Presentation on theme: "PROVINCIAL POLICE Ex. OPP & Surete du Quebec ABORIGINAL POLICE Used in conjunction with other forces to preserve culture. FEDERAL POLICE RCMP – all provinces."— Presentation transcript:
PROVINCIAL POLICE Ex. OPP & Surete du Quebec ABORIGINAL POLICE Used in conjunction with other forces to preserve culture. FEDERAL POLICE RCMP – all provinces except Ont., Que., & Nfld. MUNICIPAL POLICE Ex. Gang Crime Unit, Robbery Squad, Homocide, Most expensive component of criminal justice; $10 billion / yr.
RCMP PERCEPTIONS xxx
xx 3. OFFICERS ROLE AT A SCENE Four types of officers: A. Police Officer (“Beat ” – area he checks regularily) - usually 1 st on scene. Secure => Protect (Yellow Tape) =>interview/arrest B. Scene Of Crime Officer – Evidence collection ( photos, prints, tires, blood) - tend to be less serious offences (B & E, thefts) C. Criminal Identification Officer - More serious evidence (DNA, labwork) D. Criminal Investigations Bureau Officer – plainclothes detective. Specialized (homicide, robbery, sex offences) Training = interviews etc. 2. PROTECT & PRESERVE THE SCENE Establish the boundaries: a. The Center – Where the act took place. b. The Perimeter- Surrounding area; evidence?? Ensure no evidence is contaminated. Admissible??? Police Log – A written record of everything witnessed; testify in court 1.ARRIVING AT THE CRIME SCENE Three Tasks: a. Assist the injured / Ambulance b. Call assistance to eliminate any further harm (Ex. Bombs) c. Search scene => assume suspects are present & armed. place.
FORENSIC SCIENCE – Science used to analyze the evidence IMPORTANCE – The crown must prove the accused was at the scene.
Six Delivery Sites Vancouver Edmonton Regina WinnipegOttawaHalifax DNA analysis took 101 days to complete at the end of 1999 (Vancouver and Ottawa labs averaged 171 days) The RCMP had developed a two-tier priority system with turnaround targets of 15 days for urgent requests and 30 days for routine ones
ProcessCost $ Pre-trial prison costs800 thousand Trial support and operations6.6 million Victim Services2.5 million RCMP Investigation (BC cost)70 million RCMP Investigation (Fed cost)30 million Defence12 million Crown Attorney9 million Other1 million Total 132 million (approx.)
TOOLS – Used in the Commission of a crime. SHOE/TIRE PRINTS DNA CAUTION – Not the be-all-end-all PHYSICAL EVIDENCE Tangibles used to prove facts relating to the case. Most important type of evidence; greater than witness testimony GLOVES Not Fool-proof x FINGERPRINTS LATENT F-PRINTS INVISIBLE TO EYE FUMING Height, weight, direction, vehicle etc. IMPRESSIONS
Firearms Serial number restoration Range determination Ballistics identification Rifling marks on bullet Firing pin impressions and ejection markings on casing
The Arch The Tented ArchThe Loop The Whorl The Central Pocket Whorl The Accidental Whorl
1. Wipe your window clean 2. Choose one person to leave ten identical prints 3. Everyone in the group will make an ink print on the same card and label it A, B, C, etc. (on the back of the card, record the exhibit number of the person completing step 2) 4. Each group member will lift a print and analyze it.
Chain of custody must not be broken. It must show: 1. Who had contact with evidence. 2. Date & times handled. 3. Circumstances handled. 4. Any changes made to evidence. x EVIDENCE PACKAGE 1. Description of item. 2. Police case number 3. Date. 4. Location. 5. Brand Names (if possible) 6. Serial #s 7. Name & Badge of police officer. 8. Destination info. x
"I am arresting you for (charge). It is my duty to inform you that you have the right to retain and instruct counsel without delay. You may call any lawyer you want. There is a 24-hour telephone service available which provides a legal aid duty lawyer who can give you legal advice in private. This advice is given without charge and the lawyer can explain the legal aid plan to you. If you wish to contact a legal aid duty lawyer, I can provide you with a telephone number. Do you understand? Do you want to call a lawyer? You are not obliged to say anything, but anything you do say may be given in evidence." QUESTIONING THE ACCUSED Sec. 7 of Charter “right to remain silent. ” Note – Young people = Youth Criminal Justice Act
DETENTION - taking away ones liberty for the purpose of asking questions; with or without physical restraint. - must inform of reasons detained & right to counsel. Police will start criminal cases by either arresting or detaining the suspect. ARREST – taking away ones liberty by taking him/her into custody. Must have reasonable grounds. Four steps of a lawful arrest: 1. Identify as a police officer. 2. Inform suspect he/she is under arrest 3. Inform accused of charge (& warrant if obtained) 4. Touch the accused = legal custody. Once in custody => rights to counsel. What if something is missed?????
ARREST WITHOUT WARRANT Three grounds for arrest without a warrant: 1. reason to believe accused committed or is about to commit an indictable offence. 2. In the act of committing a criminal offence. 3. Find a person with an arrest warrant ARREST WITH WARRANT Summons is produced for Indictable offences & orders accused to appear in court. Delivered by sheriff. Failure to appear = bench warrant. Arrest warrant is produced for accused who are dangerous or flight risks. Information – statement under oath giving details of crime. Used to get arrest warrants. APPERANCE NOTICE A legal document for less serious offences forcing the accused to court. If fails to appear = bench a warrant. Now = two charges; the original and failure to appear. (likely to stay in jail???)
Section 494 of the Criminal Code of Canada Arrest without warrant by any person (1) Any one may arrest without warrant (a) a person whom he finds committing an indictable offence; or (b) a person who, on reasonable grounds, he believes (i) has committed a criminal offence, and (ii) is escaping from and freshly pursued by persons who have lawful authority to arrest that person. Arrest by owner, etc., of property (2) Any one who is (a) the owner or a person in lawful possession of property, or (b) a person authorized by the owner or by a person in lawful possession of property, may arrest without warrant a person whom he finds committing a criminal offence on or in relation to that property. Delivery to peace officer (3) Any one other than a peace officer who arrests a person without warrant shall forthwith deliver the person to a peace officer. Shoplifting – Most common form. R. v. Asante-Mensah – p. 216
SEARCHING A PERSON The police do not need a warrant to search a person they have just arrested. CONDITIONS A.Arrest must be lawful. B.Search = connected to arrest. C.Must be reasonable. Evidence samples may be taken for serious cases and DUI charges. “ Pat-downs “ at scene & strip the station. x x Goal is to balance the right to privacy with the fundamentals of justice. R. v. Mann – p. 205 R. v. Buhay – p. 207
SEARCHING A PLACE Residences, offices, homes, & lockers (bus / not school) need a search warrant. Search warrants = specific location, properly completed, a sworn information (with all specifics). Conducting a Search – must follow “specifics,” id themselves, present warrant, can seize all items in warrant & anything in plain view related to case. Telewarrant – warrant over phone. Evidence – trial items kept in police custody (anything else return is 3 mo.s). Police can enter home without warrant if : 1. injury or death possible 2. destruction of evidence Controlled Drugs & Substance Act Allows for searches anywhere but home without a warrant. Police can search vehicles for illegal alcohol or suspect crime. Homes need a warrant. Goal is to balance the right to privacy with the fundamentals of justice. R. v. Patrick – p. 216 R. v. Golden – p. 217
x LINE-UPS Rarely used. If accused agrees. xx If acquitted info usually kept for 10 yrs.
RECOGNIZANCE A guarantee the accused will show in court. Can be fined up to $500 and may involve a surety ( a person who agrees to pay if a no-show) BAIL The temporary release of an accused who posts $ for security. Bail hearing within 24 hrs. Show-cause Hearing – Crown or accused convinces judge of yes or no to bail. Cause = flight, risk, or just cause. Reverse Onus – Usually crown has to prove cause. Exceptions – Murder, Indictable while on bail, breach of bail conditions, serious drug charges, serious gun charges. Habeu Corpus – May be used as a defence to no bail. Success Rates?? PROMISE TO APPEAR Accused signs document stating he will appear at trial. Bench warrant if = no-show.
Arrest & not released by police with Promise to Appear First Appearance in Court (arraignment – read charges and enter plea) Released while awaiting trial OR release denied Disclosur e of evidence Plea negotiatio nOR wait for trial