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The Political Spectrum Political ideologies and their identifying characteristics.

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Presentation on theme: "The Political Spectrum Political ideologies and their identifying characteristics."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Political Spectrum Political ideologies and their identifying characteristics.

2 The political spectrum is defined as…  a broad range of varied but related ideas about how to organize society. Sometimes, the individual features of these ideas overlap, and from this form a continuous series or sequence. In other words, the political spectrum is arguably circular, not linear.

3 To put it simply…  The political spectrum is a line that shows where each person or party’s political beliefs fall.  However, much like with a spectrum of colours, at either extreme of that line, the differences between ideologies can sometimes seem to blur into each other.

4 Communism  system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state. Basically, as a citizen of the country, you are the state, the state is all its citizens. Social classes disappear when all citizens are economic and political equals. Nobody owns anything, everybody owns everything.organizationcommunity

5 Communism, Part 2  A Communist believes: All property should be owned by the country, not by individuals. Revolution is often necessary to make this change. In order to make the country run, people would contribute their labour and the state would provide for their needs. The economy should be centrally planned to serve everyone.

6 Communism, Part 3  Communist leaders and thinkers include:  Karl Marx  V.I. Lenin  Josef Stalin  Mao Tse-Tung  Fidel Castro  Che Guevara

7 Socialism  A theory or system of social organization that advocatessocial organization  1- co-operative ownership of industry  2- control of the means of production and distributioncontrol  3- the shared ownership of capital (money, and other possessions used to make more money), land, etc.  4- sharing all the profits and benefits with the community as a

8 Socialism, Part 2  A Socialist believes: Government should be based on the idea of the shared ownership of capital and land, and that the benefits that come from it should be used to better the wealth and general welfare of all of the people. Some socialist thinkers have argued that there is no need for democracy anymore once a country starts using this system. The economy should be planned or heavily regulated to meet the needs of the citizens.

9 Socialism, Part 3  Note: Some political scientists believe Socialism is a transition step from Capitalism to Communism.  Socialist thinkers and leaders include:  Hugo Chavez  Francois Hollande  Jean-Jacques Rousseau  Michael Harrington  Jack Layton

10 Liberalism  a political or social philosophy advocating  1- the freedom of the individual  2- parliamentary or representative systems of government  3- to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, or limit gov’t power.  4- governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.

11 Liberalism, Part 2  A Liberal believes: Government should be based on the idea that the individual should have protected rights (such as property rights, the right to due process under the law, and the right to vote), and also enjoy civil liberties (like free speech) that will not restrict his or her potential to get ahead at work or in life. The market should be free to work, with some regulations to lessen its most painful effects on citizens.

12 Liberalism, Part 3  Some liberal thinkers and leaders include:  Barack Obama  Pierre Trudeau  John F. Kennedy  Thomas Hobbes and John Locke  Adam Smith

13 Conservatism  a political philosophy advocating 1- the preservation of the established order in society,  2- a general preference for the rights of the individual to override any other legal right,  3- returning to or protecting traditions and established ways of organizing society  4- opposing radical change.

14 Conservatism, Part 2  A Conservative believes: Government should be based on the idea that the individual is responsible for him or herself, and that government should be involved in the lives of its citizens as little as possible as long as they don’t break the law. Also that we should keep traditions, and hold on to the past to help guide our future. If change is needed, it should be done as slowly as possible, to keep order in society. The free market should determine the way the economy works.

15 Conservatism, Part 3  Some conservative thinkers and leaders include:  Stephen Harper  Sir John A MacDonald  David Cameron  George W. Bush  Aristotle  Edmund Burke

16 Fascism  a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power over the country, using the military and police to forcibly suppress opposition and criticism. Also heavily regulating of all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism, and often racism.commerce

17 Fascism, Part 2  A Fascist believes: Government must have total control, and use the military to enforce it. There should be no distinction between civilian government and military control. The government should promote strong loyalty to the country, even to the extent of promoting the idea of racial or ethnic superiority. Private industry should be heavily regimented to serve the needs of the state.

18 Fascism, Part 3  Some fascist leaders and thinkers include:  Adolf Hitler  Benito Mussolini  Francisco Franco  Saddam Hussein  Augusto Pinochet

19 Five key ideologies to remember  The five key ideologies you should know, with an acronym that can help you remember their order. Starting from left to right on the political spectrum.  Creative/Competitive (Communism) Students (Socialism) Learn (Liberalism) Content (Conservatism) Faster (Fascism)

20 The Political Spectrum in Canada

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