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Canada’s 14 th Prime Minister April 1963 – April 1968.

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Presentation on theme: "Canada’s 14 th Prime Minister April 1963 – April 1968."— Presentation transcript:

1 Canada’s 14 th Prime Minister April 1963 – April 1968

2  participated in... ◦ Washington Naval Conference (1930) ◦ Geneva World Disarmament Conference (1933-1934) ◦ London Naval Conference (1935)  involved in negotiations leading to formation of UN  Canada’s ambassador in UN  leader of Liberal party  Essential leader in creating Canada’s image as a trusted ally, humanitarian and peacekeeping nation Created Canadian Flag

3  1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization is established.  1951-52 – Serves as chairman of NATO Council.  1952 – Elected president of Seventh Session, UN General Assembly.  1956 – Examines NATO. Introduces the critical peacekeeping resolution for the Suez Crisis.  1957 – Wins Nobel Peace Prize.  1958 – Elected Leader of Liberal Party  1962 – Proposes bilingualism commission. Liberals win 99 seats in election.  1963 – Elected April 8 with a minority government.  1964 – Canada Pension Plan negotiated.  1965 – Liberals are re-elected and the Maple Leaf Flag is created.  1966 – Medicare  1968 – Retires in April. (In power for 5 years.)

4 Canada’s most successful & respected Foreign diplomat Instrumental in creating Canada’s image as a trusted ally/ humanitarian/ peacekeeping nation Domestic plans significantly influenced by early career as a diplomat and soldier Internationalism and domestic policy as opposites Outward-looking nation and ended provincial rivalries Defined Canadian culture

5 POLITICAL POLICIESPURPOSE “universality” improve the relations between the United States and Canada end provincial rivalries (Quebec V.S Canada); that defined national political culture all citizens promised equal access to education, welfare & healthcare government intervention to improve lives of average Canadian citizens

6 Cut military spending and put money towards social programs

7 Canada Student Loan Program (1964)  Provided loans to students registered in university/ technical schools  Government acted as guarantor of the loans Canada Pension Plan (1965) (updated)  Improved existing old-age pension plan  Permitted provinces to establish own plans with federal support  Many companies did not have pensions for workers therefore the companies expanded and extended pension plan to majority

8 Medical Care Act (1966)  Universal healthcare  Allowed federal government to provide more funding to poorer provinces  There were protests due to the cost of universal health care however it was popular among the citizens Canada’s racially-open immigration policy (1960’s)  European immigration decreased  Canadian government encouraged immigration from India and Hong Kong  Introduced points-based system which further encouraged immigration (systems similarly still used today)

9 Wanted to develop an economic and military relationship with the US

10  Soviet takeover in Europe affected the world market ◦ Canadian – European economic ties destroyed (Britain = bankrupt)  Pearson pursued 3 major changes to reassure the economy: 1.Strengthen UN by preventing its involvement in International Crises (Palestine, Korea) 2.Auto Pact with the economically strong US 3.Socio-economically inspired pact to balance US power  NATO

11 Canada-US Automotive Agreement  Free trade agreement of automobiles, tires, auto parts across border  Impacted Canada greatly, as it gave more job opportunities and established payment equity  Main Purposes: ◦ Reduce duplication  reduce production cost ◦ Reduce cost  increase consumption  Effective ◦ Car prices dropped  consumption increased ◦ 1965: 70 000 workers  1978: 125 000 workers ◦ Ontario, closely located to the US, benefitted from transportation routes and accessibility to production centres ◦ It essentially allowed the Liberals to gain domestic support

12  Military spending in the 1950s and mid 1960s were large because: ◦ 25 000 fought in Korean War ◦ 120 000 in the military ◦ 10 000 stationed permanently in Europe due to NATO  Glassco Commission in 1963 reports that military spending was wasteful  Pearson reduces military to 20 000 under the Minister of Defence  This would provide more from the budget towards social programs

13 Pearson’s legacy continues for his outstanding contributions and development to Canada’s foreign policy NATO United Nations Department of External Affairs Suez Crisis Nobel Peace Prize Middle Power Food and Agriculture Organization International Monetary Fund World Health Organization

14 Palestine, 1947  UK had mandate over Palestine:1947  end mandate  UNGA’s Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP)  Resolution:divide the territory but still allow freedom of transport and economic ties: ◦ Arab state ◦ Jewish state ◦ Jerusalem  Arabs opposition  Pearson strived for a clearly defined implementation of the partition ◦ Four nations worked carefully on the partition plan which was finalized on Nov. 29, 1947  Medallion of Valour for creating Israel

15 ◦ Responsible throughout for resolving conflict between North and South Korea that the US was involved in ◦ UN was to provide immediate military to repel invasion ◦ Highlights the effectiveness of collective action against aggression  strengthening UN’s role

16  “ Nothing before or after was as momentous for him. In his long, eventful public life, Suez was his signature.” – Historian Andrew Cohen  Crisis followed the creation of Israel and Arab neighbours  Gamal Abdel Nasser, nationalized the Suez Canal Company on July 26, 1956  October 29, 1956, Israelis attacked Egypt with the help from Britain and France  Canada was asked to support in this attack, which angered Pearson immensely as he thought it was: ◦ “immoral” ◦ “impractical” ◦ “incendiary”

17  Britain and France vetoed US request for ceasefire and withdrawal of troops in the UN  At the UNGA where the resolution of ceasefire was being discussed, Pearson expressed that it was: “A moderate proposal couched in reasonable and objective terms, without unfair or unbalanced condemnation" but “It does not provide for any steps to be taken by the United Nations for a peace settlement, without which a cease-fire will be of only temporary value at best... What then, six months from now? Are we to go through all this again?”  UN Emergency Force  cease-fire must be monitored and prepared to lead to political settlement  Pearson’s Resolution: Passed 57 – 0 with 19 absent ◦ Separated combatants  end violence ◦ UK and France could withdraw without being forced to by the UN

18  Nobel Peace Prize, 1957 ◦ Suez Crisis  Geoffrey Pearson wrote, “Success in diplomacy, like success in other fields of public policy, depends on a combination of three main factors -- timing, experience, and personality.”  Pearson’s New World Order  Served with Canadian Army Medical Corps  Watched the deterioration of the League of Nations after World War 1

19 FOREIGN POLICIES WHAT HE DID... Canada’s role in NATO - 120 000 CDN forces in Korean War (commitment in NATO) - Prior to being PM; held high-ranking position in foreign affairs e.g. Chair of Canada’s NATO delegation Canada as Middle Power - two superpowers  left little room for Canada to voice opinions in international affairs, relations and etc. - Canada caught in America's orbit (did whatever the Americans did) - wanted Canada to be "an independent force of peacekeeping and goodwill" - his sending of UN Emergency Force to Suez won him the Nobel Peace Prize & established Canada's independent role on the world stage

20 FOREIGN POLICIESWHAT HE DID... Canada’s role in the World Bank - Canada participated in the 1944 Bretton Woods conference that led to the creation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and formally joined both organizations in 1945. -target: poverty reduction in the developing world -expands Canada's impact on poverty reduction and sustainable development worldwide -wanted to close the gap between the rich and poor in other nations - “Partners in Development” “I accepted because I believe no problem to be more important to the future of the world.” World Bank

21  1928 – 1948  Scored highest and appointed first secretary  Successful – easy-going, friendly, earned respect and trust  Minister of External Affairs  1948 – 1957  Met with UN  Created the first United Nations Peace-Keeping Force  Made of Canadian troops ◦ ended Suez crisis

22  Set up after WW2 for a better world  Pearson there from the start and started working on it in 1942  Canadian representative  Est’d in 1943 & became Chairman of Subcommittee for Displaced Persons

23  Deeply interested in future of nuclear energy  Canada supplied uranium and laboratory research to USA and UK  Very involved in Combined Policy Committee (CPC)  Oversaw the working of bi-lateral agreement collaboration in use of of nuclear energy (nuclear info exchange, int’l control, technical collaborations)  Atomic Bomb Conference, Washington, Nov. 12-15, 1945

24  ECOSOC (Economic and Social Council)  ICAO (International Civil Agency)  FAO (Food Agriculture Organization)  WHO (World Health Organization)  IMF (International Monetary Funds)


26 The Ottawa Citizen Newspaper (November 7, 1984)  “Middle Power”  (Spicer, Keith. A return to Pearsonian Diplomacy. The Ottawa Citizen. 7, November 1984.)

27  Comment by Mackenzie King (PM from 1935 - 1948) “ He [Pearson] likes keeping Canada at the head of everything, in the forefront in connection with UN affairs.”  (Lester B. Pearson by Andrew Cohen)

28  Autobiography of Lester B. Pearson  "From the Korean experience we have, I hope, learned some lessons. One is that collective action against aggression can work, even when that action is incomplete, in organization, support and participation. Korea has been a vindication of the principle of collective action, but even more, it has shown what could be done if all members of the United Nations were willing, collectively, to pay the price to make such action effective."  (Mike: The Memoirs of the Rt. Hon. Lester B. Pearson, Volume 2, 1948-1957)

29  Historiography: Pearsonian Diplomacy “Pearsonian Diplomacy has come to mean a modus operandi. Pearson had a capacity for cooling off a situation, as he tried to do in Korea. He also had an instinct for creating a middle way, as he did with India and the Commonwealth in 1949, another one of those intractable conflicts... In Kashmir in 1950, though, he knew to stay away; the issue was insoluble, and he has no appetite for lost causes. In Hungary, in 1956, he knew not to try to replicate his success at Suez, because that would be considered overreaching for a country of Canada’s size. As Denis Stairs points out, Pearson knew the limits. You could have influence, on a good day, but you shouldn’t expect it everyday.” (Lester B. Pearson by Andrew Cohen)

30 Foreign Policy Effectively Contributed to Domestic Policies - Gave Canada more recognition in pursuing National identity - Strong role with the UN  Canada becoming a Middle Power - Suez crisis helped strengthen the foundation of our domestic policy through Internationnal involvement (economically, socially, politically) Foreign Policy Ineffectively Contributed to Domestic Policies - Criticize that he may be neglecting domestic affairs

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