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U.S. and Canadian Lakewide Contaminant Monitoring Beth Murphy U.S. EPA, Great Lakes National Program Office Clarkson University Research Consortium Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "U.S. and Canadian Lakewide Contaminant Monitoring Beth Murphy U.S. EPA, Great Lakes National Program Office Clarkson University Research Consortium Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 U.S. and Canadian Lakewide Contaminant Monitoring Beth Murphy U.S. EPA, Great Lakes National Program Office Clarkson University Research Consortium Environment Canada U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program Office Ontario Ministry of the Environment U.S. Geological Survey NOAA

2 Overview of Presentation 1.Connection between CSMI and Monitoring Programs 2.Status of contaminants monitoring in the Great Lakes Legacy contaminants Emerging contaminants 3.Overview of U.S.EPA and Environment Canada Great Lakes monitoring and surveillance programs 4.Future Directions in Emerging Contaminant Research

3 Chemical Monitoring Programs & CSMI In general, chemical monitoring is not specific to any one lake. Programs collect and analyze data on a basin wide level. Programs are typically unable to incorporate annual changes into sampling regime. Results are compared and summarized through peer reviewed journal articles, governmental reporting (indicators), presentations, and collaborations between programs. Programs incorporating Legacy and “Emerging” chemicals into routine analysis. Funding dependant.

4 Chemical Prioritization CSMI Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement –Annex 3 Chemicals of Mutual Concern –“New” list of chemicals is in development –In previous agreement – included legacy contaminants PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, mercury Chemical Management Plan –Monitoring and Surveillance Working Group –Priorities integrated with Risk Assessment and Management –Includes new, emerged and emerging contaminants PBDEs and other flame retardants, PFCs, Siloxanes, other metals Historical Program trends Surveillance Collaboration potential

5 Legacy Contaminants in the Great Lakes Routine monitoring of: organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, etc. Concentrations of legacy contaminants have generally declined in Great Lakes media PCBs & mercury are still driving fish consumption advisories

6 Current Use Chemicals Routine monitoring of: Flame Retardants, Hg, PCDD/Fs, Musks, PFOS/A, etc. Many of these chemicals concentrations are at steady state or are declining. Method development and benchmark criteria continue to make the analysis and interpretation of some of these chemicals difficult.

7 Emerging Contaminants in the Great Lakes Polychlorinated napthalenes Fluorotelomer alcohols Non-PBDE flame retardants Perfluorinated compounds Br / Cl compounds Non-halogenated compounds Organometallic compounds Halogenated Compounds Siloxanes Pharmaceuticals & Personal care products (PPCPs) Degradation Products Evolving list of chemicals for surveillance and monitoring:

8 Great Lakes Monitoring & Surveillance Programs Air Fish Sediment + + Biota Water Tributary

9 Whole Fish Monitoring National Fish Contaminants Monitoring and Surveillance Program – Environment Canada –Daryl McGoldrickDaryl McGoldrick – 28EB4D2-1 28EB4D2-1 Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program – US EPA –Elizabeth Murphy Clarkson University - –

10 Mercury in Lake Superior Lake Trout Source: SOLEC 2011 Draft Technical report Declines observed until the early ~1990 Appears as though concentrations have been increasing. Consistent with observations in other studies in the Great Lakes Region - see Ecotoxicology 20(7)

11 GLFMSP New Chemicals in Lake Trout P. H. Howard and D. C. G. Muir, Environmental Science and Technology 2010, 44, 2277 Tetraphenyl tin Triphenyl tin hydroxide Confirmed - Catalyst – non-toxic? - Observed in Blubber by E. Hoh, ES&T 2012, 46, Biocide - Identified on the Howard/Muir 610 list as a potential PBT chemical Triphenyl phosphate Confirmed Easily Oxidized Triphenyl phosphite M/H List top 50

12 Joint CSMI GLFMSP Lake of the Year (LOY) Program Detailed Bioaccumulation Study Water (dissolved and particulate) Phytoplankton Zooplankton Mussels Benthic macro invertebrates Forage fish Lake trout Top to bottom lake snapshot Hg Bioaccumulation Lake Superior

13 Sport Fish Monitoring Fillet Monitoring Programs –U.S. States Minnesota Wisconsin Michigan –OMOE –Tribes / First Nations GLIFWC Mn Chippewa

14 LakeState/ProvincePCBDioxinMercuryChlordaneMirexToxaphene Superior Michigan 1 xxxx Wisconsinxx Minnesotax x Ontarioxxx x Huron Michigan 1 xxx Ontarioxxx Erie New Yorkx Ohiox x Pennsylvaniax Michigan 1 xxx Ontarioxxx New Yorkxx x Ontarioxxx Michigan Illinoisx x Michigan 1 x xxx Indianax x Wisconsinx x Chemicals Driving Fish Consumption Advice

15 Air Monitoring Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network Environment Canada –Hayley Hung – U.S. EPA –Todd Nettesheim Indiana University – Great Lakes Atmospheric Research –Liisa Jantunen –Mahiba Shoeib Mercury Deposition Network Illinois State Water Survey –David Gay, Program Coordinator – _Mercury_Deposition_Network_National_Atmospheric_Deposition_Program/141/

16 Levels of tetrabromo esters are rapidly increasing in the air Source: Ma et al., ES&T 2012, 46(1),

17 Organo-Phosphate Esters in Great Lakes Air TCPP: tris(2-chloro propyl) phosphate Used mostly as flame retardants and plasticizers but have many other uses Canadian Chemical Management Plan Priority compounds High volume production compounds Levels are very high for indoor air (100s ng/m 3 ) and dust (1000s ng/g). TCEP is being phased out in North America and has been banned in EU OPEs were analysed in air samples from Lake Superior 2011 and in archived air samples from Levels of  -OPEs averaged ~500pg/m 3 which is times higher than  -PBDEs. Levels were about the same in 2005 and 2011 TCEP: tris(2-chloro ethyl) phosphate TPP: tri-phenyl phosphate Atmospheric Research

18 Sediment Monitoring Great Lakes Sediment Surviellance Program (GLSSP) U.S. EPA (Cooperative Agreement) Todd Nettesheim: University of Illinois at Chicago An Li Environment Canada Chris Marvin- Debbie Burniston, WQMSD -

19 Preliminary GLSSP summary for Superior Spatial distribution based on surface sediment samples: –Sites S022 (near Duluth) and S106 (east of Keweenaw Peninsula) stand out to have much higher concentrations than other sites for target legacy pollutants (PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, DDE). –PBDEs are also higher at S022. –PFCs may exhibit a different trend – lower concentrations at S022 –Other emerging pollutants have low concentrations in general. Time trend based on core samples –Chronological resolution is limited by low sedimentation rates Research questions –Higher-than-expected concentrations of heavy (8-10 chlorines) PCBs were found and are yet to be confirmed. –Site S008 may deserve further investigation Elevated levels of soot carbon were found Previous work suggested PCB contamination at site

20 PFCA in Tributaries and Open Water

21 Water Monitoring Great Lakes Surveillance Program –Alice Dove –Indiana University Ron Hites Marta Venier Passive Sampling –Rainer Lohmann - University of Rhode Island – Derek Muir - Environment Canada Mercury Cycling and Bioaccumulation in the Great Lakes –David P. Krabbenhoft – USGS –

22 Total mercury in Great Lakes Waters

23 Dissolved Lindane Trend

24 Air pg/m Water pg/L Deposition Volatilization ShippingPopulated Rural Open Water PBDE Passive Sampling Results (June-Oct ’11) Ruge et al.

25 Air OCP Passive Sampling Results (June-Oct ’11 ) Water Ruge et al. α-HCH α-Endosulfan

26 OM rain methylation Sedimentation methylation Bottom waters Epilimnion Thermocline/Deep chlorophyll layer Sediments (top 20 cm) Runoff MeHg Annual Fluxes and Standing Pools – Lake Michigan Wet Dep. Sed Reflux Hypolimnion 12 kg 1-15% 2 kg 1-2% 8 kg 5-8% 3 kg 2-4% 0.4 kg 4-8% 11,000 kg 0.5%

27 Linking Mercury Sources and Invasive Species in the Near-Shore Zone

28 Biota Monitoring Chemicals Management Plan –Pam Martin –Rob Letcher Great Lakes Herring Gull Monitoring Program (GLHGMP) –Shane de Solla NOAA Mussel Watch –Kimani Kimbrough –Ed Johnson Ed. – px px

29 Spatiotemporal ( ) Trends of OPFRs in Herring Gull Egg Pools 3 Photo: R. Letcher CMP


31 Temporal of PCBs and 2,3,7,8 TCDD in Herring Gull Egg Pools GLHGMP

32 NOAA Mussel Watch Program Mussel Watch sites Mussel Watch AOC sites  AOC sites ( 2009/2010)

33 Tributary Monitoring USGS –GLRI Toxic Contaminant Monitoring in Tributaries Steve Corsi contaminant_loadings.html

34 Multi-tiered approach 59 total tributaries Passive samplers at all sites –SPMD, POCIS –30 day exposures PAHs Organic Waste Contaminants Organochlorine Pesticides Total PCBs PBDEs Estrogenicity (yeast estrogen screen) Water samples at 54 sites –Organic Waste Contaminants, DOC, optical properties –Hydrologic and seasonal variability for 20 sites over two years –1-6 samples for 34 sites Sediment samples at 15 sites –AOC focus –Sediment deposition: long-term exposure PCBs and Organochlorine pesticides

35 PAHs in Water Samples for Intensive Monitoring Sites Concentration (µg/L)

36 OWC Results

37 Coordination CSMI included in RFA requests – US Binational Monitoring meetings Joint publications / reporting Peer Review Regular communication

38 Future Direction Surveillance Benchmark identification Degradation products Establishing links –Environment and human –Food web changes and contaminant levels

39 Contributors Tom Holsen – Clarkson U. Bernard Crimmins – Clarkson U. Philip Hopke – Clarkson U. James Pagano – SUNY Oswego Michael Milligan – SUNY Fredonia Sean Backus - EC Daryl McGoldrick – EC Satyendra Bhavsar – OMOE Todd Nettesheim – EPA Liisa Jantunen – EC Chris Marvin – EC Kimani Kimbrough – NOAA Ed Johnson - NOAA Mahiba Shoeib – EC Alice Dove – EC Vi Richardson – EC Rainer Lohmann – URI Derek Muir – EC Hayley Hung – EC Rob Letcher - EC Pam Martain - EC Shane DeSolla – EC David Krabbenhoft – USGS Steve Corsi – USGS David Gay – ISWS

40 Questions? Beth Murphy US EPA Great Lakes National Program Office

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