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Ch.6 Symbolic Interactionism Principles Conceptions of the “self” Labeling Theory Primary & Secondary Deviance Neutralizing Deviant identities Master Status Social Policy Implications
S.I. Principles Microsocial: society is the sum of interactions Symbols are used to construct social world People define & redefine reality
Conceptions of the Self George Herbert Mead Sense of “self” comes through social experience “I” & “me”
Stages of Personality Development Me develops over 3 stages: 1. Preparatory – imitation 2. Play Stage – role playing 3. Game Stage – understanding context The Generalized Other
Cooley & the “looking-glass self” We imagine how we appear to others We imagine how others respond to us We form a self-concept based on these interpretations
Labelling Theory Powerful apply labels to less powerful Every generation labels behavior differently (Tannenbaum’s ‘Dramatization of Evil’) Labels are often difficult to remove
Primary & Secondary Deviance Primary – concealed; private Secondary – “out of the closet”
Sykes & Matza: Techniques to Neutralize Deviance Deny personal responsibility Deny injury Blame the victim Condemn the condemner Appeal to a higher loyalty
Howard Becker The career model of deviance Master Status
Social Policy Decriminalization – addresses the problem of stigma Re-integrative Shaming
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