4Everything is an Argument Argument – the point is “to discover some version of the truth using evidence and reasons…lead[ing] audiences toward conviction, an agreement that a claim is true or reasonable, or that a course of action is desirable.”Persuasion – the point is “to change a point of view or to move others from conviction to action.”“…[A]rgue to discover some truth; …persuade when [you] think [you] already know it.”Source: Lunsford, Andrea A., John J. Fuszkiewicz, and Keith Walters. Everything’s an Argument., 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, p. 8.
5Purposes/Goals of Argument To Inform – about something audience doesn’t know; to advise of something’s existenceTo Convince audience of your point of viewTo Explore – personal reflections, serious problems in society, presenting and defending solutionsTo Make Decisions – may be the result of an exploratory argumentTo Meditate or Pray – often for the purpose of transforming something in oneself or reaching a state of equilibrium or peace of mindExamples of each one?
6Occasions for Argument About the Past – forensic arguments (history, law, business, academia)About the Future – deliberative arguments (what will or should happen in the future)About the Present – contemporary values (ethical premises and assumptions that are widely held or contested within society
9Logoslogical appeals; these appeal to an audience’s intelligence (common sense) ; and use credible evidence such as statistics, polls, precedents (specific examples from the past), cite authorities on topic (must be timely and qualified to judge topic), deductive or inductive reasoning
10Types of Logical Appeal Cite traditional cultureCite commonly held beliefsAllude to history, the Bible, or great literatureProvide testimony, evidence, factsDraw analogies or create metaphorsCite authorities or researchCite precedents
11Ethosestablishing credibility with the audience. The writer must be deemed believable and trustworthy and often uses outside authorities who are also deemed credible to avoid making the argument look too personal.
12Types of Ethical Appeal Claim authorityConnect own beliefs and values to core principles of audience“Coming clean” about motivesMake audience believe writer is trustworthyDemonstrate that writer put in research timePresent a carefully crafted and edited argumentDemonstrate that writer knows and respects the audienceShow concern about communicating with the audienceConvince the audience that the writer is reliable and knowledgeable
13Pathosusing emotional appeals to engage the audience. This should not be overdone, but it can be effective because humans are emotional as well as intellectual beings. A writer’s word choices, use of figurative language, detail, and imagery, and tone help to create emotional appeals.
14Types of Emotional Appeal Use language that involves the sensesInclude a bias or prejudiceFocus on basic needs of peoplePhysical needs—life and health of the bodyPsychological needs -the need for love, respect…Social needs—the need for freedom, status, acceptanceUse the euphemism or figurative languageExperiment with informal language
15Identify the Audience Appeal “The bigger they are, the harder they fall.”a Livestrong bracelet“Better a conventional war now, than a nuclear confrontation later.”A Rolex watch“Just do it” (ad for Nike)“Have it your way.” (slogan for Burger King)a belated birthday card“We have nothing to fear but fear itself.”
18What emotions are aroused. How do words and image(s) clash What emotions are aroused? How do words and image(s) clash? Is this an appeal to ethos or pathos? How do you know (evidence)?
19Tonight Review examples of logos, pathos, and ethos. Find and print an advertisement (i.e. junkmail, magazine, newspaper, etc.) that makes an argument.Label the examples of logos, pathos, and ethos
20Day 3Pair/share: present your print ad and appeals to your partner, then ask for feedback. Did you miss anything? Does your partner agree with your labeling?Partners, share with the your small group, discuss the appeals, and complete the “Audience Appeals” graphic organizerDebrief: (whole group) share most interesting appeals, most effective/ineffective
21Day 4SOAPToneTonight, print and annotate the article “My Very Own Captain America” by addressing the following:Rhetorical Context (S.O.A.P.S.)Author’s claim, tone, and call to actionAt least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e. anaphora, figurative language, etc.) and how each helps develop/support the claim
22Day 4: Components (contd.) Rhetorical context – the situation that surrounds the act of writing or speaking. Includes subject, occassion, purpose, and audience. What am I writing about? What is my purpose? For whom am I writing?
23What is Bush’s ARGUMENT? President George W. Bush speaks at Mt. Rushmore in South Dakota, August 15, 2002, regarding his proposed 170,000-strong Homeland Security Department. Photo: Larry Downing/Reuters
24Consider the vivid diction in this appeal: Marie inched her heavy wheelchair up the narrow, steep entrance ramp to the library, her arms straining to pull up the last twenty feet, her face pinched with the sheer effort of it.Consider the diction and imagery which reveal pathos appealWhat is argument? Opposing view? Call to action?
26Patterns of Development The logical way to arrange or organize the argument according to the author’s purpose.NarrationDescriptionProcess analysisExemplificationComparison and ContrastClassification and DivisionDefinitionCause and Effect
27Components (contd.)Kairos – The right moment, the opportune time. The right or critical place. The speaker’s ability to understand and use the contingency of context and to make decisions about the appropriateness of rhetorical choices. Relies on “exigence” – what happens or what fails to happen, reason why one is compelled to speak at that moment.
28When Rhetoric Misses the Mark Understanding the audience is vital to the success of an argument.Consider President Clinton’s initial address to the nation concerning Monica Lewinsky:Why did it “miss the mark”?How was it different from speech as originally written?What would the audience think/feel while listening to it?Now, view the actual address to the nation:Why did he give the speech he did instead of the original?
30Challenger Disaster Purpose Tone Audience appeal Style Listen to Reagan’s speech, then answer the prompts regardingPurposeToneAudience appealStyle
31Reagan’s Argument Annotate/Note Reagan’s Rhetorical Context Author’s claim, purpose, tone, and call to actionAt least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e., repetition, anaphora, figurative language, etc.)
32annotate your print copy, addressing the following: Rhetorical ContextAuthor’s claim, tone, and call to actionAt least 5 different rhetorical devices (i.e., repetition, anaphora, figurative language, etc.)What do you think makes the speech remarkable, considered to be in the “top 100” of American speeches?
33Review of an Effective Argument Makes claims based on factual evidenceMakes counter-claims, takes opposing views into accountNeutralizes or defeats serious opposing ideasConvinces audience through the merit and reasonableness of the claims and proofs offeredLogic-basedMakes effective audience appeals