Presentation on theme: "Our class presentation HPC301. Erik Erikson – Danielle & Kate Jean Piaget – Courtney & Jennifer Sigmund Freud – Emma & Kristen Maria Montessori."— Presentation transcript:
Our class presentation HPC301
Erik Erikson – Danielle & Kate Jean Piaget – Courtney & Jennifer Sigmund Freud – Emma & Kristen Maria Montessori – Sarah, Kaylea Albert Bandura – Lisa, Kerryanne J. Fraser Mustard – Leah & Courtney
Lawrence Kohlberg B.F. Skinner T. Berry Brazelton
Kate and Danielle
German psychologist and lecturer at Harvard and Yale Universities Refined Sigmund Freud's stages of development Famous for the phrase “identity crisis” 8 stages: – emotional development task – wide range of influences on children's behavior
ADVANTAGES Serve as a good guideline Good idea of emotional structure in children for parents Good idea of personality structure in children for parents Positive and negative attributes Based off of our culture DISADVANTAGES Every child develops at different stages and not all follow strict guidelines Nurture vs. Nature can change the stages that a child develops Biological differences between girls and boys More attention paid to younger generations
By: Courtney Craig and Jennifer Murray
The study of the development of children's understanding, through observing them and talking and listening to them while they worked on exercises he set. This theory is primarily known as the “Development Stage Theory”
Piaget’s theory applied to people of all ages; stages; Sensori Motor (Birth – 2yrs) Pre- operational (2yrs – 7yrs) Concrete operational (7yrs – 11yrs) Formal operation 911yrs and up)
Piaget’s aspect of child development he studied was “Intellect” Intellect is the ability of the mind to understand and comprehend knowledge
Highly Supported world wide Very influential Important impact on education
Piaget's whole work lacks scientific principles Piaget's emphasis is on concepts of relationship.He does not investigate terms of concepts. In his approach no direct teaching was involved A child cannot engage in a difficult thought nor cannot perform any useful scientific activity.
Kristen and Emma
Founder of modern psychiatry Theorized that child experiences affect their adult hood Believed sensory experiences associated with feeding and toilet-training affect personality
Starts at birth Continues throughout childhood Affects adulthood
Age vs. personality development How growing up affects the personality How people around you affect personality
ADVANTAGES Changed how people defined psychology Sigmund Freud ‘s theory has been taken and redefined by many other theorists DISADVANTAGES Many mis-diagnosed patients Society often classified the theory as sexist
Founder of Montessori Method
This method is characterized by emphasis on independence, respect for child’s natural psychological development and freedom of limits. She started to research philosophy methods in 1897. In 1907 she opened her first classroom in Rome called the Casa Dei Bambai or Children’s House. She would refer to her work as “scientific pedagogy.” Her theory is a model of human development and is an educational approach. She had two basic methods with children, and developing adults in psychological self-construction and children under the age of six have an innate path of psychological development. She believed that children act freely in an environment prepared.
This method applies to the ages from birth to 18 years old. E.g. Birth to three years, six to twelve, and twelve to eighteen. Ages birth to three- She was testing all of their ability’s to see if something would change in their body as they got older. Also to see the different opportunities between them. Ages six to twelve- Montessori used the term “cosmic education” to show both the universal scope and the idea that education in the second plane helped the child realize the human role in the functioning of the universe. Ages twelve to eighteen- Education for these ages is less well developed. She did not establish a training program for this age group for teachers in her lifetime.
Maria Montessori was basically making up a program for the psychological development of children’s minds. She was creating a method that would help them learn the roles of human development and society, something that would get there minds on the right track. She found a way to help children learn most things with mathematics, sciences and other more important things in the world. She would also have to test her theory out to see if it would work, and to see how a child's mind actually developed.
Try and make a more enjoyable way for children to learn and keep them interested, teaching them manners, learning everything has there own place. Children’s minds are like sponges, they are always up to learn something new and absorb it all. Montessori also realized that every child learns at there own pace therefore different ways of learning and different paces. The environment provides a natural sense of discipline, the teacher plays a very good role in the classroom for the children.
Does not give kids enough free time to play, they do a lot of learning through play. She has been said to be to “rigid” and did not allow children to reach there creative potential.
. He believed that environment shapes behavior and vice versa. He believed that children learn by observing and modeling others. He believed that if a child sees another kid being rewarded it is as effective as being rewarded oneself
. We think this theory applies to ages 2 to 5.. We think this is because Little kids look up to their parents and if they see them doing something wrong or right then they think it is ok
Albert Bandura was studying environment within children and parents
The advantages to this theory is that parents now know that they need to be careful of what their doing because their children are watching.
The disadvantages to this theory is that some parents don’t know how to set a good example towards their children
He believes that community support for early childhood development has important benefits for society.
The age that this theory applies to is children under the age of six.
He was studying the brain development for children under six and how support from the community on this benefits society.
Advantages of this theory would be gaining more knowledge on younger children. Having more support from the community. Will benefit our society.
Disadvantages of this theory would be that not everyone would necessarily benefit from it, depending on your outlook. Some people in the community or in our society might not support this theory.
Kohlberg believed that moral development occurs in stages As a child’s intellect and social skills develop, they are able to better understand right and wrong.
Stage 1 – Obey rules to avoid punishment Stage 2 – Understand that there isn’t one way of looking at something. Is it OK to steal bread if is to feed your family? Stage 3 – Around the teen age. Believe in living up to expectations of family. Good behaviour means his motives were good. A druggy who steals has bad motives (selfish)
Stage 4 – Maintaining social order. Obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's dutie Stage 5 - They begin to think about society in a very theoretical way, stepping back from their own society and considering the rights and values that a society ought to uphold Stage 6 – Justice - respecting the basic dignity, of all people as individual
All ages – Each stage progresses as the child grows up. This goes into adulthood
The study of moral reasoning believes we are not born with a code of what is right and wrong.
Good for parents to believe that moral reasoning can be developed and cultivated This study was only conducted on boys and therefore cannot be universally applied Disadvantages
Skinner believed that then environment influences behaviour Children do things to either avoid punishment or to gain a reward Children are passive in their own development Ex. If a dog gets a pet or a treat for doing something he will likely do it again
I assume this applies to young children. See disadvantages.
A scientific approach to explaining and predicting behaviour
Great for raising a young child. Helps us understand why “time out” works Doesn’t take into account that a child has free will and will develop their own moral compass Disdvantages
Believed in focusing on an individual’s strengths vs. their drawbacks The Scale, looks at a wide range infant behavior (up to 2 months old) By the end of the assessment, the examiner has a behavioral "portrait" of the infant, describing the baby's strengths, adaptive responses and possible vulnerabilities.
The findings allow parents and care givers to tailor care giving to the baby's specific physical needs and behavioral style. Does the baby like to be handled? Is the baby receptive to social interaction? Does the baby easily calm herself?
Study of why infants do what they do and how to use this information to care for them
Up until Brazelton, studies only showed a child’s abnormalities. This study shows their capabilities Babies change and evolve. Parents shouldn’t stick to the study as a bible for parenting their child Disadvantages