2 Share (within a group of four & come up with a standard definition) What is morality?ThinkPairShare (within a group of four & come up with a standard definition)
3 MoralityA set of norms or rules that determine the sinfulness or goodness of an act.(the goodness or badness of an act)To “be moral” indicates that you are acting in accordance with the norms or rules that make up morality.
4 What questions should we ask about morality? Morality is a set of norms or rules that determine the sinfulness or goodness of an act.To “be moral” indicates that you are acting in accordance with the norms or rules that make up morality.Questions:
6 The Myth of GygesGlaucon tells this story in an argument with Socrates-have students predict what Gyges will do after he gets the ring-Draw conclusions using allegory explanation… (ring = power, Gyges = humanity, rape, murder, stealing = crime, humans are only moral because they are forced to be, aka a morality of obligation )-Ask “What do you think Socrate’s counter-argument was”Gyges was a shepherd in the service of the king of Lydia; there was a great storm, and an earthquake made an opening in the earth at the place where he was feeding his flock. Amazed at the sight, he descended into the opening, where, among other marvels, he beheld a hollow brazen horse, having doors, at which he stooping and looking in saw a dead body of stature, as appeared to him, more than human, and having nothing on but a gold ring; this he took from the finger of the dead and reascended.Now the shepherds met together, according to custom, that they might send their monthly report about the flocks to the king; into their assembly he came having the ring on his finger, and as he was sitting among them he chanced to turn the collet of the ring inside his hand, when instantly he became invisible to the rest of the company and they began to speak of him as if he were no longer present. He was astonished at this, and again touching the ring he turned the collet outwards and reappeared; he made several trials of the ring, and always with the same result-when he turned the collet inwards he became invisible, when outwards he reappeared. Whereupon he contrived to be chosen one of the messengers who were sent to the court; where as soon as he arrived he seduced the queen, and with her help conspired against the king and slew him, and took the kingdom.Suppose now that there were two such magic rings, and the just put on one of them and the unjust the other; no man can be imagined to be of such an iron nature that he would stand fast in justice. No man would keep his hands off what was not his own when he could safely take what he liked out of the market, or go into houses and lie with any one at his pleasure, or kill or release from prison whom he would, and in all respects be like a God among men. Then the actions of the just would be as the actions of the unjust; they would both come at last to the same point. And this we may truly affirm to be a great proof that a man is just, not willingly or because he thinks that justice is any good to him individually, but of necessity, for wherever any one thinks that he can safely be unjust, there he is unjust. For all men believe in their hearts that injustice is far more profitable to the individual than justice, and he who argues as I have been supposing, will say that they are right.If you could imagine any one obtaining this power of becoming invisible, and never doing any wrong or touching what was another's, he would be thought by the lookers-on to be a most wretched idiot, although they would praise him to one another's faces, and keep up appearances with one another from a fear that they too might suffer injustice.
7 Glaucon’s ArgumentOnce invisible, Glaucon argues, a person will do all they want knowing they cannot be caught. They will steal, murder, and cheat their way to power. They will pursue all hedonistic desires, having sex with who ever they want to.However, Glaucon explains, since people do not have the ring they cannot act like this.Because people do not want to be cheated or murdered they enter into social contracts with other people: you do not harm me and I will not harm you.Thus people are moral or act moral because they have to not because they want to. This is a Morality of Obligation.
8 Socrates’ counter argument Socrates argues that a person acts moral not out of obligation but out of a desire for happinessA person will act virtuous not because they feel they have to but because they know that being virtuous is a better way and ultimately will lead to greater happiness than simply acting on spontaneous desires
9 What is Glaucon’s response? Glaucon responds by saying that a virtuous shepherd would become corrupt if given the Ring of Gyges
11 Socrates’ ResponseSocrates retorts that if a virtuous shepherd with the Ring of Gyges started to steal, rape and murder, then the shepherd was not virtuous in the first placeWe see that Glaucon believes that doing whatever you want is the good life and Socrates believes that being virtuous is the good lifeThe good life is a life that brings a person the greatest amount of happinessTherefore Socrates argues that people are moral because of their desire for happiness – we call this a Morality of Happiness
12 Why be moral? Morality of Obligation Morality of Happiness Have students fill in reasoning as best as possible.Give example of “becoming a cop so that they can break the rules”
13 If we choose a morality of happiness… What do we need to ask about happiness?What is happiness?How does one achieve happiness?Should one be concerned with only their own happiness or should they be concerned with others happiness?
14 Happiness How we answer these questions will determine our morality What is happiness?How does one achieve happiness?Should one be concerned with only their own happiness or should they be concerned with others happiness?How we answer these questions will determine our morality
15 What is morality?We have answered this question from a purely definitional point of view – but this seems to be lacking – the goodness or badness of an act – ok –
16 What is morality?so how do we determine the goodness or badness of an act?Who determines it?How do we know they are right? . . .
17 When we think about it, Morality is Rules and Rules is Morality – in this sense everyone has a morality – humans live by rulesFollow the rules – this is a ruleBreak the rules – this is a ruleWatch what you eat – this is a ruleEat whatever you want – this is a ruleObey authority – this is a ruleIgnore authority – this is a ruleDon’t have sex before marriage – this is a ruleHave sex whenever you want – this is a rule
18 Who establishes rules? Authorities Have students brainstorm authorities in their lives and in society.There are many forms of authority in the life of a teenagerYour Parents and Teachers seem like obvious responses – but the greater authority in the lives of teenagers (whether you admit it or not) are friends and the media (music, movies, T.V., internet, etc)
19 AuthoritiesThey very word “authority” seems to connote a negative responseIt is quite common for people to argue that those who follow an authority are conformists – they allow the authority to dictate their lives
20 AuthoritiesThis is pure rubbish. All people conform to rules and thus to authority. Our rules and authorities may differ, but we still conform.Example: Two Punks (Blue Mohawks, Leather Collars, Piercings, and typical Punk paraphernalia).Punk is a countercultural way of life. (therefore defying “authority”)However, there are lead authorities in the world of Punk – from Punk Rock Artists, Punk Clothing Line, Websites, Peers, and so forth. There are rules to being Punk. And all Punks conform to these rules – otherwise they are not Punks.
21 Authorities So the essential question becomes Which authority will you conform to?Which rules are you going to follow?Thus we return to the beginning:you will follow the rules and authority that you think will bring you the greatest degree of happiness
22 If you define happiness as… Pleasureyou will have sex with multiple partnersyou will try drugsyou will cheat on homework, tests, and projectsyou will get drunk at partiesyou will disobey your parentsyou will think Mass is pointlessyou will think that school is a waste of timeyou are essentially a follower of Glaucon – given the chance to do what you want when you want you’ll take it
23 If you define happiness as… Virtueyou will sometimes feel obligated to do things you don’t want to do (nobody really enjoys midterm exams) but you will study and not cheat because you believe that to do the opposite will not bring happinessyou will feel obligated to go to mass and there probably are times when you don’t feel like going yet during mass there are times you feel better about yourself and your life (giving of peace, prayer, etc)while this may sound like a morality of obligation it is not, for you are doing these things because you believe they make you a more virtuous person and thus a happier person in the long runConnect to Aristotle
24 AuthoritiesChoose two people or things (ex: magazines, tv) that are authorities, aka, have influence, in your lifeWrite one paragraph ( minimum 6 sentences) about each authorityExplain how they/it influence you and give examples.