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GEOG 240 Topic 8 - Resource Development & Environment in Asia Francis Yee Camosun College.

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Presentation on theme: "GEOG 240 Topic 8 - Resource Development & Environment in Asia Francis Yee Camosun College."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOG 240 Topic 8 - Resource Development & Environment in Asia Francis Yee Camosun College

2 Outline I.Natural Resources II.Energy Development III.Environmental Future IV.Resource and Industrial Development in Japan

3 A What are Natural Resources? “bio-physical environment which humans value & benefit from” What are the natural resources available for these villagers? Village on the Mekong River in Myanmar (Photo by F. Yee, 2005)

4 Reserves the portion of resources that are geologically identified, technological feasible, economic viable, and socially acceptable.

5 B. Characteristics: Types of Resources Renewable Resource – can regenerate after being used (up to its sustainable limit) e.g. forestry, fishery Non-renewable Resource – no longer available after it’s depleted, e.g. minerals Grassland in Tibet (photo by F. Yee, 2006) Grasslands: a renewable or non-renewable resource?

6 2. Ownership and sustainability  Ownership – private, public, or communal  Carrying capacity - sustain # of people per unit of land varied according to resource endowment and technology  Sustainability - pessimistic Vs. optimistic views on the sustainability of resources

7 3.. Resource Endowment in Asia Population density: 1.5 times > global average Fresh water availability: lowest amongst all regions Per capita biologically productive area: 60% of global average Per Capita arable land: 80% of global average Energy Resource: small global share

8 4. Rising Consumption of Materials 60% of world total and grew at 6% p.a. (1% p.a. in the rest of the world) Materials included biomass, fossil fuels, metal ores, industrial and construction minerals

9 II. Energy – production & consumption A.Types of Energy Sources B.Reserves C.Production D.Consumption

10 A. Types of Energy Sources Energy Sources Non-renewableRenewable Fossil FuelsNuclear Solid Liquid Gaseous WindSolarHydroGeothermal

11 B. Energy Reserves in Asia Pacific – small share of world reserves

12 Oil Reserves: small world share (China & SE Asia dominated)

13 Coal Reserves (122 billion tons): China has the lion’s share

14 C. Primary Energy Production: <1/4 of world

15 2. Energy Production Growth in Asia: higher than world average

16 3. Primary Energy Production by Fuel Types – large share in solid fuels but low in liquid or gaseous fuels as compared to the world average

17 4. Energy Types in Sub-Regions: dominated by solid fuels in E. Asia but more diversified in SE Asia

18 5. Nuclear energy – 112 nuclear reactors (+37 in construction) in Asia-Pacific producing 1/5 of world production

19 D. Energy Consumption in Asia: small share of world

20 2. Per Capita Energy Consumption: ¼ of the level in core countries

21 3. Energy Consumption Growth Rate: higher than world average

22 China’s Energy & Economy: growth rates of energy use now outruns economic growth

23 5. Self-Sufficiency: large variations in Asia with both energy surplus (produced more than consumed) and energy deficient (consumed more than produced) countries

24 III. Environmental Future A.Resource Depletion B.Ecological Footprint C.Pollution and Climate Change D.Energy Policy E.Public Awareness

25 A. Resource Depletion: short life span for fossil fuels

26 B. Per Capita Ecological Footprints (human’s impact on the environment) and Biological Capacity (the extent the environment can sustain human activities): Asia as a whole is already living beyond its limits. Ecological Footrprints Biological Capacity Deficits/Su rpluses World2.22-0.2 Asia1.51.0-0.5 Japan4.21-2.2 China1.61-0.6 Indonesia110 Mongolia2.510.58

27 C. Pollution and Climate Change rapid growth of pollutants and greenhouse gases due to growth of population, industrial expansion, and increase in automobiles Increasing use of private automobiles led to rapid rise of pollutants in Beijing and other major cities in Asia (photo by F. Yee, 2007)

28 4. GHG Mitigating Strategies China: -40% to -45% of 2005 emissions Indonesia: -26% of emissions by 2020 (peatland management, reduced deforestation and degradation) South Korea: -30% of GHG emissions by 2020 Singapore: -16% of GHG emissions by 2020 (mitigation and energy efficiency measures) (UNESCAP)

29 E. Energy Policy : capital investment and technological improvement Increase energy efficiency Increase in the use of alternative and renewable energy Renewable energy targets: ▫China: 15% of primary energy by 2020 ▫Japan: 3% of total energy consumption by 2010 ▫S. Korea: 5% of total primary energy by 2011

30 F. Public Awareness initiated in various Asian countries

31 IV. A. Resource Development in Japan Limited Resources: Very limited reserves in fossil fuel except coal Import dependency: highly dependent on imports with >80% of energy imported Fossil Fuel Imports: world’s largest importer of gas, 2 nd largest importer of coal, and 3 rd largest importer of oil Energy consumption: a diversification plan to shift its heavy reliance on oil (>2/3 of its electricity ) since the 1970s Nuclear energy: rapid expansion after oil crisis and provided about 30% of electricity in 2010 and expected to increase to 40% by 2017

32 Energy Consumption Structure in Japan: continued to be dominated by fossil fuels but a gradual shift towards the use of nuclear energy while renewable energy7 are also encouraged

33 Electricity Production in Japan: increasing emphasis on nuclear as a major source of generating electricity

34 Nuclear Energy Crisis safety Vs. energy security

35 Post-2011 Energy Policies All 50 nuclear powers were shut down An immediate shift towards heavily on the use of gas and oil for electricity generation Energy and Environment Council in Sep 2012 recommended the phase out of nuclear power by 2040, reactors will be allowed to restart but subject to 40 year operating limit

36 Japan’s Power Sources – a shift from nuclear (30%) to gas and oil (90%) after 2011 earthquake

37 Rapid Industrialization in Japan  Recovery and Rebuilding (1950s): industrial development supported by American infusion of capital  Oil crisis impact (1970s): slowed down industrial production as Japan imported 70% of its energy, hydro and nuclear powers were favoured while coal mining was subsidized  Industrial restructuring: decline of heavy industries (steel, chemicals) and diversified to light industries such as electronics began

38 Deindustrialization in Japan Hollowed out: increasing Japanese FDI abroad in the late 1980s, relocating automobile production to core countries and labour intensive assembly plants in peripheral countries to reduce costs of production Automobile production: rapid growth in the 1970s-1990s but relocation of production facilities since late 1980s; e.g. production of Toyota in Japan dropped from 62% in 2002 to 40% A Japanese industrial corporation in Batam, Indonesia (Photo by F. Yee, 2007)

39 High-tech Industry and Technopolis High tech Industry: production of knowledge intensive industries such as microelectronics, semiconductors, integrated circuits are emphasized Technopolis: a plan to develop 26 technopolis to foster integrated network of cities to conduct research and development throughout Japan, e.g. Kansai Science City (including five cities and three town sin the Kyoto-Osaka-Nara prefectures)


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