2Poetry is the most misunderstood form of writing Poetry is the most misunderstood form of writing. It is also arguably the purest form of writing.Poetry is a sense of the beautiful; characterized by a love of beauty and expressing this through words.It is art. Like art it is very difficult to define because it is an expression of what the poet thinks and feels and may take any form the poet chooses for this expression.
3Definition of Poetry Poetry is not easily defined. Often it takes the form of verse, but not all poetry has this structure.Poetry is a creative use of words which, like all art, is intended to stir an emotion in the audience.Poetry generally has some structure that separates it from prose.
4Poetry Basics The basic unit of poetry is the line. It serves the same function as the sentence in prose, although most poetry maintains the use of grammar within the structure of the poem.Most poems have a structure in which each line contains a set amount of syllables; this is called meter.Lines are also often grouped into stanzas.
5StanzaThe stanza in poetry is equivalent or equal to the paragraph in prose.Often the lines in a stanza will have a specific rhyme scheme. Some of the more common stanzas are:Couplet: a two line stanzaTriplet: a three line stanzaQuatrain: a four line stanzaCinquain: a five line stanza
6MeterMeter is the measured arrangement of words in poetry, the rhythmic pattern of a stanza, determined by the kind and number of lines.Meter is an organized way to arrange stressed/accented syllables and unstressed/unaccented syllables.Whose woods / these are / I think /I know
7RhythmWhen reading a poem out loud, you may notice a sort of “sing-song” quality to it, just like in nursery rhymes.This is accomplished by the use of rhythm.Rhythm is broken into seven types.IambicAnapesticTrochaicDactylicMonosyllabicSpondaicAccentual
8Rhythm iambic: anapestic: trochaic: dactylic: These identify patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry.That means one syllable is pronounced stronger, and one syllable is softer.iambic:unstressedanapestic:trochaic:dactylic:
9Meter The length of a line of poetry based on what rhythm is used The length of a line of poetry is measured in metrical units called “FEET”.Each foot consists of one unit of rhythm.So, if the line is iambic or trochaic, a foot of poetry has 2 syllables.If the line is anapestic or dactylic, a foot of poetry has 3 syllables.
10Meter ContinuedEach set of syllables is one foot, and each line is measured by how many feet are in it.The length of the line of poetry is then labeled according to how many feet are in it.Monometer - PentameterDimeter - HexameterTrimeter - OctameterTetrameterRarely will there be more than 8 feet
11Count the syllables in each line to determine the meter. She Walks in BeautyShe walks in beauty, like the nightOf cloudless climes and starry skies;And all that’s best of dark and brightMeet in her aspect and her eyes:Thus mellowed to that tender lightWhich Heaven to gaudy day denies.Reading this poem out loud makes the rhythm evident. Which syllables are more pronounced? Which are naturally softer?˘ ΄ ˘ ΄ ˘ ΄ ˘ ΄One shade the more, one ray the less,Had half impaired the nameless graceWhich waves in every raven tress,Or softly lightens o’er her face;Where thoughts serenely sweet express,How pure, how dear their dwelling-place.Count the syllables in each line to determine the meter.And on that cheek, and o’er that brow,So soft, so calm, yet eloquent,The smiles that win, the tints that glow,But tell of days in goodness spent,A mind at peace with all below,A heart whose love is innocent!
12Rhyme Rhyme is when the endings of the words sound the same. Dust of Snowby Robert FrostThe way a crowShook down on meThe dust of snowFrom a hemlock treeHas given my heartA change of moodAnd save some partOf a day I had rued.
13Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming words at the end of each line. Not all poetry has a rhyme scheme. They are not hard to identify, but you must look carefully at which words rhyme and which do not.Dust of Snowby Robert FrostThe way a crowShook down on meThe dust of snowFrom a hemlock treeHas given my heartA change of moodAnd save some partOf a day I had rued.ABCDPoems of more than one stanza often repeat the same rhyme scheme in each stanza.
14Approximate RhymeAlso known as slant rhyme – created by substituting assonance or consonance for true rhymeExample: comb/coat; rule/room; walk/weak; hope/heap
15Free VerseFree verse is just what it says it is - poetry that is written without proper rules about form, rhyme, rhythm, and meter.In free verse the writer makes his/her own rules. The writer decides how the poem should look, feel, and sound.Blank verse is unrhymed Iambic PentameterShakespeare uses blank verse in his plays
16Repetition is the repeating of a sound, word, or phrase for emphasis. InsideInside the house (I get ready) Inside the car (I go to school) Inside the school (I wait for the bell to ring)☺
17Figurative LanguageFigurative language is any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject.The most common figures of speech are simile, metaphor, and personification.Figurative language is used in poetry to compare two things that are usually not thought of as being alike.Figurative language is not necessarily imagery!
18SimileA simile is a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as.The clouds looked like cotton candy.Grandpa was as stubborn as a muleTom's head is as hard as a rock.
19MetaphorA metaphor is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something important in common.Clouds are cotton candy.Grandpa was a mule.Tom is a rock.They are fluffy.They are stubborn.They are hard.
20PersonificationA figure of speech, which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea is called personification.It is a comparison, which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it.Example:A brave handsome tree fell with a creaking rending cry.The author is giving a tree the human quality of bravery and the ability to cry.
21Winter PoemBy Nikki Giovannionce a snowflake fellon my brow and i lovedit so much and i kissedit and it was happy and called its cousinsand brothers and a webof snow engulfed me theni reached to love them alland i squeezed them and they becamea spring rain and i stood perfectlystill and was a flower
22ApostropheThe device of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing or personified abstraction either to begin a poem, or to make a dramatic break in thought somewhere within the poemExample: “Oh Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?”
23Sound Devices Devices which add to the musical quality of the poem There are many kinds, like Rhyme, and RhythmAssonance: repetition of vowel sounds within a line of poetryExample: And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the sideOf my darling, my darling, my life and my bride.Consonance: the close repetition of identical consonant sounds before and after differing vowel soundsExample: leave/ love; short shirt
24OnomatopoeiaThe formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to is called onomatopoeia.It is a word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing, such as animal noises like "oink" or "meow", or suggesting its source object (these are the more important ones), such as "boom", "click", "bunk", "clang", "buzz", or "bang".
25____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ SOUND OF NATURE by Marie Josephine SmithTicking, tocking. Head is rocking. Tippy toeing Quietly. Snap, crack. Crushing branch. Helter, skelter. Run for shelter. Pitter, patter. Rain starts to fall. Gathering momentum. Becomes a roar. Thunder booms.____________________________
26Alliteration is the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words.Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal.To find an alliteration, you must look the repetitions of the same consonant sound through out a line._Silvery snowflakes fall silentlySoftly sheathing all with moonlightUntil sunrise slowly showsSnow softening swiftly.__________
27Imagery is an appeal to the senses Imagery is an appeal to the senses. The poet describes something to help you to see, hear, touch, taste, or smell the topic of the poem.Extended Image: an image that is developed over several lines of a poem or even throughout an entire poemFogThe fog comes on little cat feet.It sits looking over harbor and cityon silent haunches and then moves on.Carl SandburgSEE, HEARSEEHEAR, SEE, FEEL
28An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect is a hyperbole An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect is a hyperbole. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point.I’ve told you a million times not to leave the dirty glass on the table.Understatement: (meiosis) a type of verbal irony in which something is purposely represented as being far less important than it actually isExample: The ocean is a pretty big mass of water.Pun: a form of wit, not necessarily funny, involving a play on words with two or more meanings but the same soundsExample: grave/grave
29An idiom is a phrase where the words together have a meaning that is different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words.This can make idioms hard for students to understand.A day late and a dollar short. This idiom meansit is too little, too late.Cliché: any expression that has been used so often it has lost its freshness and precisionExample: tried and true; the last straw, etc.Euphemism: an agreeable word or expression substituted for one that is potentially offensiveExample: rest room/ toilet; he is at rest/he is dead
30HaikuHaiku is one of the most important forms of traditional Japanese poetry.Haiku is, today, a 17-syllable verse form consisting of three metered lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables.Each Haiku must contain a kigo, a season word, which indicate in which season the Haiku is set.For example, cherry blossoms indicate spring, snow indicate winter, and mosquitoes indicate summer, but the season word isn't always that obvious.
31Haikus By Paul McCannFog On the mountain top The fog fell down thick and fast It was like pea soup.Rain Tip-tap goes the rain. As it hits the window pane I can hear the rain.Hail They fell in showers. Like diamonds upon the ground Big hailstones were found.The theme of these three poems is weather in late autumn or early winter.
32The simplicity of the limerick quite possibly accounts for its extreme longevity. It consists of five lines with the rhyme scheme a a b b a. The first, second, and fifth lines are trimeter, a verse with three measures, while the third and fourth lines are dimeter, a verse with two measures. Often the third and fourth lines are printed as a single line with internal rhyme.Old Man with a BeardEdward LearThere was an Old Man with a beard,Who said, 'It is just as I feared!Two Owls and a Hen,Four Larks and a Wren,Have all built their nests in my beard!'AABBA
33A narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung, consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain.The Ballade Of The Mistletoe Bough by Ellis Parker ButlerI am standing under the mistletoe, And I smile, but no answering smile replies For her haughty glance bids me plainly know That not for me is the thing I prize; Instead, from her coldly scornful eyes, Indifference looks on my barefaced guile; She knows, of course, what my act implies— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile?
34I stand here, eager, and beam and glow, And she only looks a refined surprise As clear and crisp and as cold as snow, And as—Stop! I will never criticize! I know what her cold glance signifies; But I’ll stand just here as I am awhile Till a smile to my pleading look replies— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile?Just look at those lips, now! I claim they show A spirit unmeet under Christmas skies; I claim that such lips on such maidens owe A—something—the custom justifies; I claim that the mistletoe rule applies To her as well as the rank and file; We should meet these things in a cheerful guise— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile?
35Some might consider the study of poetry old fashioned, yet even in our hurried lives we are surrounded by it: children's rhymes, verses from songs, trite commercial jingles, well written texts. Any time we recognize words as interesting for sound, meaning or construct, we note poetics.