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Influential Theorists in Child Development

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Presentation on theme: "Influential Theorists in Child Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Influential Theorists in Child Development
Our class presentation HPC301 Influential Theorists in Child Development

2 Who did you research? Erik Erikson – Danielle & Kate
Jean Piaget – Courtney & Jennifer Sigmund Freud – Emma & Kristen Maria Montessori – Sarah, Kaylea Albert Bandura – Lisa, Kerryanne J. Fraser Mustard – Leah & Courtney

3 Who will Mrs. Goulet look at?
Lawrence Kohlberg B.F. Skinner T. Berry Brazelton

4 Erik Erikson Kate and Danielle

5 About the Theorist German psychologist and lecturer at Harvard and Yale Universities Refined Sigmund Freud's stages of development Famous for the phrase “identity crisis” 8 stages: – emotional development task – wide range of influences on children's behavior

6 8 Stages of Personality Development
Infancy: Birth to 18 months Trust vs. Mistrust Early Childhood: 2 to 3 years Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Preschool: 3 to 5 years Initiative vs. Guilt School Age: 6 to 11 years Industry vs. Inferiority Adolescence: 12 to 18 years Identity vs. Role Confusion Youth Adulthood: 19 to 40 years Intimacy vs. Isolation Middle Adulthood: 40 to 65 years Generativity vs. Stagnation Maturity: 65 to Death Ego Integrity vs. Despair

7 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Theory
Serve as a good guideline Good idea of emotional structure in children for parents Good idea of personality structure in children for parents Positive and negative attributes Based off of our culture Every child develops at different stages and not all follow strict guidelines Nurture vs. Nature can change the stages that a child develops Biological differences between girls and boys More attention paid to younger generations

8 The End

9 By: Courtney Craig and Jennifer Murray
Jean Piaget

10 His Theory The study of the development of children's understanding, through observing them and talking and listening to them while they worked on exercises he set. This theory is primarily known as the “Development Stage Theory”

11 Ages focused on in Piaget’s Theory
Piaget’s theory applied to people of all ages; stages; Sensori Motor (Birth – 2yrs) Pre- operational (2yrs – 7yrs) Concrete operational (7yrs – 11yrs) Formal operation 911yrs and up)

12 Aspect of Child Development
Piaget’s aspect of child development he studied was “Intellect” Intellect is the ability of the mind to understand and comprehend knowledge

13 Advantages of the theory
Highly Supported world wide Very influential Important impact on education

14 Disadvantages of the theory
Piaget's whole work lacks scientific principles Piaget's emphasis is on concepts of relationship.He does not investigate terms of concepts. In his approach no direct teaching was involved A child cannot engage in a difficult thought nor cannot perform any useful scientific activity.

15 Kristen and Emma Sigmund Freud

16 Description Founder of modern psychiatry
Theorized that child experiences affect their adult hood Believed sensory experiences associated with feeding and toilet-training affect personality

17 Who It Affects Starts at birth Continues throughout childhood
Affects adulthood

18 Aspect of Child Development
Age vs. personality development How growing up affects the personality How people around you affect personality

19 Sigmund Freud Theory Changed how people defined psychology
Advantages disadvantages Changed how people defined psychology Sigmund Freud ‘s theory has been taken and redefined by many other theorists Many mis-diagnosed patients Society often classified the theory as sexist

20 Founder of Montessori Method
Maria Montessori

21 Montessori Method This method is characterized by emphasis on independence, respect for child’s natural psychological development and freedom of limits. She started to research philosophy methods in In 1907 she opened her first classroom in Rome called the Casa Dei Bambai or Children’s House. She would refer to her work as “scientific pedagogy.” Her theory is a model of human development and is an educational approach. She had two basic methods with children, and developing adults in psychological self-construction and children under the age of six have an innate path of psychological development. She believed that children act freely in an environment prepared.

22 Ages it applies to This method applies to the ages from birth to 18 years old. E.g. Birth to three years, six to twelve, and twelve to eighteen. Ages birth to three- She was testing all of their ability’s to see if something would change in their body as they got older. Also to see the different opportunities between them. Ages six to twelve- Montessori used the term “cosmic education” to show both the universal scope and the idea that education in the second plane helped the child realize the human role in the functioning of the universe. Ages twelve to eighteen- Education for these ages is less well developed. She did not establish a training program for this age group for teachers in her lifetime.

23 Aspect studied Maria Montessori was basically making up a program for the psychological development of children’s minds. She was creating a method that would help them learn the roles of human development and society, something that would get there minds on the right track. She found a way to help children learn most things with mathematics, sciences and other more important things in the world. She would also have to test her theory out to see if it would work, and to see how a child's mind actually developed.

24 Advantages of Theory Try and make a more enjoyable way for children to learn and keep them interested, teaching them manners, learning everything has there own place. Children’s minds are like sponges, they are always up to learn something new and absorb it all. Montessori also realized that every child learns at there own pace therefore different ways of learning and different paces. The environment provides a natural sense of discipline, the teacher plays a very good role in the classroom for the children.

25 Disadvantages of Theory
Does not give kids enough free time to play, they do a lot of learning through play. She has been said to be to “rigid” and did not allow children to reach there creative potential.

26 By Lisa Stewart and Kerryanne Wallace
Albert Bandura And Social Learning By Lisa Stewart and Kerryanne Wallace

27 The Theory . He believed that environment shapes behavior and vice versa . He believed that if a child sees another kid being rewarded it is as effective as being rewarded oneself . He believed that children learn by observing and modeling others

28 Age of people to which the theory applies
. We think this theory applies to ages 2 to 5. . We think this is because Little kids look up to their parents and if they see them doing something wrong or right then they think it is ok

29 Aspect of child development
Albert Bandura was studying environment within children and parents

30 Advantages To The Theory
The advantages to this theory is that parents now know that they need to be careful of what their doing because their children are watching.

31 Disadvantages of the theory
The disadvantages to this theory is that some parents don’t know how to set a good example towards their children

32 J. Fraser Mustard Brain Development

33 Description of theory He believes that community support for early childhood development has important benefits for society.

34 Ages of people The age that this theory applies to is children under the age of six.

35 Aspects of the child He was studying the brain development for children under six and how support from the community on this benefits society.

36 Advantages Advantages of this theory would be gaining more knowledge on younger children. Having more support from the community. Will benefit our society.

37 Disadvantages Disadvantages of this theory would be that not everyone would necessarily benefit from it, depending on your outlook. Some people in the community or in our society might not support this theory.

38 Mrs. Goulet Lawrence Kohlberg

39 Lawrence Kohlberg Kohlberg believed that moral development occurs in stages As a child’s intellect and social skills develop, they are able to better understand right and wrong.

40 Lawrence Kohlberg Stages
Stage 1 – Obey rules to avoid punishment Stage 2 – Understand that there isn’t one way of looking at something. Is it OK to steal bread if is to feed your family? Stage 3 – Around the teen age. Believe in living up to expectations of family. Good behaviour means his motives were good. A druggy who steals has bad motives (selfish)

41 Lawrence Kohlberg Stages
Stage 4 – Maintaining social order. Obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's dutie Stage 5 - They begin to think about society in a very theoretical way, stepping back from their own society and considering the rights and values that a society ought to uphold Stage 6 – Justice - respecting the basic dignity, of all people as individual

42 Ages All ages – Each stage progresses as the child grows up. This goes into adulthood

43 Kohlberg – Moral Reasoning
The study of moral reasoning believes we are not born with a code of what is right and wrong.

44 Advantages Disadvantages
Good for parents to believe that moral reasoning can be developed and cultivated This study was only conducted on boys and therefore cannot be universally applied Disadvantages

45 Mrs. Goulet B.F. Skinner

46 B.F. Skinner Skinner believed that then environment influences behaviour Children do things to either avoid punishment or to gain a reward Children are passive in their own development Ex. If a dog gets a pet or a treat for doing something he will likely do it again

47 Ages I assume this applies to young children. See disadvantages.

48 Skinner – Behaviour theory
A scientific approach to explaining and predicting behaviour

49 Advantages Disdvantages Great for raising a young child.
Helps us understand why “time out” works Doesn’t take into account that a child has free will and will develop their own moral compass Disdvantages

50 Mrs. Goulet T. Berry Brazelton

51 T. Berry Brazelton Believed in focusing on an individual’s strengths vs. their drawbacks The Scale, looks at a wide range infant behavior (up to 2 months old) By the end of the assessment, the examiner has a behavioral "portrait" of the infant, describing the baby's strengths, adaptive responses and possible vulnerabilities.

52 Brazelton The findings allow parents and care givers to tailor care giving to the baby's specific physical needs and behavioral style. Does the baby like to be handled? Is the baby receptive to social interaction? Does the baby easily calm herself?

53 Brazelton – Infant Development
Study of why infants do what they do and how to use this information to care for them

54 Advantages Disadvantages
Up until Brazelton, studies only showed a child’s abnormalities. This study shows their capabilities Babies change and evolve. Parents shouldn’t stick to the study as a bible for parenting their child Disadvantages

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