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AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

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1 AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010
Roads to Revolution, AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

2 Triumph and Tensions: The British Empire, 1750-1763
CHIEF HENDRICK (THEYANOGUIN) OF THE MOHAWK IROQUOIS A longtime (but often critical) ally of the British, Hendrick led the Mohawk delegation to the Albany Congress. (Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University)

3 A Fragile Peace, George Washington sent to persuade French to leave Ohio Valley Forced to return home Mohawks angry at New Yorkers for encroaching on land Albany Plan of Union Proposed by Benjamin Franklin Rejected by all colonies who attended Reluctance to even establish a colonial postal service

4 Divided Colonies “Fire and water are no more heterogeneous than the different colonies in North America.” -an English traveler

5 “Everyone cries, a union is necessary,
but when they come to the manner and form of the union, their weak noodles are perfectly distracted.” -Benjamin Franklin


7 The Seven Years’ War in America, 1754-1760
Friction and conflict between New France and English colonies in the Ohio Valley English defeated at Fort Duquesne French threaten New York and New England Most Iroquois abandon French Fort Duquesne and Louisbourg captured French driven from NY, Quebec falls French resistance ends, Montreal falls

8 MAP 5.1 THE SEVEN YEARS’ WAR IN NORTH AMERICA, 1754–1760 After experiencing major defeats early in the war, Anglo-American forces turned the tide against the French in 1758 by taking Fort Duquesne and Louisbourg. After Canada fell in 1760, the fighting shifted to Spain’s Caribbean colonies. Map 5-1, p. 124

9 COL George Washington and a Virginia militiaman

10 Fort Necessity-old postcard


12 DESTRUCTION OF QUEBEC, 1759 After the fall of Quebec to British forces, France’s defeat in North America was virtually certain. (National Archives of Canada) Map 5-2, p. 125

13 The Death of Wolfe by Benjamin West,1770


15 The End of French North America, 1760-1763
France gives up all land east of Mississippi R., except New Orleans Spain cedes Florida to British Acadians ordered to swear loyalty or be removed Move to Louisiana (Cajuns)

16 MAP 5.2 EUROPEAN TERRITORIAL CLAIMS, 1763 The treaties of San Ildefonso (1762) and Paris (1763) divided France’s North American empire between Britain and Spain. Britain in 1763 established direct imperial authority west of the Proclamation Line. p. 125

17 Anglo-American Friction
Tension between British officers and colonial troops Quakers refused to fund war New York and Massachusetts oppose quartering troops Huge war financial burden-both British and colonists George III ascends to throne in 1760 Destabilized politics

GEORGE III, STUDIO OF A. RAMSAY, CA Although unsure of himself and emotionally little more than a boy upon his accession to the English throne, George III possessed a deep moral sense and a fierce determination to rule as well as to reign. (Allan Ramsay, Portrait of George III, oil on canvas, 97x63 inches. IMS33.21b Indianapolis Museum of Art, The James E. Roberts Fund) p. 126

19 Frontier Tensions Americans move across Appalachians
Pontiac’s War (1763) Proclamation of 1763 No English expansion west of Appalachian crest 10,000 British soldiers in former French forts

20 MAP 5.2 EUROPEAN TERRITORIAL CLAIMS, 1763 The treaties of San Ildefonso (1762) and Paris (1763) divided France’s North American empire between Britain and Spain. Britain in 1763 established direct imperial authority west of the Proclamation Line. p. 125


22 INDIAN-BRITISH DIPLOMACY IN THE OHIO COUNTRY, 1764 A brief truce during Pontiac’s War brought Indian and British leaders together to talk peace. Here a Native American speaker presents a wampum belt to his counterparts. (Library of Congress) p. 127

23 Imperial Authority, Colonial Opposition, 1760-1766

24 Writs of Assistance, Massachusetts governor authorizes seizure of illegal goods James Otis argues writs unconstitutional Challenge to Parliament’s authority “an act against the Constitution is void” Lost in Massachusetts Supreme Court

25 THOMAS HUTCHINSON As lieutenant governor and, later, governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson believed that social and political order under British authority must be maintained at all costs. (Thomas Hutchinson ( ) 1741 (oil on canvas), Truman, Edward/© Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, MA, USA,/The Bridgeman Art Library) p. 134

26 The Sugar Act, 1764 Amended the Molasses Act of 1733
Attempt to end smuggling and bribery Sought to raise revenue, external tax Ignored British rules for a fair trial Enforced vigorously by British Navy End of period of salutary neglect

27 “AN EAST PROSPECT OF THE CITY OF PHILADELPHIA” (1756) The Dock was located where the stream indicated on the right side of the map flows into the Delaware River. The engraving at the top illustrates Philadelphia’s dynamism as a port city at the time of the Seven Years’ War. (Library of Congress) p. 131

28 The Stamp Act Crisis, Special stamps required on almost all documents, newspapers, playing cards Internal tax designed to raise revenue Debate over representation “Virtual” vs. “direct” Strong opposition Patrick Henry Sons of Liberty Stamp Act Congress

29 The Repeal, or the Funeral of Miss Anne Stamp Benjamin Wilson March 18, 1766

30 “Trumpet of sedition” Young aristocrats in VA House of Burgesses
Patrick Henry Implies that King George III could lose his head “If this be treason, make the most of it.” “Virginia Resolves” Virginians should only pay taxes voted on by Virginia assembly Anyone supporting right of Parliament to tax is an enemy of Virginia

31 Colonial America Patrick Henry’s “Treason” Speech May 30, 1765
In the spring of 1765, the recently enacted Stamp Act was the prime topic of political conversation in the American colonies. In Virginia, the current session of the House of Burgesses was drawing to a close and many of the delegates had already headed for home. Patrick Henry, who had held his seat for only a matter of days, celebrated his twenty-ninth birthday on May 29 by offering a series of resolutions related to the current crisis. Much of what he proposed was familiar to his colleagues: American colonists had transported British rights to North America at the time of their immigration. Those rights had twice been confirmed in Virginia’s royal charters. The right to be taxed by representatives of one’s own choosing was one of the most fundamental British liberties. Henry, however, included an additional idea that raised many eyebrows and provided a direct challenge to Parliament’s authority: Only colonial assemblies had the right to impose taxes on their constituents and that right could not be assigned to any other body. On May 30, Henry gave his maiden speech in the assembly and defended his resolutions. He expanded the scope of his criticism to include not only Parliament, but the king as well. Speaking of George III, he stated that, “Caesar had his Brutus, Charles the First his Cromwell and George the Third — .” At that point he was interrupted by cries of “Treason!” from delegates who easily recognized the reference to assassinated leaders. Henry paused briefly, then calmly finished his sentence: “...may profit by their example. If this be treason, make the most of it.” Henry later apologized to the assembly and expressed his loyalty to the king. Nevertheless, the Resolves were adopted by a badly split House of Burgesses and over the next few weeks were circulated through the colonies in various newspapers. The fact that conservative politicians quickly expunged the final resolution from the record went largely unnoticed and Virginia and Henry were widely extolled for their defense of American rights.

32 Declaratory Act Stamp Act repealed
Parliament declares the power to legislate for colonies “in all cases whatsoever”

33 Ideology, Religion, and Resistance
John Locke “state of nature,” “natural rights,” “social contract” Right to overthrow government Resistance shows up in sermons “protect God-given liberty” Clergy exerts great influence

34 “Wilkes and Liberty,” 1768-1770 John Wilkes
MP Leader of pro-American forces in Parliament Arrest leads to conflict “massacre of St. George’s Fields” Edmund Burke and William Pitt also opposed British approach

35 JOHN WILKES, BY WILLIAM HOGARTH, 1763 Detesting Wilkes and all he stood for, Hogarth depicted the radical leader as menacing and untrustworthy. (William L. Clements Library. University of Michigan) p. 139

36 Women and Colonial Resistance
Boycotts of British goods Daughters of Liberty Denounced tax on tea Stopped drinking tea Found alternatives In spite of the fact that women were not allowed to take part in political life in the eighteenth century, they found ways of making themselves felt in public affairs.  At the time of the Stamp Act crisis, some young women who called themselves "Daughters of Liberty" announced that they would accept the attentions of only those young men who were willing to fight against the act "to the last extremity." During the no importation campaign (when colonists refused to buy British goods imported from England), women in organized groups worked with great zeal to provide for the colonies cloth and other articles which had formerly come from England.  Said one paper of the spinning they did, "That disagreeable noise made by the rattling of the footwheel was counted fine music." Women also invented all kinds of concoctions made from local plants to take the place of tea.  In at least one seaport they had their own tea party.  On October 24, 1774, fifty-one women in Edenton, North Carolina, signed a resolution in support of the provincial deputies of North Carolina who had pledged not to drink tea or to wear British cloth.  A huge teapot on the Edonton Green and a bronze tablet on the Chowan County Court House commemorate this act. Women in Newport, Rhode Island, announced their intention to do without luxuries imported from England and asked men to forego "their dearer and more beloved 'Punch,' and renounce going so often to Taverns." In another pursuit normally open only to men--political propaganda--one woman, Mercy Warren of Plymouth, performed with vigor.  She was the sister of James Otis, and she equaled him in brilliance if not opportunity to exercise her talents.  However, she did write many letters which were published in Boston newspapers.  She also wrote anti-Tory plays at a time when play writing was frowned on even for men in puritannical New England.  Later she wrote one of the first histories of the American Revolution.

37 MERCY OTIS WARREN, BY JOHN SINGLETON COPLEY, 1763 An essayist and playwright, Warren was the most prominent woman intellectual of the Revolutionary era. (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Bequest of Winslow Warren Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) p. 140

38 The Deepening Crisis,

39 The Boston Massacre, 1770 Bostonian resentment of British authority
British soldiers fire into crowd 5 colonists killed Crispus Attucks among killed John Adams serves as attorney for British soldiers All but 2 acquitted


41 The Committees of Correspondence, 1772-1773
Exchange information and coordinate activities to defend colonial rights First attempt to maintain close and continuing political cooperation Started by Samuel Adams Extended to Virginia Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Richard Henry Lee


43 Conflicts in the Backcountry
The Paxton Boys-1763 Protest colonial taxes Ask for help against Indians Regulator Movement-1771 Resistance to high taxes in Carolina upcountry Small-scale civil war

44 Benjamin Franklin and the Paxton Mob

45 The Tea Act, 1773 Eliminated duties on English tea
Help British East India Tea Company Would raise revenue Committees of correspondence protest, threaten tax collectors Samuel Adams and John Hancock ask form ship with tea to depart Boston Harbor Boston Tea Party

46 BOSTONIANS PAYING THE EXCISE (TAX) MAN In this engraving, a crowd protests the Tea Act by forcing a British tax collector to drink tea. (Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University) p. 143

47 In case you didn't know, around the time of the Boston Tea Party in the late 1700's, the colonies in the United States were still governed by Great Britain. Although the colonists didn't like this fact, they never put up much of a fuss. However, in 1765 the Stamp Act was put forth, along with the Townshend Acts in 1767. What these acts said was that Parliament (the legislative body of Great Britain at the time) would be allowed to tax the Americans, strictly to make more money from them. Considering they were never taxed before, this caused quite an uproar in the colonies. Because of this a man by the name of John Hancock, an American smuggler, ordered a boycott of tea. He told all the people in the colonies to stop buying tea sold from the British East India Company. This company at the time was the biggest monopoly in the entire world. If you don't think 1 or 2 men could put a big dent in a company of that size, think again. Sales in the colonies dropped from about 330,000 pounds to 520 pounds. Imagine having a business in which your sales to a particular country were cut in half - more than 9 times. This created much debt in the company, so Great Britain fought back and imposed the Tea Act on the colonies. This Tea Act made it possible for the East India Trading Company to sell directly to the colonies instead of through multiple dealers, which effectively ruined the careers of the smugglers in America such as Hancock. This left Americans even more furious because they thought it was just another attempt by Britain to undermine their supposed freedom. The Boston Party - The Ultimate Protest After many group meetings and protests, the Americans finally picked one infamous night to raid one of the ships coming in which was full of tea. On December 16, 1773, a group of people known as the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Mohawk Indians and boarded the ships which were full of tea. They hopped on board and carried each cask of tea and dumped it into the river. By the end of the night, over 90,000 pounds of tea were dumped into the river. It was estimated to be about a 10,000 pound loss in British money, but realize this was in That would be millions in today's money. After The Party After this happened, there were mixed reactions in the colonies. For example, Benjamin Franklin protested it and actually offered his own money to pay back what was lost. Boston Tea Party Documents More Acts and Documents were to follow as a result of the Famous Tea party! The British imposed more strict laws, such as the "Intolerable Acts" and the Americans continued to carry out acts of vengeance. The Americans also drank herbal infusions instead of real tea, but they couldn't hold off. It was just too good! The great thing about the Boston Tea Party is that it is believed to be the start of a series of events that lead to the American Revolution, which freed America from the rule of Britain. Without this historical event the USA might be British today instead of Americans!

48 Toward Independence,

49 Liberty for African Americans
Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation Attempt to undermine planter society Promote slave insurrection Offer for freedom if slaves joined British army or navy “Liberty to Slaves”

50 “LIST OF NEGROES THAT WENT OFF TO DUNMORE” (1775) Although Lord Dunmore invited only able-bodied men to fl ee their masters, this list shows that enslaved African-Americans of all ages and both genders sought freedom by responding to his proclamation. How many women signed up? (The Library of Virginia) p. 145

51 The “Intolerable Acts”
Four “Coercive Acts” Boston Port Bill Massachusetts Government Act Administration of Justice Act Quartering Act Quebec Act

52 The First Continental Congress
56 delegates to Philadelphia Suffolk Resolves Not bound by Coercive Acts Call for King to dismiss ministers responsible Defensive measures Call to boycott British goods Division in Congress

53 Delegates from all thirteen colonies met in 1774 in Philadelphia to discuss responses to increased British oppression. This convention, the First Continental Congress, formally declared that colonists should have the same rights as Englishmen; they also agreed to form the Continental Association, which called for the suspension of trade with Great Britain. The mural depicts an oration by Patrick Henry in Carpenters' Hall.

54 From Resistance to Rebellion
Resistance strengthened Battle at Lexington and Concord Minutemen fight British 20,000 New Englanders besiege British in Boston Second Continental Congress Sends Olive Branch Petition to King Establishes Continental Army under George Washington

55 Continental Congress Appointing George Washington Commander and Chief

56 Common Sense Thomas Paine writes pamphlet
King was “royal brute” New kind of nation without king Republican principles “a landflood that sweeps all before it” Dissolved lingering allegiance to king, removing last barrier to independence

57 Sold more than 100,000 copies in first few mos. (8 million today)

58 Declaring Independence
Reconciliation unlikely Committee of 5 John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson King’s “direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states” “pursuit of happiness” in place of property Framed in universal terms



61 AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010
Roads to Revolution, AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Fall 2010

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