Presentation on theme: "Intro to Genetics. Human Chromosomes Mendels Work Gregor Mendel- b.1822- Father of Genetics Studied 7 different traits: seed shape & color, seed coat."— Presentation transcript:
Intro to Genetics
Mendels Work Gregor Mendel- b Father of Genetics Studied 7 different traits: seed shape & color, seed coat color, pod shape & color, flower position and plant height. Pollination- transfer of pollen (carries sperm) to female part of flower (pistil) Self- pollen to same plant= 1 parent Cross- pollen to different plant= 2 parents
Mendels Work Mendel cross pollinated pure breeding pea plants with opposing alleles. EX: P (parent) generation= tall (TT) & short (tt) F1 cross=tall (TT) Xshort(tt) F1 (first filial) Generation = all tall (Tt) F2 cross=tall (Tt) Xtall (Tt) F2 Generation = ¾ tall (TT or Tt) ¼ short (tt)
From his results he concluded that: If an allele is expressed (shows up) in a hybrid, then the allele is dominant(T). If an allele is NOT expressed in a hybrid, then the allele is recessive(t). Phenotype- traits that show up in the organism. Genotype- genetic makeup (allele combination) of the organism 1. Homozygous (pure)- both alleles the sameEX: TT or tt 2. Heterozygous (hybrid)- alleles differEX: Tt
Mendels Work Mendels Principles: 1. Genes determine biological characteristics. 2. Offspring receive one allele for a gene from each parent. 3. One allele may be dominant over another. 4. Some genes segregate independently.
Probabilities The likelihood that one trait or another will show up in offspring. EX:¼ BB, ½ Bb, ¼ bb 25% BB, 50% Bb, 25% bb 1 in 4 BB, 1 in 2 Bb, 1 in 4 bb 1:2:1
Incomplete Dominance Occurs when the alleles for a gene are neither dominant nor recessive. Heterozygous organisms display a blend of both traits. EX: Snapdragons flower color- RR= red rr= white Rr= pink
Codominance Occurs when both alleles for a gene are dominant. Both traits are expressed in the organism. EX: Blood type in humans- AA= type A, BB= type B, AB= type AB
Multiple Alleles Occurs when a gene has more than two alleles. Produces a variety of different phenotypes. EX: Blood type in humans- three alleles= A, B, & O. Type A= AA or AO Type B= BB or BO Type O= OO Type AB= AB Note: both A and B alleles are dominant over O.
Polygenic Traits Occurs when more than one gene controls an expressed trait in an organism. More genes involved= wider range of phenotypes. EX: Height, weight, metabolism, & skin color.