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CH. 6 BC TO 1896 Canada 1871. THE OREGON TERRITORY The HBC saw the Oregon area as HBC land. HBC wanted pelts NOT settlement. 49th Parallel divided the.

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Presentation on theme: "CH. 6 BC TO 1896 Canada 1871. THE OREGON TERRITORY The HBC saw the Oregon area as HBC land. HBC wanted pelts NOT settlement. 49th Parallel divided the."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH. 6 BC TO 1896 Canada 1871

2 THE OREGON TERRITORY The HBC saw the Oregon area as HBC land. HBC wanted pelts NOT settlement. 49th Parallel divided the US from BNA. This ended at the Rockies. Russia was the first to Use and lay claim to the West Coast for seal Pelts. Gave up this right for food supply and the Brt. established their floating fort called “The Beaver” The US felt they had claim to all the west Coast and wanted to expand western settlement. “MANIFEST DESTINY” POLK’s - 54’40” or Fight ”

3 THE OREGON TERRITORY George Simpson ran HBC. Established Ft. Vancouver & Ft. Langley to establish Brt. Presence in the area for fur Trade. John McLoughlin was hired to run Brt. Fur trade. He was known for his fairness, poor appearance, business savvy, strong presence, and did not get along with Simpson. (Promoted American dev’t south of the Columbia R., wanted to expand forts, and felt his sons murder not dealt with). George Simpson (HBC) John McLoughlin

4 THE COLONY OF VANCOUVER The Colony of Vancouver was established to give a greater British presence. James Douglas was governor. Brt. Wanted English class system (land owners/servants). Douglas wanted settlers to keep US out. Economy - Mining, Navy & ex-HBC employees. Legislative Assembly established to battle the British landed gentry (upper class) The Colony of Vancouver was established to give a greater British presence. James Douglas was governor. Brt. Wanted English class system (land owners/servants). Douglas wanted settlers to keep US out. Economy - Mining, Navy & ex-HBC employees. Legislative Assembly established to battle the British landed gentry (upper class) Polk did not want to fight & 49th parallel was established through B.C. JAMES POLK (U.S.A.) JAMES DOUGLAS (Governor of Van.) Vancouver

5 THE CARIBOO GOLD RUSH Gold discovered on the Thompson started a mass rush to the Cariboo. Miners left- over from the 1848 California rush flocked to the Cariboo. Thompson R. gold 1857 Victoria went from 1500 to 20, 000 over-night. Afraid of American expansion Douglas Became the governor of the Colony of B.C. The Cariboo Road was built to gain access to the rapidly growing Barkerville. Largest center North of San Fransico & West of Chicago. Cariboo Road Barkerville Victoria TO DO p. 219 #1-5

6 THE COLONY OF B.C. During the Gold Rush more than prospectors came to B.C. Very few became rich and many left when the gold ran out. RESULTS - huge financial losses. - could not regain $ spent on Cariboo Road. - Van. Is. Debt = $ B.C. debt = $ both colonies ran out of credit and a union was proposed the colonies joined and B.C. was formed. NOTE - The union did not solve the $$$$ problems. B.C. Colonial $

7 THE CREATION OF B.C. B.C. = AUTOCRATIC RULE ( ) James Douglas was in total control. No elected legislative assembly. Leg. & Executive councils were appointed by Douglas. In 1856, Douglas was ordered to create a seven-member legislative assembly > the wealthy would have a say. No enforcement so Douglas often ignored it. CHANGES IN POPULATION Smallpox epidemic – brought by San Francisco miner First Nations hit hardest. Immigration – Gold Rush brought people. End of Gold Rush = Lack of people = debt (no taxes) The colonies looked for a way to survive. B.C. = AUTOCRATIC RULE ( ) James Douglas was in total control. No elected legislative assembly. Leg. & Executive councils were appointed by Douglas. In 1856, Douglas was ordered to create a seven-member legislative assembly > the wealthy would have a say. No enforcement so Douglas often ignored it. CHANGES IN POPULATION Smallpox epidemic – brought by San Francisco miner First Nations hit hardest. Immigration – Gold Rush brought people. End of Gold Rush = Lack of people = debt (no taxes) The colonies looked for a way to survive. B.C. Leg. building built in Today 85 MLAs & one Lt. Gov. MLAs represent constituencies. TO DO P.223 # 1 & 2

8 CONFEDERATION DEBATE THREE FACTIONS 1)OPPOSED CONFEDERATION. - Can. Would only think of the East. 2) SUPPORTED CONFEDERATION. - mainland representatives. -Can. Pays B.C.debt. - RR. 3)US ANNEXATIONISTS - B.C. needed a larger market to succeed. - Can. was too far to help. - immigration from US more likely than East Ca n. THREE FACTIONS 1)OPPOSED CONFEDERATION. - Can. Would only think of the East. 2) SUPPORTED CONFEDERATION. - mainland representatives. -Can. Pays B.C.debt. - RR. 3)US ANNEXATIONISTS - B.C. needed a larger market to succeed. - Can. was too far to help. - immigration from US more likely than East Ca n.

9 THE CONFEDERATION OF B.C. Governor Seymour died and Anthony Musgrave was appointed Governor and being a personal friend of J.A.Macdonald he also pushed for a “Sea to Sea” nation. (Promised an elected Legislature if joined Canada) The anti-confederationists could not gain support in the US, and on July 20, 1871, B.C. became a province of Can. Anthony Musgrave (Friend of Macdonald)

10 THE RAILWAY SURVEY 1.Island Politicians - Through interior ->N. Island -> south down the Island 2. Mainland Politicians - Down Fraser Canyon to Burrard Inlet. 3.Sanford Flemming (Chief Surveyor) Yellowhead Pass -> Fraser Canyon -> Burrard Inlet. 4.Marcus Smith (Flemming’s Deputy) Pine Pass -> west along Skeena R. 1.Island Politicians - Through interior ->N. Island -> south down the Island 2. Mainland Politicians - Down Fraser Canyon to Burrard Inlet. 3.Sanford Flemming (Chief Surveyor) Yellowhead Pass -> Fraser Canyon -> Burrard Inlet. 4.Marcus Smith (Flemming’s Deputy) Pine Pass -> west along Skeena R. PROPOSED RAILWAY ROUTES Pine Pass Yellowhead Pass ****Kicking Horse Pass Crowsnest Pass

11 THE EMERGENCE OF VANCOUVER BURRARD INLET - Originally discouraged settlement. - not on a major river. - thick forest cover. - no gold rush history. STANLEY PARK - Initially set aside as military reserve. NEW WESTMINSTER - Gold rush gateway - Fraser R. froze in winter. - later cut trails to Burrard Inlet. PORT MOODY - original site for CPR terminus. - shallow tidal flats made Van Horne change location to Vancouver (Gastown). Land speculators were mad. In 1886, fire burned the new city of Van. By 1890, it was rebuilt and had a population of over Gastown Gassy Jack

12 THE OPPENHEIMERS Jewish immigrants from Germany. Set up trading firm in B.C. gold rush. Fire ruined but rebuilt. Land investments in Gastown. $ invested with CPR. David became mayor of Vancouver “Father of Vancouver.” Laid water & sewage pipes in Van. Lobbied for Cariboo Road. Bankrolled needed services. Funded first electric streetcar. Donated land for schools & parks. Jewish immigrants from Germany. Set up trading firm in B.C. gold rush. Fire ruined but rebuilt. Land investments in Gastown. $ invested with CPR. David became mayor of Vancouver “Father of Vancouver.” Laid water & sewage pipes in Van. Lobbied for Cariboo Road. Bankrolled needed services. Funded first electric streetcar. Donated land for schools & parks. David Oppenheimer THE OPPENHEIMERS

13 THE CHINESE IN B.C. Originally came with Gold Rush. Faced discrimination - dress, language,religion, & customs. Racism forced men to resort to “lower jobs”. Reworked older claims > of 2000 miners, 1500 = Chinese. General stores, restaurants, veggie farms, laundry, etc. Sub-contracted for less pay. Knights of Labour - lobbied to have Chinese removed. Violence, intimidation, & boycotts. Originally came with Gold Rush. Faced discrimination - dress, language,religion, & customs. Racism forced men to resort to “lower jobs”. Reworked older claims > of 2000 miners, 1500 = Chinese. General stores, restaurants, veggie farms, laundry, etc. Sub-contracted for less pay. Knights of Labour - lobbied to have Chinese removed. Violence, intimidation, & boycotts.

14 THE CHINESE & THE CPR CPR short of labourers > Chinese workers brought in. “Expendable”- 600 died in 4 yrs. $1/day - less than 1/2 of the white workers. Lived in separate camps. After RR complete. gov’t imposed a $50 head tax. Couldn’t afford to go back to China -> settled in Van. CPR short of labourers > Chinese workers brought in. “Expendable”- 600 died in 4 yrs. $1/day - less than 1/2 of the white workers. Lived in separate camps. After RR complete. gov’t imposed a $50 head tax. Couldn’t afford to go back to China -> settled in Van. TO DO P. 238 #1 & 4

15 ECONOMIC DIVERSITY IN B.C. Mining - gold, silver, copper, zinc, coal, iron, etc. Tourism - Banff - Rockies Cities - Street Cars, Goods & Services Farming - Orchards, Cattle, Wheat. Smelting Do p.230 #5


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