2Hans Berger ( )Trauma as a soldier threatened emotional connection between him and his sister, experienced as psychic transmission.After the war he became a psychiatrist and worked on the technology until he obtained first recording in 1924.From 1929 to 1938 he published 14 scientific papers investigating EEG in clinical and normal populations.
3Brain waves were first studied to help explain a psychic experience As a soldier in the German Army in first decade of 1900, Berger fell off his horse directly in front of artillery cart and was nearly run overWhen he returned to HQ, telegram from his father saying his sister had feeling that he had been injuredBerger would explore physical means of such psychic transmissionsWWI German soldier
4Brain activity & psychic action He studied blood circulation in brain (1901). He investigated influence of heartbeat, respiration, vasomotor functions, and position of the head and body on brain pulsations measured through an opening (trephined) in the skull, but information was limited and ultimately disappointing.In 1902 he measured electrical activity above skull defects with capillary electrometer; later a galvanometer.
5Previous Research leading to EEG Berger was fully aware that Richard Caton ( ), a Liverpool surgeon, had succeeded in 1875 in measuring electrical potentials on the exposed cortex of experimental animals (rabbit and monkey).Berger also knew of Polish physiologist Adolf Beck (1891) and Russian physiologist Pravdich-Neminski ( ) who recorded photographic record of the electrical activity of dog’s brain through the skull.
6SecrecyBerger's experiments carried on in spare time and utter secrecy.As a diversionary measure he gave public discourses on telepathy, offering hypotheses of wave propagation to explain it.1926 lab
7First EEG (1924)Berger made 73 EEG recordings from his 15y son, Klaus.First frequency encountered was in 10-hertz range, (8 to 12 Hz) which he named alpha (others called the Berger rhythm).After 5 years of investigation, he published his findings.In 1929 he reported how brain waves changed dramatically if subject simply shifts from eyes closed to eyes open state. Furthermore, brain waves also changed when the subject sat quietly with eyes closed "focusing" on solving a math problem.
8Recognition came lateIn 1937 invited to preside with Adrian at symposium on electrical activity in the nervous system at the Congress of Psychology in Paris. They hailed Berger as the most distinguished of all the visitors.He was ordered by Nazi authorities in 1938 to fire all Jewish employees at his lab.He refused and was forced to retire. He hung himself at his clinic on June 1, 1941He studied normal subjects and brain-injured, thereby laying the foundation for the application of the technique to clinical technology.
9Electrophysiology spontaneous activity, evoked potentials, and single neuron recordings