Presentation on theme: "Wiki Terms: 1840 to 1910 History of Career and Technical Education Kimberly Handy."— Presentation transcript:
Wiki Terms: 1840 to 1910 History of Career and Technical Education Kimberly Handy
1846-1857 1846-"Associations formed to extend instruction in Sloyd, Sweden" (Gordon, 2008, p. 337). 1847-"Sheffield Scientific School at Yale is established" (Gordon, 2008, p. 337). 1857- "The National Education Association (NEA) is organized" (Gordon, 2008, p. 337).
National Education Association Retrieved from Google Videos.
1857 "The National Education Association (NEA) is organized" (Gordon, 2008, p. 337). The Dred Scott decision of 1857, in which Scott sued to win recognition as a free person, the court ruled that the Constitution and Declaration of Independence were not intended to provide protection for the for the political rights of Blacks. Blacks were not given the right to apply for citizenship during this time period. They were not born into a class that qualified for rights under the Constitution, and therefore even if they were native-born, still did not qualify for U.S. Citizenship (Spring, 2008).
1862 The Morrill Act for Land-Grant Institutions was signed into legislation on July 2, 1862 (Miller, 1993, p. 43). "Land-grant institutions were called "colleges of agriculture, "colleges of mechanic arts," or colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts." Their purposes were primarily to educate the farmers and agricultural technicians in increased crop production; to educate the housewife-home economist and her supporting cast in better nutrition, child rearing, and homemaking; and to prepare engineers and technicians for a soon-to- expand industrial society" (Gordon, 2008, p. 42).
1866 The Manual Training Movement-"General Samuel Chapman Armstrong, the son of American missionaries to Hawaii, had headed an African- American regiment during the Civil War. In 1866, he was appointed the superintendent of education for African Americans of Virginia. Immediately he began the development of what became Hampton Institute (Barlow, 1967). Hampton Institute opened in 1868 based on the philosophy that there was dignity in all forms of work and that human beings, regardless of race, could only truly appreciate that which was earned" (Gordon, 2008, p. 9).
1868 "The first U.S. school designed to provide this type of education in which manual labor was required by everyone was the Worcester Polytechnic Institute at Worcester, Massachusetts, which opened in1868 (Bennett, 1926)(Gordon, 2008, p. 10.).
1870 -"In 1870, Calvin Woodard introduced shop work at Washington University as a means of providing his applied-mechanics students with a visual representation of the problems they were attempting to solve (Bennett, 1937)" (Gordon, 2008 p. 10).
1876 "The greatest stimulus to the manual training movement, however, was the Russian exhibit at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876....[which] exhibited a system of tool instruction based on the construction of models from plans designed and drawn by students (Wirth, 1972)" (Gordon, 2008, p.10).
1890 The intent of the 1890 Morrill Act was to provide educational opportunities for African-American students. The Act mandated that in southern states, where separate schools were maintained for Blacks…separate but equal facilities would be established (Gordon, 2008, p. 46).
1895 Booker T. Washington delivered his famous speech, "Atlanta Compromise" in 1895 (Gordon, 2008, p. 23). Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois differed greatly with Booker T. Washington on the progression of Blacks and believed that Civil Rights should be their immediate concern. He is accredited for having a central figure in the founding of the NAACP (Gordon, 2008, p. 24).
Booker T. Washington Retrieved from Google Videos.
1896 Dewey established his laboratory school at the University of Chicago in 1896 (Gordon, 2008). According to Spring (2008), 1896, the protection provided under the Fourteenth Amendment was severely restricted by a U.S. Supreme Court decision that declared segregation of African-Americans from whites…The 1896 decision involved Homer Plessey, who was one-eight black and seven-eights white and had been arrested for refusing to ride in the colored coach of a train, as required by Louisiana law (p. 198). The impact of the Plesseys decision signaled the start of the concept of separate but equal and the United States Supreme Court ruling that there was no inferiority if the facilities were equal and the law reasonable (p. 200).
1900 (1 of 3) The United States has 6,005 public high schools, up from 40 in 1860, but there is no standard curriculum, and while some schools have five or six grade levels others have only one or two. Teachers remain poorly paid, in most states education is not compulsory after age 14, dropout levels are high, and only 8 percent of children aged 14 to 17 attend school. … only about 11 percent expect to go on to college (they study Greek and Latin), and although the schools are open about 135 days per year students attend classes on average only 86 days" (Answers.com, 2008, p.1)
1900 (2 of 2) A U.S. College Entrance Examination Board is founded at New York to screen applicants to colleges (see SAT, 1926) (Answers.com, 2008, p.1). New York University's business school has its beginnings in the NYU School of Commerce, Accounts, and Finance. The first large-scale U.S. business school, it will have prominent faculty members who will lecture without compensation (see Harvard Business School, 1908) (Answers.com, 2008, p.1).
1903 Women Nobel Prize Laureates - In 1903, only two years after the Nobel Foundation was established, a Nobel Prize was awarded to a woman, Marie Curie, for the first time. Women have been winning Nobel Prizes ever since (Association for Women in Mathematics, 2008, p.1).
1906 (1 of 2) In 1906, The San Francisco Board of Education established a separate school for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students. A majority of the Japanese parents protested. The results of the protest were that President Theodore Roosevelt threatened the San Francisco school system with federal action if segregation did not end. The involvement of the federal government did not end segregation for the Japanese in some areas; they continued to face various exclusionary laws and legal actions through WWII (Spring, 2008).
1906 (2 of 2) Eli Weaver, the pioneer of vocational guidance in New York City, envisioned the establishment of a central government vocational bureau that would function as a commodity- exchange market. The function of the central bureau would be to determine the types of training and character needed in available occupations…The bureau would also place high school graduates in appropriate occupations. Weaver claimed that the guidance agency would facilitate the exchange of labor between the workers and employers as the exchange of other commodities is now assisted through the standardizing operations of other exchanges" (Spring, 2008, p. 268).
1909 On November 15, 1909, Milton Hershey and his wife Catherine established a boarding school for orphan boys to be located at the Homestead, Milton Hersheys birthplace. To fund the school, Hershey also created the Milton Hershey School Trust and endowed it with 486 acres of farmland. The schools initial enrollment was ten students. As the school grew, more buildings and programs were added. In 1951, the schools name was changed to Milton Hershey School, and in 1976 its Deed of Trust was altered to allow the enrollment of girls as well. Today, the school provides a free K-12 education and a home on a 9,000- acre campus to more than 1200 underprivileged boys and girls (Hershey, 2008, p. 1).
1909 David Snedden (Commissioner of Education for Massachusetts)-his appointment came as a result of his criticism of literary education and advocacy of social efficiency. The importance and need for occupational experience in vocational education were stressed early in the century. Snedden (1910) was clear about his position regarding the role that occupational experience should play in the education of the worker. Snedden gave prominence to the desirability of occupational experience (Gordon, 2008).
References Answers.com (2008). 1900. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/1900-1 Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM). (2008). Links for biographies. Retrieved from http://www.awm-math.org/biographies.html Google Videos. (2010). Videos. Retrieved from google.com Gordon, H. R. D. (2008). The history and growth of career and technical education in America (3rd ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Hershey Company. (2008). Discover Hershey: Milton S. Hershey. Retrieved from http://www.hersheys.com/discover/milton/hershey_ind_school.asp Spring, J. (2008). The American school: From the Puritans to No Child Left Behind (7th Ed). Boston: McGraw-Hill.