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Community Development: Principles and Practices Module 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Community Development: Principles and Practices Module 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Community Development: Principles and Practices Module 3

2 Community Development: Principles and Practices l to define regional economic development in the context of community development principles and practices l to analyze three models of organizational practice Objectives: Module 3

3 Objectives (contd) l to provide an historic overview of early community development efforts in the province Module 3

4 Community Development: Principles and Practices “Rural development is the participation of people in a mutual learning experience involving themselves, their local resources, external change agents, and outside resources. People cannot be developed. They can only develop themselves by participating in activities which affect their well- being. People are not being developed when they are herded like animals into new ventures.” Julius Nyerere, 1968 Module 3

5 Historic Perspective l concentrated on jobs, resources, and infrastructure; l were in response to crises; l showed a rejection of community “power brokers”; and l form the background of recent efforts of the citizenry to control its own future. Early efforts toward community development: Module 3

6 Definitions Community development: a process whereby the efforts of Government are united with those of the people to improve the social, cultural, and economic conditions in communities Module 3

7 Definitions (contd) Community: a “group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society” or a “body of persons or nations having a common history or common social, economic, and political interests” Module 3

8 Rural development: applications of community development principles outside of urban areas Definitions (contd) Module 3

9 Definitions (contd) Regional development: applications of community development principles in geographical areas consistent with those specified for or in: é Regional Development Associations é Change and Challenge é Community Matters Module 3

10 Principles 1.Community development is a holistic approach to addressing the community’s needs. 2.Community development is a process. 3.Empowerment results from influence, participation, and community education. Module 3

11 Principles (contd) 4.Development ensures environmental stewardship. 5. Development is tied to sustainability. 6.Partnerships provide access to resources. Module 3

12 Social Development l means people are of primary importance; l includes the “building of secure, just, free and harmonious societies”; l offers opportunities and humane standards of living for all; and l focuses on citizens’ rights to: é be nourished é be housed é be secure é work. Module 3

13 Cultural Development l proliferation of artists gaining international recognition and of poets, authors, and musicians l development of theater, festivals, and films l development of archaeological and historical sites Module 3

14 Community Economic Development l is citizen-led; l is dedicated to improving lifestyles through: é wealth distribution é poverty reduction é job creation; and l provides infrastructure in support of business development. Module 3

15 Business Development the practice of a commercial activity associated with the production, supply, or distribution of commodities for profit Module 3

16 Participants’ Input 3.1 Module 3

17 Community Practice (a) Social Action (b) Social Planning (c) Community Development Module 3

18 Social Action AgencyStrategyPractitioner 1. Pressure1. Crystallize1. Organizer groupissues/options2. Radical 2. Single issue2. Confrontation3. Charismatic 3. Political3. Oppressed/4. Politician 4. Radicaldisadvantaged 4. “Saviour” mentality Module 3

19 Social Planning AgencyStrategyPractitioner 1. Statistics-1. Research1. Social orientedand analysisscientist 2. Specialist-2. Data2. Planner orientedmanipulation3. Bureaucrat/ 3. Institution/3. Professionalacademic technicalapproach Module 3

20 Community Development AgencyStrategyPractitioner 1. Citizen-led1. Local1. Local CD 2. Community-planningworker owned2. Public2. Group process 3. Not-for-participationprofessional profit3. Consensus-3. Adult buildingeducator Module 3

21 Participants’ Input 3.2 Module 3

22 Regional Development Associations l the resettlement program; l access to employment; l out-migration and a lack of attention to fishery development, creating community vulnerability; and l commitment to traditional lifestyles. Early organizations were created as a result of: Module 3

23 Early Impacts l “pressure tactics” formed original approach l alternatives to resettlement program l government recognition l MUN Extension Service assisted with transition Module 3

24 Government Response l establishment of Dept. of Rural Development in 1972 é financial support for RDAs é loans programs as a catalyst for business development é organizational and business support Module 3

25 RDA Growth Module 3

26 Influences l Planning lacked technical expertise/support. l “Make work” money became a distraction. l Programs addressed social rather than economic development. l Funds were targeted too specifically. l Fishery development was emphasized. Module 3

27 Sustainable Development l Development of Aquaculture Industry é Upper Trinity South Trout farming é Bay d’Espoir Finfish breeding and grow-out é Port au Port Peninsula Scallop farming é Notre Dame Bay Mussel farming Module 3

28 Development (contd) l Fishery Development é Support infrastructure é Increased processing capabilities l Transportation é Labrador winter trails l Tourism Module 3

29 Development (contd) l Forestry é Woods roads l Agriculture l Growth in Credit Unions é Labrador coast é Twillingate é Carmenville é Eastport é St. Anthony Module 3

30 The Dilemma l government funding VS locally- generated revenue l community development VS business development Module 3

31 Community Futures (CF) l set up as a national program in 1986 l Business Development Centres (BDCs) as financial arm l government appointed with no community accountability Module 3

32 Community Futures (contd) l seen as competition by RDAs l developed strategic plans without community ownership or buy-in l no implementation capacity l CFs and BDCs combined to form CBDCs (Community Business Development Corporations) in 1995. Module 3

33 The Beginning of the End or the End of the Beginning? l A collapse of the groundfishery created a community crisis. l There was a need to refocus regional development efforts. l Downsizing resulted in less money and greater accountability. Module 3

34 Participants’ Input 3.3 Module 3

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