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Grade 8. -Population in 1861 was approx. 3.2 million -Most of British decent in Canada Westt and the Maritimes.

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Presentation on theme: "Grade 8. -Population in 1861 was approx. 3.2 million -Most of British decent in Canada Westt and the Maritimes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grade 8

2 -Population in 1861 was approx. 3.2 million -Most of British decent in Canada Westt and the Maritimes

3 -In the Prairies, First Nations people and the Metis were the largest groups -In B.C, the largest groups were people of British and American origin who had been attracted by a series of gold rushes

4 * Mass migration of people from Europe in the 1830s and 1840s. * Poverty and food shortages drove people to a new life in the new world * Emigrate: Leave one’s country to settle somewhere else

5 * People from the Ireland, Netherlands and Germany settled in BNA * Irish arrive because of the potato famine * About American slaves escaped to Canada West and Nova Scotia

6 * Population unknown for First Nations people living in the colonies at this time * The census of 1871 records FN people in ON, QC, NB, NS * Often lived on the fringes of settlement * Once valued by the British and Hudson’s Bay Company (fighting Americans, fur trade decline)

7 -Roles were often organized by gender -Women were responsible for most domestic chores (making clothes, cooking, cleaning) -Men did most of the outside tasks (farming, cutting wood) -When necessary, everyone was expected to help with heavy agricultural jobs, like clearing rocks to create farm fields

8 Children - by age five, expected to do chores - Girls learned to spin, knit, sew, cook, work in the garden, milk the cows, and care for the younger children - young boys helped with feeding livestock and gathering firewood. - Older boys would clear fields, build fences, and harvest crops. - From about 14 years of age, boys were expected to work a full day in the fields - Girls of that age were expected to be able to do any domestic job in the home

9 * No electricity * No heat * No air conditioning * If you plug it in, you didn’t have it * No toilets * No shower * No running water

10 * Heat came from wood stove - Had to cut and haul wood daily * Wood stove also used for heating water and cooking * Light came from lamps and candles -Went to bed early with daylight * Had to gather water from outdoor hand pumps * Used basins for washing * Used outhouse or chamber pot for toilet

11 * In the 1850s most kids stayed home to work * In Canada West in the 1840s some schools were opened - Very few children attended * Religious organizations offered schooling but charged money -Most people could not afford it * Public school made available in the late 1800s

12 * No television, internet, radio * Newspapers popular * People wrote letters * Visited with family and friends * People attended church regularly -Was a relief from the hard work of daily life and a good time to socialize

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15 Social Characteristics * Canada East was mainly French-speaking and Roman Catholic * Canada West was mainly English-speaking and Protestant * Communities of people of African descent, in Nova Scotia and Canada West * First Nations people lived apart from European settlers * Distinct class divisions * Constant movement-people constantly trying to improve their quality of life

16 * Crown appointed the governor * Governor usually British nobility * Governor appointed the members of the legislative council and executive council

17 Executive council decided what bills were introduced to the legislature A bill needed to be approved by the legislative assembly, legislative council and the governor to become law

18 Male property owners Elected members of the legislative assembly

19 * Canada East and Canada West had same amount of seats * Sometimes caused political deadlock * Two sides fought about best way to solve problems

20 * A situation where progress cannot be made because the parties involved do not agree * Two main issues 1. Transportation- Canada West wanted to expand o Would increase trade and wealth o Spend government money 2. Canada East wanted to stay the same o Would threaten identity o Resisted spending government money

21 * Canada West wanted representation by population * Canada East wanted to retain equal representation

22 * 2 colonies- NS, PEI * Nova Scotia was divided into three colonies including New Brunswick, Cape Breton Island * In the 1850s wanted to rejoin New Brunswick and Nova Scotia * Britain wanted one government for one colony o Less expensive o Greater influence

23 * Newfoundland * Sea crossing very difficult so seemed very distant * Watched the Maritime movement with interest * British Columbia * British Columbia and Vancouver’s Island united in 1866 * Traditional British government system * American influence * There for gold rush * Thought it should join America * Rest of colonies too far away

24 Industrialization * British North America became industrialized * Industrialize: develop industries, especially manufacturing industries * Spread was affected by geography, transportation and population * Factories built in urban area

25 Canada East * Industry flourished first in Montreal in 1840s -Most industrialized city for next 100 years * Expanded into Montreal suburbs by 1850s * Used St. Lawrence River -Turned water into steam

26 Workers * Poor * Uneducated * Low wages * Recent immigrants * Lots of women and children -Paid less than men

27 Canada West * Industry in 1870s * Textiles and metalwork * Caught up to Canada East by 1880s

28 Maritimes * Shipbuilding important * Fishing * Overseas trade * Skilled workers * Carpenters, sail makers * Farming and logging * Lower population than the Canadas

29 The West * Few industries until late 1800s * Fur trade in Prairies * Settlers banned * HBC did not want fur trade disrupted * Forestry and shipping in BC

30 Intercolonial Trade * Limited – Lack of efficient transportation systems – Tariffs * Taxes imposed on goods * Used to protect colonies own goods Some politicians wanted to boost it

31 External Trade to Britain BNA shipped wood, agricultural goods and other raw products to Britain – Free of tariffs American goods had tariffs – BNA goods cheaper with no tariffs Colonial Preference * Giving favoured treatment to colonial trade * Created healthy trade between Britain and BNA

32 Corn Laws -British laws that governed the import and export of grain -Repealed in 1846 Free Trade ­ Trade without duties or tariffs ­ Britain changed to this in 1850s ­ All imported goods free of tariffs BNA Loses Advantage ­ No longer had price advantage ­ American producers got larger share of market ­ BNA sales decline

33 External Trade to United States Signed Reciprocity Treaty in 1854 – Mutual reduction of tariffs – Allowed free trade of natural products – Growth in trade United States Backs Out 1865: United States announces it will end treaty – Thought BNA was benefiting more – Disliked tariffs for manufactured imports – Britain supported the South during the Civil War External Trade Problem Decline in sales to Britain Decline in sales to United States

34 Internal Trade Business leaders and politicians thought they could replace sales internally – Expand intercolonial trade – Selling goods in distant colonies appealed to colonies – Needed good railway systems Obstacle: different governments in each colony – Begin to think about uniting colonies

35 Problems with the Existing Transportation System Mainly canals, lakes, rivers and railways Some roads- poor quality, covered in snow during winter and mud in spring Canals and railways Not designed for internal trade Needed system to transport goods among colonies

36 Difficulties * Grand Trunk Railway * Linked Montreal to Toronto * Struggling financially * Not enough traffic between Canadas Railway Expansion * Wanted to expand Intercolonial Railway westward * Thought this would increase traffic on Grand Trunk * Could sell Nova Scotia products in Canada West * Could sell Canada West products in Nova Scotia

37 Loan * To finish the railway money was needed * Banks unwilling to lend money -Not sure if they would be repaid * One bank said it would only lend the money if the colonies united Manufacturers in Canada * Supported the Intercolonial Railway * Wanted to sell products in Maritimes Completion of Intercolonial Railway * People’s prosperity seemed to rest on its completion * The joining of colonies seemed to be a requirement

38 Britain Begins to Withdraw Troops British in BNA Expensive to have troops in BNA Steam powered ships o Send troops across the sea quicker Keep small force Send troops by ship if needed Crimean War War between Britain and Russia Took troops from BNA

39 Britain Begins to Withdraw Troops BNA Defence Less secure without British troops May not be able to defend itself

40 Fenian Brotherhood * An Irish nationalist organization that encouraged revolutionary activity to overthrow British rule in Ireland * Many arrived in North America during the Great Migration British Fears * If they fought the US the Fenians would join in * Fenians may invade independently Fenian Invasions * Some invasions occurred * Invaded Canada East in 1866 * Largely ineffective without American assistance

41 American Civil War * Fought between the North (Union) and South (Confederacy) * Disagreed over slavery * South wanted slavery Increased Tensions * British supported the South * North became angry with British * The North did not want Britain aiding the South * Became more important when North won the war * The North considered starting a war with Britain * British North America would be dragged in Manifest Destiny * Belief that the United States had a duty to take over North America and may use this to invade BNA

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