Presentation on theme: "Influential Theorists in Child Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Influential Theorists in Child Development Our class presentationHPC301Influential Theorists in Child Development
2Who did you research? Erik Erikson – Danielle & Kate Jean Piaget – Courtney & JenniferSigmund Freud – Emma & KristenMaria Montessori – Sarah, KayleaAlbert Bandura – Lisa, KerryanneJ. Fraser Mustard – Leah & Courtney
3Who will Mrs. Goulet look at? Lawrence KohlbergB.F. SkinnerT. Berry Brazelton
5About the TheoristGerman psychologist and lecturer at Harvard and Yale UniversitiesRefined Sigmund Freud's stages of developmentFamous for the phrase “identity crisis”8 stages: – emotional development task– wide range of influences on children's behavior
68 Stages of Personality Development Infancy: Birth to 18 monthsTrust vs. MistrustEarly Childhood: 2 to 3 yearsAutonomy vs. Shame and DoubtPreschool: 3 to 5 yearsInitiative vs. GuiltSchool Age: 6 to 11 yearsIndustry vs. InferiorityAdolescence: 12 to 18 yearsIdentity vs. Role ConfusionYouth Adulthood: 19 to 40 yearsIntimacy vs. IsolationMiddle Adulthood: 40 to 65 yearsGenerativity vs. StagnationMaturity: 65 to DeathEgo Integrity vs. Despair
7Advantages and Disadvantages of the Theory Serve as a good guidelineGood idea of emotional structure in children for parentsGood idea of personality structure in children for parentsPositive and negative attributesBased off of our cultureEvery child develops at different stages and not all follow strict guidelinesNurture vs. Nature can change the stages that a child developsBiological differences between girls and boysMore attention paid to younger generations
9By: Courtney Craig and Jennifer Murray Jean Piaget
10His TheoryThe study of the development of children's understanding, through observing them and talking and listening to them while they worked on exercises he set.This theory is primarily known as the “Development Stage Theory”
11Ages focused on in Piaget’s Theory Piaget’s theory applied to people of all ages; stages;Sensori Motor (Birth – 2yrs)Pre- operational (2yrs – 7yrs)Concrete operational (7yrs – 11yrs)Formal operation 911yrs and up)
12Aspect of Child Development Piaget’s aspect of child development he studied was “Intellect”Intellect is the ability of the mind to understand and comprehend knowledge
13Advantages of the theory Highly Supported world wideVery influentialImportant impact on education
14Disadvantages of the theory Piaget's whole work lacks scientific principlesPiaget's emphasis is on concepts of relationship.He does not investigate terms of concepts.In his approach no direct teaching was involvedA child cannot engage in a difficult thought nor cannot perform any useful scientific activity.
16Description Founder of modern psychiatry Theorized that child experiences affect their adult hoodBelieved sensory experiences associated with feeding and toilet-training affect personality
17Who It Affects Starts at birth Continues throughout childhood Affects adulthood
18Aspect of Child Development Age vs. personality developmentHow growing up affects the personalityHow people around you affect personality
19Sigmund Freud Theory Changed how people defined psychology AdvantagesdisadvantagesChanged how people defined psychologySigmund Freud ‘s theory has been taken and redefined by many other theoristsMany mis-diagnosed patientsSociety often classified the theory as sexist
21Montessori MethodThis method is characterized by emphasis on independence, respect for child’s natural psychological development and freedom of limits. She started to research philosophy methods in In 1907 she opened her first classroom in Rome called the Casa Dei Bambai or Children’s House. She would refer to her work as “scientific pedagogy.” Her theory is a model of human development and is an educational approach. She had two basic methods with children, and developing adults in psychological self-construction and children under the age of six have an innate path of psychological development. She believed that children act freely in an environment prepared.
22Ages it applies toThis method applies to the ages from birth to 18 years old. E.g. Birth to three years, six to twelve, and twelve to eighteen.Ages birth to three- She was testing all of their ability’s to see if something would change in their body as they got older. Also to see the different opportunities between them.Ages six to twelve- Montessori used the term “cosmic education” to show both the universal scope and the idea that education in the second plane helped the child realize the human role in the functioning of the universe.Ages twelve to eighteen- Education for these ages is less well developed. She did not establish a training program for this age group for teachers in her lifetime.
23Aspect studiedMaria Montessori was basically making up a program for the psychological development of children’s minds. She was creating a method that would help them learn the roles of human development and society, something that would get there minds on the right track. She found a way to help children learn most things with mathematics, sciences and other more important things in the world. She would also have to test her theory out to see if it would work, and to see how a child's mind actually developed.
24Advantages of TheoryTry and make a more enjoyable way for children to learn and keep them interested, teaching them manners, learning everything has there own place. Children’s minds are like sponges, they are always up to learn something new and absorb it all. Montessori also realized that every child learns at there own pace therefore different ways of learning and different paces. The environment provides a natural sense of discipline, the teacher plays a very good role in the classroom for the children.
25Disadvantages of Theory Does not give kids enough free time to play, they do a lot of learning through play. She has been said to be to “rigid” and did not allow children to reach there creative potential.
26By Lisa Stewart and Kerryanne Wallace Albert BanduraAnd Social LearningBy Lisa Stewart and Kerryanne Wallace
27The Theory. He believed that environment shapes behavior and vice versa. He believed that if a child sees another kid being rewarded it is as effective as being rewarded oneself. He believed that children learn by observing and modeling others
28Age of people to which the theory applies . We think this theory applies to ages 2 to 5.. We think this is because Little kids look up to their parents and if they see them doing something wrong or right then they think it is ok
29Aspect of child development Albert Bandura was studying environment within children and parents
30Advantages To The Theory The advantages to this theory is that parents now know that they need to be careful of what their doing because their children are watching.
31Disadvantages of the theory The disadvantages to this theory is that some parents don’t know how to set a good example towards their children
33Description of theoryHe believes that community support for early childhood development has important benefits for society.
34Ages of peopleThe age that this theory applies to is children under the age of six.
35Aspects of the childHe was studying the brain development for children under six and how support from the community on this benefits society.
36AdvantagesAdvantages of this theory would be gaining more knowledge on younger children.Having more support from the community.Will benefit our society.
37DisadvantagesDisadvantages of this theory would be that not everyone would necessarily benefit from it, depending on your outlook.Some people in the community or in our society might not support this theory.
39Lawrence KohlbergKohlberg believed that moral development occurs in stagesAs a child’s intellect and social skills develop, they are able to better understand right and wrong.
40Lawrence Kohlberg Stages Stage 1 – Obey rules to avoid punishmentStage 2 – Understand that there isn’t one way of looking at something. Is it OK to steal bread if is to feed your family?Stage 3 – Around the teen age. Believe in living up to expectations of family. Good behaviour means his motives were good. A druggy who steals has bad motives (selfish)
41Lawrence Kohlberg Stages Stage 4 – Maintaining social order. Obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's dutieStage 5 - They begin to think about society in a very theoretical way, stepping back from their own society and considering the rights and values that a society ought to upholdStage 6 – Justice - respecting the basic dignity, of all people as individual
42AgesAll ages – Each stage progresses as the child grows up. This goes into adulthood
43Kohlberg – Moral Reasoning The study of moral reasoning believes we are not born with a code of what is right and wrong.
44Advantages Disadvantages Good for parents to believe that moral reasoning can be developed and cultivatedThis study was only conducted on boys and therefore cannot be universally appliedDisadvantages
46B.F. SkinnerSkinner believed that then environment influences behaviourChildren do things to either avoid punishment or to gain a rewardChildren are passive in their own developmentEx. If a dog gets a pet or a treat for doing something he will likely do it again
47AgesI assume this applies to young children. See disadvantages.
48Skinner – Behaviour theory A scientific approach to explaining and predicting behaviour
49Advantages Disdvantages Great for raising a young child. Helps us understand why “time out” worksDoesn’t take into account that a child has free will and will develop their own moral compassDisdvantages
51T. Berry BrazeltonBelieved in focusing on an individual’s strengths vs. their drawbacksThe Scale, looks at a wide range infant behavior (up to 2 months old)By the end of the assessment, the examiner has a behavioral "portrait" of the infant, describing the baby's strengths, adaptive responses and possible vulnerabilities.
52BrazeltonThe findings allow parents and care givers to tailor care giving to the baby's specific physical needs and behavioral style.Does the baby like to be handled? Is the baby receptive to social interaction? Does the baby easily calm herself?
53Brazelton – Infant Development Study of why infants do what they do and how to use this information to care for them
54Advantages Disadvantages Up until Brazelton, studies only showed a child’s abnormalities. This study shows their capabilitiesBabies change and evolve. Parents shouldn’t stick to the study as a bible for parenting their childDisadvantages