4 Governments: Putting It All Together Multi-AgencyCoordinationSystemEmergencyOperationsCenterESFsEmergency Management (NIMS and NRF)Policy andFieldIncidentCommand(ICS)EmergencyProcesses:EvacuationShelteringSearch & RescuePublic SecurityPublic HealthEtcPotential orActual EmergencyNormal businessoperationsBusiness emergency actionsNormal businessoperationsContinuity of operations proceduresIT disaster recovery proceduresCOOP/DRP/COG
5 Notional Local and State ESFs ESF-1 TransportationESF-2 CommunicationsESF-3 Public Works and EngineeringESF-4 FirefightingESF-5 Emergency ManagementESF-6 Mass Care, Housing and Human ServicesESF-7 Resource Support (Logistics)ESF-8 Public Health and Medical ServicesESF-9 Search and RescueESF-10 Hazardous Materials and RadiologicalESF-11 AgricultureESF-12 EnergyESF-13 Public Safety and SecurityESF-14 Community Recovery, Mitigation and Economic StabilizationESF-15 Public InformationThis list is representative of the functions most EOCs incorporate into the full spectrum of emergency management operationsLooking over this list, you likely can spot several areas in which Rotary as a club or as an regional/national/international entity can contribute, making an important difference without putting its personnel in harm’s way. There’s much more to successful disaster response and recovery than the first response provided by fire, police, and EMS professionals.VOADs are usually found at the state level, but often have local branches (good partnership for districts)Unskilled volunteers are always needed!
6 Most Emergencies Are Local FEDERALIn the U.S., primary responsibilityfor emergency responseis at the local levelSTATELOCAL RESPONSECITIZEN RESPONSE
7 How It Works: No-Notice Emergency Actual EmergencyEventIncident Command establishedUnified Command establishedArea Command establishedDEOC stood upEOC monitoring(If required)(Department Emergency Operations Center)Full MACS support(Including EOC)VolunteerAgencies
8 No-Notice Emergency Escalation State Unified Command establishedFederal ESFs activated (NRP)Unified Command establishedArea Command establishedFull MACS support(Including EOC)Joint Requirements Office (JRO) stood upFull SEOC supportResourcecoordinationResourcecoordination-- For a hurricane, all of these elements would likely stand up simultaneously
9 How Does All This Happen? You need a plan!Structure (i.e., NIMS and ICS)Mobilization and response (i.e., NRF)Threats to prepare for (i.e., NPG) and capabilities to reduce the risk
10 The Essential EOP What do you want to do? The mission Disaster ReadinessDisaster ResponseDisaster ReliefDisaster RecoveryWhat are the threats to prepare for?Risk Assessment and managementHow to take action?Procedures, checklists, and information
11 Mission Considerations: Rotary Strengths in Disasters District, regional, national, and international presence and networkHighly competent professionals in all classificationsBusiness and industry backboneGoodwill and volunteer focusProbably no better readiness and response potentialin any private sector organization!
12 Rotary Spheres of Engagement CLUBCLUBLOCALAs you begin to examine the role(s) your club may want to take on, you should consider the options.You can simply opt to take care of your own members, or ask for assistance from other clubs (or provide them assistance when requested)You can coordinate with local and state EMAs to provide preparation, response, and recovery, prior to, during, and after disastersYou can act as the coordination point for local and state EOCs to request Rotary personnel and equipment through the Rotary networkYou can also act as the coordination point for emergency operations centers in the international arena to coordinate Rotary resourcesSTATENATIONALINTERNATIONAL
13 The Emergency Management Cycle PREPARATIONRESPONSEReadinessMITIGATIONRECOVERYThis is worthwhile to understand and keep in mind as you develop your individual programs. These are the commonly recognized phases of emergency management used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).DHS has added a fifth dimension, Prevention, primarily to address the threat of terrorism, and to put in place mechanisms to stop terrorists before they can carry out their plansIt’s important to understand that being able to respond to an emergency is good, but how well you respond will be determined by the preparation you put into your capabilities long before an emergency occurs. That preparation includes proper planning, equipping, training, and exercising.In the U.S., that planning and preparation should include contacting and working with your local and regional emergency management agencies, so that you plug into the emergency management structure. There is a heavy emphasis in the U.S. today to incorporate the private sector and community citizens into emergency response and recoveryPreparedness . . Response . . Rebuilding
14 Four Phases of Emergency Management Preparedness/PreventionBuilding, sustaining, and improving operational capability and resilienceAvoiding or stopping an incident before it occursMitigationReducing or eliminating risks or their impactResponseImmediate actions (including damage assessment and critical infrastructure recovery)Secondary response (public health, etc)RecoveryService and site restoration (public and private sectors)Economic and community viability
15 The Private Sector— Victim, Spectator, or Player?
16 Determining Your Mission Club members in disastersWhat do members need?Personal preparedness and recoveryBusiness preparedness and recoveryDetermine membership statusHow can other Rotarians help?Outreach to other ClubsClub-to-Club partnershipsClub to District to Club (District as middleman)Overseas travelPreparation and risk mitigation (medical, physical threat)Recovering Rotarians from disaster zonesSo let’s start looking at how Rotary clubs can carve out roles in disasters.A calling system (both inbound and outbound) is useful to assess membership status and have an entry point for requestsSimple calling trees combined with emergency contact points (both phone and ) can provide this capability for most clubsBest to have pre-set arrangements for affected clubs to contact Districts, who can manage requests and coordinate with non-affected clubsAs preparation and mitigation are the best defense, the DOM should include thumbnail checklists for businesses for risk assessment and business continuity / disaster recovery (BC/DR)One aspect of this is mitigating the risk of traveling to overseas destinations that might have health risk from disease, poor sanitation, contaminated water and food, as well as from criminal or terrorist threats. There are national programs in place to advise and assist in such matters.Another related aspect is how do Rotarians traveling to overseas destinations get support and get back home if there is a disaster, medical issue, or other crisis situation affecting them? Should Rotary clubs and district disaster points of contact be able to address these issues?
17 District as Coordination Center Communications nodeCoordination between clubsInput point to and from Rotary National / InternationalResource request and coordination centerNeed remote alternate (backup in case District capability is lost)Posturing Rotary districts in this manner is taking a page from the NIMS playbookHelps to have a coordination center away from the fray, one that Rotarians know how to contactProvides excellent backup for Rotary clubs that may be hit by the disaster—it gives them immediate communications for outside assistanceDistricts would be logical locations to coordinate requests for help, as well as resources, assuming they are outside the disaster impact area.Since they themselves may be impacted by a disaster, it would be prudent to have a backup site, such as a partnering District outside the danger zone of a given natural disaster threat
18 Key to Surviving Disasters: The Community Individual and family preparationCitizen engagementVolunteer manningPrivate sector readinessEconomic resiliencyGovernment EMAs can only do so much—a well-prepared community is one in which families and businesses take their own prudent precautions and preparations, reducing the impact of a disaster and the demands it places on emergency respondersVolunteers are often a critical shortfall in emergency operations—it takes a lot of people, especially when you have to work around the clock perhaps for days, to provide the unskilled manpower necessary for all the emergency operations that might be required (registering evacuees, handling their pets, assisting with food and water distribution, logistics, etc)In severe emergencies, it may take responders hours or days to get to everyone, as roads may have to be cleared, disaster zones secured, responders must be able to report to work, and so on. That’s why the first line of preparedness, and emergency response, has to depend on the individual and family.The private sector can greatly minimize the impact of a disaster as well, by taking basic business continuity and disaster recovery steps.Can you protect your employees, facilities, and equipment? Will you be able to resume operations in a reasonable timespan? All of these not only protect your business, they also help in keeping the community on a firm foundation and allowing quicker recovery.If as community loses significant portions of its infrastructure, medical systems, communications systems, and economic basis, it makes it that much harder to recover, as these effects compound each other-- Lack of recovery can be thegreatest impact of a disaster
19 Community Preparation Promotion and facilitation of readiness programs in the communityDHS Ready Programs (www.ready.gov)Ready AmericaReady BusinessReady KidsCitizen Corps (www.citizencorps.gov)Volunteer focusCreate and assist with equivalent programs in other countries, if not already presentConsider risk mitigation in overseas projectsEliminate obvious threat vulnerabilitiesThrough its Ready Campaign and Citizen Corps program, DHS educates and empowers Americans to prepare for all types of emergencies, including natural disasters and potential terrorist attacks. Last month, the department and the Ad Council released new television, radio, print, outdoor and Internet public service advertisements (PSAs) for the Ready Campaign. The PSAs highlight the fact that many families have not yet taken the steps needed to prepare, including getting an emergency supply kit, making a family emergency plan and learning more about different emergencies and their appropriate responses.Rotary clubs can assist the community by promoting and facilitating programs that prepare the community, to include private individuals, families, and businessesRotary members should think of basic mitigation measures when they propose and build projects in other countries. Are they putting facilities in place in high-risk areas such as flood plains? Will structures collapse in an earthquake? Are infrastructure projects vulnerable to disruption if a disaster occurs?
20 Community Preparation (con’d) Community infrastructure readinessMedical systemsTransportation systemsPower infrastructureCommunications providersEducation (K-12 districts, college campuses)There are many other community sectors that provide essential community services, such as the ones above.Rotarians can be very influential in promoting disaster readiness and business continuity within these sectors.The best way to gauge how Rotary might help in these areas is by discussing all this with your local EMAs.The DOM will provide some basic questionnaires that might be relevant and help provide context for such discussions.
21 Community ResponseProvide resources and services through coordination with the EOCVolunteer workersSkilled personnel (i.e., public health and medical)Equipment (transport, transformers, etc)Coordinate between EOC and Rotary for additional resourcesThe key here is to introduce yourself to the local EMA, find out where you might be able to help, then plan with them on providing response capabilitiesLet me re-emphasize that one of tne of the biggest shortfalls during emergency operations is the need for unskilled volunteers to provide manpower for processes such as evacuation processing, pet handling, food distribution, and so forthSending food, clothing, and other donations that have not been specifically requested, or having people show up in the disaster area uninvited and uncoordinated, seldom contribute to the response and recovery effort, and in fact are generally detrimentalThere is a strong focus today on better integration of the private sector into emergency management, as it is directly affected, and the private sector has much to bring to the table. If the private sector is prepared for disasters, there is less victimization to have to respond to. If the private sector is not only prepared but engaged, then the emergency response capabilities are that much greaterIn dire scenarios such as a pandemic, the bulk of response and recovery will fall on the family and on the private sector, as the public sector will also be decimated, and government resources will be very limitedUnsolicited (uncoordinated) donations and personnelgenerate more problems than solutions!
22 Community RecoveryESF 14: Community recovery, mitigation, and economic stabilizationRebuilding and public works projectsRotary member business recoveryMitigation measures built into Rotary recovery projects at home and overseasRobust critical infrastructure componentsWater, sanitization, communications, power, food distribution, medical support)Most EOCs will have a cell that is responsible for long-term stabilization and recoveryFederal recovery funds will flow into regions after Presidential declaration of a disaster, but most of these will be used for large public works recovery projects. Homeowners also have access to funds earmarked for private sector recovery.Mitigation has two sides: Mitigating known risks before they materialize, and building mitigation measures into recovery programs after a disaster hits (rebuilding out of flood plains, raising foundations, rebuilding earthquake-resistant structures, etc)
23 State-Level Assistance State EOCsContact point for resources provided through RotaryState VOADsPartnership with volunteer agencies providing coordinated emergency supportState EOCs normally are there to support their counties and municipalities with additional support, should the local resources be overwhelmed. They are a good place to coordinate a role, as well as put in place a partnership that may involve working with the EOC, at the District level. Helping the state locate needed resources through the Rotary network could be very helpful.VOADs, Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster, are consortiums of PVOs that determine how they can work together in disasters, developing synergies and eliminating duplication of effort. They are well-recognized and commonly associated with emergency operations, generally working in partnership with the state EOCs
24 International Assistance Same basics: Preparation, mitigation, response, recoveryValue of local RotariansSituational awareness (local intel)Local and national emergency management systems and proceduresLegal requirementsCoordination pointMedical protection (Vaccinations, anti-malarial pills, safe food and water protocols, etc)Physical security (criminal and terrorist threat)VisasHere is where emergency preparation and response operations can become much more complex, as each nation will have its own response systems (some well-developed, some simply handled by the police and/or military; some may have nothing in place)Having local Rotarians to help sort all this out will be invaluable in a disaster scenarioOnce the immediacy of emergency operations has passed, the situation has somewhat stabilized, and the focus is turning beyond restoration of lifelines to short and long-term recovery, the environment will be more conducive to outside assistance. This would be a good point for Rotarians to look for ways to assist with public health and medical care, distribution of essentials, and rebuildingShelterBox is an excellent Rotary program that helps disaster victims across the globe—more on that tomorrow from Tom Henderson.
25 Preparation Starts With Risk Assessment Plenty of disasters for everyone, both naturally occcurring and “manmade”, whether unintentional or intentionalPreparation starts with determining what you need to be prepared for, and how you can helpOther risks such as pandemic, cyberattack, hazardous materials accident at a processing plant or in transportation (chlorine gas, etc)Good place to scope this out is your local Emergency Management Agency’s hazard/vulnerability assessmentOne of the commonly neglected pieces of readiness is business continuity and disaster recovery in the private sector—has your business taken prudent precautions and put in place procedures to handle an emergency?
26 Managing Risk Eliminate or avoid Transfer Accept Reduce to acceptable level (mitigate or control)reduce vulnerabilityminimize the impact (consequence)Partnership between city planners, EMAs, and citizensPrivate Voluntary Orgs and Non-Governmental OrgsThis is what emergency management is all about. There’s not enough money or resources to eliminate all risks, so the trick is to provide reasonable protection with the resources availableUnfortunately, many people insert a fifth risk-management technique of ignoring or denying that a threat might affect themACAT—Avoid, control, accept, transferDue to the nature of natural and man-made disasters, the bulk of risk management for EMAs and community planners involves reducing vulnerability and impactPVOs such as UNICEF and NGOs such as the UN and Red Cross can also play a key role here, particularly in overseas environments
27 Maxims for Crisis Actions Keep it simpleThink like someone in a foxhole, not someone in a boardroomMake sure it works during disasters, not just when things are copaceticPlan for the worstTrain and exercise itAn ounce of mitigation is worth a pound of responseComplacency can be deadly
28 First: What’s the Plan and Who’s In Charge? What is its trigger?Who has decision making authority?What authority do they have?What if they’re off-line or incapacitated (line of succession)?Checklists are wonderful!If well conceivedBefore we get into specific ways Rotary clubs can help in disasters, let’s talk about some basicsThe last thing you want to be doing in an emergency is shooting from the hip.You need a plan, and at its foundation should be someone responsible for performing basic roles and responsibilities in an emergency scenario.The value of checklists in complex, stressful situations cannot be overstated (assuming the checklists are good ones)DOM should provide basic checklists for most scenarios clubs might select
29 Can’t Do It Without Communications! Communications PlanWho to call? How?What are your comm requirements?‘Voice’ (landline, cell, text messaging, , VoIP*, radio, satcom, etc)Data (files, data, photos, etc)Infrastructure (networks, servers, applications, databases)Another fundamental requirement.Basic requirement of emergency management is a robust, redundant communications planThis will become more critical the more severe the disaster, as normal communications channels may be disruptedThis can be very challenging in the international arena, where communications options could be limited to start withDOM will have a brief reference list of comm technologies, and their strengths and weaknesses, as well as recommended usage*Voice over Internet Protocol(phone lines carried over computer networks)
30 Checklists Keep Your Head Straight If you’re shooting from the hip, your accuracy is questionableIf you’re shooting from the hip under stress, I wouldn’t want to stand close to youWell-constructed checklists provide focus and accuracyKeep them simple
31 What It Takes to Be Ready “If you know the enemy and know yourself you need not fear the results of a hundred battles” (Sun Tzu)“Plans are nothing; planning is everything.” (Eisenhower)“Life is what happens when you’ve made other plans” (Charles Schultz)LeadershipKnowledgeThe ability to make and communicate informed decisionsPrepared people and resilient systemsknow yourself and the threats you faceSun Tzu does assume the leader has common sense to apply this knowledge
32 The Rotary EOP Template Mission StatementDisaster ReadinessDisaster ResponseDisaster ReliefDisaster RecoveryEssential Functions and Critical ResourcesRisk AnalysisAppendices and AnnexesCritical information and checklists
33 Prep for the Workshop Look over the template Think over your potential club mission areas (what it wants to do in disasters)Think about which functions you would consider to be criticalDistricts—how do you want to participate? What are your essential functions?
35 Murphy’s Laws of Combat Life is tough, but it’s tougher if you’re stupid.If it’s stupid, but works, it’s not stupid.Combat-ready units often fail inspections.Inspection-ready units often fail in combat.The easy way is always lined with SAMs.*Don’t look conspicuous. It draws fire.Never draw fire; it irritates everyone around you.When in doubt, empty the magazine.Never fly wing on anyone braver than you.Formation flight is essential. It gives them other people to shoot at.Try to look unimportant, they may be low on ammo.Incoming fire has the right of way.If the enemy is in range, so are you.Friendly fire isn’t.Tracers work both ways.Professionals are predictable but the world is full of amateurs.*Surface-to-Air Missiles(LEAVE UP FOR Q & A)
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