVIGATOR COURSE CASARA Navigator’s Role & Duties
Casara CASARA Navigator Course Table of Contents: u Pre-flight –Briefing –Single Spotter consideration –Map Preparation –Navigation Log –Aircraft preparation –Start-up and Departure
Casara CASARA Navigator Course Table of Contents: u During Flight –Transit –On scene –ELT Homing –Casualty / Crash Located –Off scene
Casara CASARA Navigator Course Table of Contents: u Post-flight –Debriefing –Reports & Claims –Preparation for the next flight u Emergencies –Aviate –Navigate –Communicate –Personal Safety
Casara CASARA Navigator Duties and Responsibilities Pre-Flight
Casara Pre-Flight Duties PREPARATION u The CASARA Navigator is the most critical member of the search team. u The day that you receive a search tasking is not the day you start looking for maps, radios and pencils. u Be prepared and practice your assigned tasks continuously.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties BRIEFINGS u Because you will be working so closely together, you should attend all weather, operations and mission briefings with the pilot. u Accurate notes should be taken for future reference and in order to brief the spotters. u Confirm fuel load, fuel consumption, transit and search speeds and altitudes with the pilot. u Confirm with the pilot who is responsible for the Flight Plan and the Weight & Balance.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties BRIEFINGS (cont’d) u Discuss the search tasking generally to ensure that you and the pilot are comfortable with the plan. u Confirm whether or not you can operate OUTSIDE your area during the search. u Confirm the COMMENCE SEARCH POINT (CSP) and the type, visibility distance, search width and direction of the search.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties BRIEFINGS (cont’d) u Confirm the 30 minute reserve for your bingo time. u Discuss who is going to handle what communications.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties SINGLE SPOTTER u While flying with a single spotter is not desirable, this situation may be forced on a crew due to an unanticipated fuel load or if a second spotter is not available for the moment. u By altering the way in which you fly a search pattern, you can maintain the integrity of your spotting at the expense of a search that takes more time.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties SINGLE SPOTTER (cont’d) u This varies depending on the type of search. u CLA, Track Crawl, Parallel Track: –Fly each leg twice, once in each direction u Expanding Square: –Alter the track spacing as follows Legs 1 & 2 – normal spacing (2 X VIS); Legs 3 & 4 – 3 X VIS (vice 4) Every two legs increase by 1 X VIS
Casara Pre-Flight Duties u Sector Search: –Fly the same pattern twice but have the spotter change sides for the second time around. u Note. The Pilot and Navigator must avoid the urge to act in some sort of spotter role. Their duties in a search are too critical to let slip.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties MAP PREPARATION u Find a quiet spot with a large flat surface and begin your map preparation. u Identify your search tasking on the map. Note that if the tasking is referenced to the missing aircraft’s intended track you will have to plot the track and a reference mileage on your map. u Plot your COMMENCE SEARCH POINT.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties MAP PREPARATION (cont’d) u Plot your search and record the tracks and distances on your navigation log. u Plot the transit route out and a nominal route back from your proposed BINGO position. u Make a note of the CALLSIGNs of the search assets on all sides of your search area.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties MAP PREPARATION (cont’d) u Review the map and highlight landmarks, ground elevations and obstacles. u Plan your departure procedure and fix. This will assist you in getting started in the right direction. For example: “On departure I am going to have the pilot set course over the bend in the river.”
Casara Pre-Flight Duties NAVIGATION LOG u Fill out all the general information on the NAVIGATION LOG. u Ensure that you have inserted all the necessary tracks, distances, fuel figures and airspeeds into your log. u Using the E6B or another Flight Calculator, calculate the required headings, ground speeds and fuel consumptions and BINGO time and note them in your log.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties
Casara Pre-Flight Duties
Casara Pre-Flight Duties NAVIGATION LOG ( cont’d) u It is not necessary to complete a line for each and every leg of your search, especially where the legs are short or repetitive (CLA, Expanding Square or Sector Search). u As long as you have sufficient information to fly the search and calculate your BINGO you have achieved the aim.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties PROGRAM SEARCH IN THE GPS u If you are going to program the GPS, now is the time to do it. If the pilot is going to do it, he will need some basic navigation information to proceed such as: –The lat/long of the Commence Search Point; –The bearing and distance of the first leg; and, – the proposed end search point.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties BINGO TIME u BINGO TIME is a function of: –Your ENDURANCE (the total time you can remain airborne), –The RESERVE FUEL you must have when you land, –The time it will take you to fly back to base from the furthest point of your search (BINGO LEG); and, –Your START TIME.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties BINGO TIME (Cont’d) u Bingo Time is the latest time you can leave an area and still have your reserve fuel when you land. u As your flight proceeds, the actual return leg may change. For example you established a BINGO leg of 42 minutes from some 60 miles away from base but you are currently orbiting an ELT location only 18 minutes from base.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties BINGO TIME (cont’d) u You can recalculate your BINGO time based on this amended return leg (BINGO leg). u Lets review the next two slides.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties Fuel Calculations (hrs/min) Fuel Consumption (GPH)8.0From aircraft charts Total Fuel (Hrs:mm)4.0Total fuel in hours / fuel consumption Minus Reserves (Hrs:mm)0.5Assuming 30 minute reserves (0.5) Minus Fuel to Land0.7Time to return home at cruise consumption Total time available 2.8Total fuel in hours minus fuel used to return home and reserves leaver time we can fly from start actually Take-off) Plus Engine Start Time13.513:30Add this to the time we take off and we have BINGO time. BINGO Time16.316:18assuming we depart the search from our planned position NOTE: If contact investigations or a new tasking alters the time (& fuel) to land, this will alter our BINGO time Example: We estimated 42 minutes to return home to land but our new tasking puts us within 18 minutes of landing Our BINGO time can be increased by 0.4 hrs or 24 minutes. See the next slide.
Casara Pre-Flight Duties Fuel Calculations (hrs/min) Fuel Consumption (GPH)8.0 Total Fuel (Hrs:mm)4.0 Minus Reserves (Hrs:mm)0.5 Minus Fuel to Land0.3 Total time available 3.2 Plus Engine Start Time13.513:30. BINGO Time16.716:42
Casara Pre-Flight Duties u Once you have completed the map and the Navigation Log, it is time to get together with the pilot once again to confirm your preparations and compare your plot with the GPS plot. u The next task is to brief the crew on the search object and the search mission. u Finally, check the aircraft to ensure that it is ready for flight from the Navigator’s point of view
Casara Pre-Flight Duties u If you are to do the flight plan have the Aircraft Commander look it over and sign it before filing. u File the flight plan in a timely manner, at least 1/2 hour before take-off. u File with Flight Service at INFOFSS ( ) u Update your ETA, with Flight Service, if it changes by more than 10 minutes.
Casara Start-up & Departure AIRCRAFT PREPARATION u Is the GPS installed correctly? u Is the homer installed correctly and checked? u Are your maps, rulers, and other navigation tools secure and at hand? u Do you have a place where you can make notes throughout the trip?
Casara Start-up & Departure AIRCRAFT PREPARATION (cont’d) u Has the crew completed its Safety Briefing? –Location and operation of the ELT. –Emergency shut-down of the aircraft after a forced landing. –Operation of the radio after a forced landing. –Location and operation of the Fire Extinguisher. –Location of the First Aid Kit. –Operation of the seat, seat belts and doors. –Emergency evacuation procedures. –Brace position. –Any other items
Casara Start-up & Departure THE AIRCRAFT IS STARTED u Ensure the GPS and any other navigation facilities are on, checked and set for the departure. u Conduct communications checks with the pilot and the spotters.
Casara CASARA Navigator Duties and Responsibilities During Flight
Casara Start-up & Departure LETS GO FLYING!!!! u Now your record keeping begins. It is your responsibility to record: –Engine on; –Time up; –On scene time; –Off scene time; –Time down; and, –Engine off.
Casara Start-up & Departure LETS GO FLYING!!!! u On departure, give the pilot his set heading instructions. u Give the “Time Off” and “Estimated time on scene” to the designated agency directly or through the pilot as decided.
Casara Flight Duties TRANSIT u Provide guidance to the pilot. u Give spotting references to the left and right spotter (if transiting at search altitude). u Even if you are using GPS for the most accurate track flying, conduct a following plot on your map by marking your route as you fly.
Casara Flight Duties TRANSIT (cont’d) u Remember to identify landmarks for the pilot as far out as possible and also remember that because of drift he may be tracking to the fix while the nose of the aircraft is not pointing at it. u When trying to orient yourself without GPS examine the features on the ground and locate them on the map. u If using GPS cross referencing Lat & Long is the quickest way to orient yourself.
Casara Flight Duties TRANSIT (cont’d) u By always keeping your landmarks as far out as possible, and marking your route as you proceed, the above should not be necessary. If you have a chore to do that takes you away from your navigating, have the pilot orbit a fix until you are free to continue.
Casara Flight Duties ON SCENE u Warn the pilot and spotters that you are approaching “On Scene” to allow the pilot to slow down and the spotters to prepare.. u Plan the descent to search altitude prior to COMMENCE SEARCH POINT if you are authorized to operate outside your boundaries or if you are in contact with the asset in that area. u Otherwise, plan to descend inside the boundary in a turn over the CSP.
Casara Flight Duties ON SCENE (Cont’d) u Make the “On Scene” radio call early to avoid an addition to your workload just as you start the search. u Provide the spotters with a spotting distance reference if this has not been done earlier. u An acceptable track error during a search is not published but is considered to be 0.1 nm.. u If you have trouble maintaining an accurate track on a leg refly that leg. It may be the only time an asset is in the area for days.
Casara Flight Duties ON SCENE (Cont’d) u Continue to provide landmarks, follow on your map and do the necessary communications checks BUT DO NOT GET INVOLVED IN SPOTTING. u Provide for an orbit approximately every 30 minutes to give the spotters a chance to rest their eyes. u Do look for feedback from the spotters on spotting conditions for pilot guidance (too fast?) and for your debriefing. u Remember that one of your duties to assist the pilot with his “Lookout” for other traffic.
Casara CASARA Navigator Duties and Responsibilities Crash Located
Casara Flight Duties ELT SIGNAL u When an ELT signal is received –Note the time, position, bearing, heading and altitude. –Inform the Searchmaster and commence localizing. –Get Searchmaster’s permission to prosecute outside your assigned area. –Mark your map where you left the search track. –Mark your map with the track flown during the homing on your map. (Even without a “positive” On Top, two homing attempts from 90 0 offset locations will provide a fairly close localization).
Casara Flight Duties ELT SIGNAL (cont’d) u Mark all “On-Tops” on the map and the GPS. u Once you have localized the ELT, –Inform the SM via a NOCL and, –If you are not visual with the site, conduct a close in Expanding Square or a Sector Search (3NM).
Casara Flight Duties SEARCH OBJECT LOCATED u Whenever a Spotter calls the aircraft around on a sighting, you should pick out a landmark so that you can return “on track” without ruining the integrity of the search and mark your map where you left the search track. u While turning to gain sight of the object spotted, back up the pilot by noting his speed, altitude and bank angle. u Scan for obstacles and traffic.
Casara Flight Duties SEARCH OBJECT LOCATED (cont’d) Mark any “On Tops” on your map and the GPS with a brief description of the object on the map or in your notes. You would hate to lose track of the sighting location. u When it is decided that this is a valid sighting, have the pilot orbit the area with the target in sight while you draft up the NOCL Message. u Remember that “ALPHA – Positive” only applies if you can CONFIRM that this is the search object.
Casara Flight Duties SEARCH OBJECT LOCATED (cont’d) u “ALPHA – Negative” says that “We believe that we have the target but we can’t POSITIVELY confirm the identity of the target”. u Double check all the information to be transmitted especially the POSITION. u Check your BINGO time referenced your current position and give the length of time you can remain on scene.
Casara Flight Duties SEARCH OBJECT LOCATED (cont’d) u Remain on scene until Bingo Time or until you are released, whichever comes first.
Casara Flight Duties OFF SCENE – TRANSIT HOME u Once you are Off Scene and headed home the aircraft can climb to the transit altitude while inside your search boundary if required and increase speed to NORMAL CRUISE. u Call in with the time you were“Off Scene” and an ETA to base. u Continue to Aviate (lookout), navigate, and communicate until you are on the ground. The airspace will probably be busy.
Casara Flight Duties OFF SCENE – TRANSIT HOME (cont’d) u You can confirm details of the mission with the crew for your debrief. u On landing, record your “Land-on” time and “Engine Off” time.
Casara Flight Duties AFTER SHUT DOWN u Before you leave the aircraft make sure you have all your documentation for the debrief. u Ensure that the aircraft is cleaned up, fuel has been checked, the aircraft secured and ready for the next tasking or the next crew.
Casara CASARA Navigator Duties and Responsibilities Post-Flight
Casara Flight Duties POST - FLIGHT u Take time to clean up your log, notes and your map to ensure the flight is able to be reproduced accurately and completely. u Debrief as a crew as someone may recall something the others missed. u Complete the AIR TASKING DEBRIEFING FORM, submit your map, Nav Log, NOCL and any notes. u Complete the CASARA SAR OPS REPORT.
Casara Flight Duties POST – FLIGHT (cont’d) u Complete any training records. u Ensure that your navigation gear and the navigation bag has been restocked and you are ready for another tasking u Remain in touch in the event that the SM wishes to review some of your information.
Casara CASARA Navigator Duties and Responsibilities Emergencies
Casara Flight Duties EMERGENCIES u In the event of an emergency remember to AVIATE, NAVIGATE and COMMUNICATE in that order. u AVIATE –Give the Pilot a safe track back to base and any references he requires to maintain this track if he requires it. –The pilot will be busy so assist him without getting in his way. –Brief the spotters if you have enough information.
Casara Flight Duties EMERGENCIES (cont’d) u NAVIGATE –Continue to navigate the aircraft as directed by the pilot keeping a good lookout for obstacles and other traffic. u COMMUNICATE –With the pilot’s authorization: –Make the necessary MAYDAY, PAN or other calls to inform ATC and any other agencies of your situation. –Switch transponder to Code “7700” if appropriate.
Casara Flight Duties EMERGENCIES (cont’d) u “MAYDAY – MAYDAY - MAYDAY –This is CGPKF CASARA – CGPKF CASARA – CGPKF CASARA –Cessna 172 –4424 north 6534 west –Heading 180 degrees magnetic at ninty knots. –At 2500 feet –We have a very rough running engine. –Attempting to make Yarmouth Airport”.
Casara Flight Duties EMERGENCIES (cont’d) u Ensure your personal security –Stow all loose articles. –Tighten your harness –Ensure you feet are clear of the rudder pedals. –Review the emergency evacuation plan. –Review the “Brace” position.