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AN INTRODUCTION TO ARGUMENT AND RHETORIC

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1 AN INTRODUCTION TO ARGUMENT AND RHETORIC
AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION

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4 Everything is an Argument
Argument – the point is “to discover some version of the truth using evidence and reasons…lead[ing] audiences toward conviction, an agreement that a claim is true or reasonable, or that a course of action is desirable.” Persuasion – the point is “to change a point of view or to move others from conviction to action.” “…[A]rgue to discover some truth; …persuade when [you] think [you] already know it.” Source: Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Fuszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything’s an Argument., 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, p. 8.

5 Purposes/Goals of Argument
To Inform – about something audience doesn’t know; to advise of something’s existence To Convince audience of your point of view To Explore – personal reflections, serious problems in society, presenting and defending solutions To Make Decisions – may be the result of an exploratory argument To Meditate or Pray – often for the purpose of transforming something in oneself or reaching a state of equilibrium or peace of mind Examples of each one?

6 Occasions for Argument
About the Past – forensic arguments (history, law, business, academia) About the Future – deliberative arguments (what will or should happen in the future) About the Present – contemporary values (ethical premises and assumptions that are widely held or contested within society

7 ARISTOTLE’S RHETORICAL TRIANGLE
LOGOS (topic/message) Rhetorical Context Kairos ETHOS (speaker/writer) PATHOS (audience/reader)

8 Components of Audience Appeal
Emotional appeal (pathos) Ethical appeal (ethos) Logical appeal (logos) Rhetorical Context Kairos

9 Logos logical appeals; these appeal to an audience’s intelligence (common sense) ; and use credible evidence such as statistics, polls, precedents (specific examples from the past), cite authorities on topic (must be timely and qualified to judge topic), deductive or inductive reasoning

10 Types of Logical Appeal
Cite traditional culture Cite commonly held beliefs Allude to history, the Bible, or great literature Provide testimony, evidence, facts Draw analogies or create metaphors Cite authorities or research Cite precedents

11 Ethos establishing credibility with the audience. The writer must be deemed believable and trustworthy and often uses outside authorities who are also deemed credible to avoid making the argument look too personal.

12 Types of Ethical Appeal
Claim authority Connect own beliefs and values to core principles of audience “Coming clean” about motives Make audience believe writer is trustworthy Demonstrate that writer put in research time Present a carefully crafted and edited argument Demonstrate that writer knows and respects the audience Show concern about communicating with the audience Convince the audience that the writer is reliable and knowledgeable

13 Pathos using emotional appeals to engage the audience. This should not be overdone, but it can be effective because humans are emotional as well as intellectual beings. A writer’s word choices, use of figurative language, detail, and imagery, and tone help to create emotional appeals.

14 Types of Emotional Appeal
Use language that involves the senses Include a bias or prejudice Focus on basic needs of people Physical needs—life and health of the body Psychological needs -the need for love, respect… Social needs—the need for freedom, status, acceptance Use the euphemism or figurative language Experiment with informal language

15 Identify the Audience Appeal
“The bigger they are, the harder they fall.” a Livestrong bracelet “Better a conventional war now, than a nuclear confrontation later.” A Rolex watch “Just do it” (ad for Nike) “Have it your way.” (slogan for Burger King) a belated birthday card “We have nothing to fear but fear itself.”

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18 What emotions are aroused. How do words and image(s) clash
What emotions are aroused? How do words and image(s) clash? Is this an appeal to ethos or pathos? How do you know (evidence)?

19 Tonight Review examples of logos, pathos, and ethos.
Find and print an advertisement (i.e. junkmail, magazine, newspaper, etc.) that makes an argument. Label the examples of logos, pathos, and ethos

20 Day 3 Pair/share: present your print ad and appeals to your partner, then ask for feedback. Did you miss anything? Does your partner agree with your labeling? Partners, share with the your small group, discuss the appeals, and complete the “Audience Appeals” graphic organizer Debrief: (whole group) share most interesting appeals, most effective/ineffective

21 Day 4 S O A P T o n e Tonight, print and annotate the article “My Very Own Captain America” by addressing the following: Rhetorical Context (S.O.A.P.S.) Author’s claim, tone, and call to action At least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e. anaphora, figurative language, etc.) and how each helps develop/support the claim

22 Day 4: Components (contd.)
Rhetorical context – the situation that surrounds the act of writing or speaking. Includes subject, occassion, purpose, and audience. What am I writing about? What is my purpose? For whom am I writing?

23 What is Bush’s ARGUMENT?
President George W. Bush speaks at Mt. Rushmore in South Dakota, August 15, 2002, regarding his proposed 170,000-strong Homeland Security Department. Photo: Larry Downing/Reuters

24 Consider the vivid diction in this appeal:
Marie inched her heavy wheelchair up the narrow, steep entrance ramp to the library, her arms straining to pull up the last twenty feet, her face pinched with the sheer effort of it. Consider the diction and imagery which reveal pathos appeal What is argument? Opposing view? Call to action?

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26 Patterns of Development
The logical way to arrange or organize the argument according to the author’s purpose. Narration Description Process analysis Exemplification Comparison and Contrast Classification and Division Definition Cause and Effect

27 Components (contd.) Kairos – The right moment, the opportune time. The right or critical place. The speaker’s ability to understand and use the contingency of context and to make decisions about the appropriateness of rhetorical choices. Relies on “exigence” – what happens or what fails to happen, reason why one is compelled to speak at that moment.

28 When Rhetoric Misses the Mark
Understanding the audience is vital to the success of an argument. Consider President Clinton’s initial address to the nation concerning Monica Lewinsky: Why did it “miss the mark”? How was it different from speech as originally written? What would the audience think/feel while listening to it? Now, view the actual address to the nation: Why did he give the speech he did instead of the original?

29 Clinton’s Apology?

30 Challenger Disaster Purpose Tone Audience appeal Style
Listen to Reagan’s speech, then answer the prompts regarding Purpose Tone Audience appeal Style

31 Reagan’s Argument Annotate/Note Reagan’s Rhetorical Context
Author’s claim, purpose, tone, and call to action At least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e., repetition, anaphora, figurative language, etc.)

32 annotate your print copy, addressing the following:
Rhetorical Context Author’s claim, tone, and call to action At least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e., repetition, anaphora, figurative language, etc.) What do you think makes the speech remarkable, considered to be in the “top 100” of American speeches?

33 Review of an Effective Argument
Makes claims based on factual evidence Makes counter-claims, takes opposing views into account Neutralizes or defeats serious opposing ideas Convinces audience through the merit and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offered Logic-based Makes effective audience appeals


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