2 Classification of Matter ElementsDraw this chart!, leave space to define the termsPure SubstancesCompoundsMatterHomogeneousMixturesHeterogeneous
3 Pure Substances vs. Mixtures A pure substance is made of only one kind of material and has definite properties.Matter that consists of two or more substances mixed together but not chemically combined is called a mixture.
4 Pure Substances: Elements are the simplest pure substance. Examples: hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen.The smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element is called an atom.
5 Pure substances:Compounds are pure substances that are made of more than one element bound together.Examples: water (H2O), and carbon dioxide.A molecule is formed when two or more atoms chemically combine.Example: water (H2O), O2
6 MIXTURES Heterogeneous vs. Homogeneous Homogeneous matter (solutions): matter that has identical properties throughout.Examples: salt water, gravy, whipped creamHeterogeneous matter: matter that has parts with different properties.Examples: granite, soil, potpourri, cookies
7 LIQUID MIXTURES Miscible vs. Immiscible Miscible Mixture: liquids that mix evenly, forming a homogeneous solution. Example: Soda mixed with KoolaidImmiscible Mixture: liquids that DO NOT mix evenly, forming a heterogeneous mixture. Example: Oil mixed with Water
8 EXAMPLESWhat type of matter are each of the following… ?
14 Air Homogeneous mixture of: Nitrogen, N2 78.08% Oxygen, O2 20.95% Argon, Ar 0.93%Carbon dioxide, CO %Neon, Ne %Helium, He %Methane, CH %Krypton, Kr %Nitrogen(I) oxide, N2O %Hydrogen, H %Xenon, Xe %Ozone, O %Homogeneous mixture of:Many gases make up mixture, but it looks like it is all one gas.
26 This includes you and me! Giggitty, Giggitty, Goo! We are all made of atoms…and only atoms.This includes you and me! Giggitty, Giggitty, Goo!
27 Currently we have about 117 kinds of atoms Currently we have about 117 kinds of atoms. In the natural world there exists 92 different kinds of atoms.The others have been artificially produced in laboratories.The Elements Song
28 We call each kind of atom an element, and give it a specific name and symbol. Copper CuGold Au
34 Of course real atoms don’t look anything like this you imbecile! Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.Of course real atoms don’t look anything like this you imbecile!Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of atoms -- roughly at the centerElectrons travel around the nucleus.
35 It would be sweet if atoms really were this huge! Different kinds of atoms, or elements, are different because they have different numbers of protons.It would be sweet if atoms really were this huge!
36 We list the elements by their atomic numbers - the number of protons they have. Helium, number 2Hydrogen, number 1In several cases the atomic weights are in parentheses. This indicates that these elements have no stable isotopes; that is, they are radioactive. The value enclosed in parentheses and used for the atomic weight is the atomic mass number of the most stable known isotope, as indicated by the longest half-life.
37 Physical PropertiesPhysical properties: characteristics that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.Examples:massvolumecolorshapetexturedensity
38 Physical ChangesPhysical change: a change in the physical form or properties of a substance that occurs without a change in composition.Examples:meltingfreezinggrindingdissolving
39 Chemical PropertiesChemical property: describes a substance’s ability to change into a different substance.Examples:flammabilityreactivity
40 Chemical ChangesChemical change: occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances. (bonds are broken and bonds are formed)Example:HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
41 Indications of a Chemical Change… Heat in Endothermic (feels cold)Heat out Exothermic (feels hot)Gas is given off (fizzing or bubbles)Color ChangeNew Substance is Formed
47 Kinetic TheoryAll matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles.These tiny particles are always in motion. The higher the temp., the faster the particles move.At the same temp., more massive (heavier) particles move slower than less massive (lighter) particles. (inertia)
48 SOLIDS Definite shape? YES Definite volume? Molecules in a solid are tightly packed and constantly vibrating.Eureka: Molecules in Solids
49 LIQUIDS Definite shape? NO Definite volume? YES Some liquids flow more easily than others. The resistance of a liquid to flow is called viscosity.Honey has a high viscosity compared to water.Eureka: Molecules in Liquids
50 GASES Definite shape? NO Definite volume? The particles in a gas are spread very far apart, but can be compressed by pumping them into a restricted volume.Eureka: Molecules in Gases
51 Phase Changes (Changes of State) Changes in phase are examples of physical changes.Melting: solid liquidFreezing: liquid solidVaporization: liquid gasCondensation: gas liquidSublimation: solid gasDeposition: gas solid
52 Changes of State SOLID GAS LIQUID Melting Vaporization Condensation DepositionSublimationVaporizationCondensationMeltingFreezingLIQUID
53 Energy Transfers ENERGY is the ability to change or move matter. Energy is ABSORBED when substances melt or evaporate.NOTE: our bodies cool down when our sweat evaporates.Energy is RELEASED when substances freeze or condense.
54 Melting The change of state from solid to liquid. Energy (heat) is absorbed by the substance that is melting.
55 FreezingThe change of state from liquid to solid. Opposite of melting.Energy (heat) is released by the substance undergoing freezing.
56 Evaporation Energy (heat) is absorbed by the liquid The change of state at the surface of a liquid as it passes to a vapor. This results from the random motion of molecules that occasionally escape from the liquid surface.Energy (heat) is absorbed by the liquidCan happen at any temperature
57 CondensationThe change of state from gas to liquid. The opposite of evaporation.Energy (heat) is released by the gas to become a liquid.
58 Boiling Change from state from a liquid to a gas. Occurs throughout the liquid.boiling point/temperature is determined by pressureEnergy (heat) is absorbed by the liquid for it to boil and produce gas.
59 Phase Change Graph*Boiling & freezing points depend on the pressure.
60 Water at normal pressure (1 atm): For water at normal (every day) pressures:Melting/freezing point:Condensing/boiling point:0 oC (32oF)100 oC (212oF)
61 Phase Change Graph 0°C 100°C *Boiling & freezing points depend on the pressure.