Presentation on theme: "START OF WWII, WHY CANADA ENTERED THE WAR? CONTRIBUTIONS Canadian History XI."— Presentation transcript:
START OF WWII, WHY CANADA ENTERED THE WAR? CONTRIBUTIONS Canadian History XI
Start of WWII Because of widespread unrest, the period between WWI and WWII has often been called the “long armistice”
Blitzkrieg German new method of fighting was the blitzkrieg (lightning war). It was a sudden, swift, overpowering attack that used airplanes to bomb cities and to machine gun soldiers and civilians. Blitzkrieg tactics made Germany successful because they caught other nations off guard. Within a week, they conquered Poland. Poland was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union. Hitler’s army advances on Denmark (1 day), Norway (2 days), the Netherlands (5 days), Belgium (18 days), and Luxembourg.
Germany Defeats France 1930-34 France was building the Maginot Line in the eastern border. France’s line of defense Germany bypassed the Maginot Line from the north while Italy invaded southern France. Nazi forces would occupy most of France Germany controlled France’s resources and factories Some French leaders left for England and created “Free French” government. After this Canada became Britain’s main ally.
Entering the War Canada entered the war in September 10 th 1939 Seven days after Britain and France declared war on Germany So why do you think Canada entered WWII?
Alliances Two blocks: the Axis and the Allies. The three major Axis powers were, Germany, Italy, and Japan. Among the Allied powers, the "Big Three" were the United Kingdom, from September 1939, the Soviet Union, from June 1941, and the United States, from December 1941. The British Commonwealth, Poland, France, Belgium, China, Norway, and the Netherlands were also counted to the Allied.
Home Front By 1945, Canada had become one of the world’s foremost industrial nations. Government sold Victory Bonds and increased income taxes to help pay for the war. These paid for 2/3 rd of the cost of the war.
Home Front Canadian government avoided inflation by, controlling wage and price controls (government restrictions placed on wages paid to workers and prices charged for goods and services.) They were given rations books. Children collected paper, metal, rags, rubber and bones. All these things could be recycled into war materials. Gasoline and food was rationed. The use of metal and rubber was restricted. They had contests to see who could make the biggest ball out of aluminum foil. Women made up the workforce.
Home Front: Women Women in War Nurses, flying airplanes, driving vehicles, running communication equipment and performing administrative support work Women were recruited for all branches (45000 enlist)
Women during WWII Women were increasingly occupying more and more jobs that were traditionally done by men. Social change Jobs that women occupied: In the home In the field (maintaining crop and livestock) Factories Producing aircraft Ammunition Weapons Women worked long hours and could earn as much as 40 shillings (£2.00) a week. Good wage in the 1940s Less than male wages for the same job.
Canadian Enlistment Men Army730 625 RCAF249 624 RCN106 522 TOTAL1 086 771 Women ARMY21 624 AIR FORCE17 018 NAVY6 781 MEDICAL SERVICES 4 518 DOCTORS58
Diversity in the War Canadian Battalions were no longer segregated during WWII. Natives had to get permission of the Dept. of Indian Affairs, as they were not citizens. They had to give up their status as registered Indians
Canadian Services: Army, Navy & Air force Three Canadian Services: The Army The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) In 1939 Canada’s navy, and air force was the 4th largest in the world.
Canadian Navy and Merchant Marine Naval Service of Canada founded in 1910 It was given royal sanction in 1911. RCN was placed under the Department of National Defense in 1923. During WWII the RCN had 11 combat vessels, 145 officers and 1,674 men. From there the RCN expanded significantly Gained responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic By the end of the war, the RCN had become the 4 th largest allied navy in the world.
Canadian Air Force The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan Agreement, October 10, 1939 RCAF Training Plan – trained men throughout the Commonwealth (200 sites across Canada) Canada "airdrome of democracy." Significance of BCATP: furnished air training fields, uniform system of training and laid the basis for the pooling of Commonwealth air power. The Lancaster Bomber was the largest four-engine plane flown by the RCAF. During the war 7,374 were made and many of them in Canada.
Propaganda Since Canada was physically and psychologically unprepared for WWII Inadequate military preparations were matched by a psychological reticence. Aware of the situation in Europe, Canadians hoped that the crisis could be averted. How could the Canadian Government gain the support of the it people for WWII?
Propaganda Wartime Information Board (WIB), undertook an extensive propaganda campaign "to dampen cynicism" to gain support. Posters were an essential element in this program, because they were relatively inexpensive to produce; they could be created, printed and distributed quickly ; and they had sustained exposure.
Analysis of the Propaganda Tactics Poster artists stated that, successful posters made this shorthand graphic through "vigorous composition, eloquent color, an unambiguous theme [and] impassioned execution," and in that way they communicated complex, highly emotional messages "in the blink of an eye." The powerful messages they transmitted tend to be instantly internalized rather than analyzed. Because of this, the posters had a strikingly immediate impact on people‘s values, attitudes and aspirations.