1Advanced Coal Technologies (ACT), LLC “Coal21st” Coal Refining Process March 2007
2ENERGY SYSTEMATICS PRIMARY ENERGY SYSTEMS SECONDARY ENERGY SYSTEMS Molecular (burning fossil fuels, producing ethanol from biomass)Atomic/Nuclear (fission and fusion)Solar (solar electric, solar thermal, wind)SECONDARY ENERGY SYSTEMSHydrogen systemsElectron systems (electricity)
8ACT Coal 21st Process Inputs and Outputs 6 MwInternally Generated(140 tpd)160 tpd(Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene) at 75 tpd1000 tpdNaphtha32 tpdA simple diagram describes the process flows in the Coal 21st coal refinery and the conversion of 1000 tpd into 1. methane which is converted into syngas for low emission Fisher Tropes (FT) diesel fuel, naphtha, and lubricants plus H2 and CO recycled back to drive the reaction 2. liquid fuels and aromatics (bunker C or #4 fuel oil, BTX, and naphtha) and 3. low sulfur, high ash carbon or char (as an environmentally friendly boiler fuel.6 tpd40 tpd370 tpd
9Value of 100 tpd Coal 21st Coal Refinery Products PriceQuantityDaily ValueAnnual ValueLED500$/ton14tons$ 7,000$ ,172,,000BTX1,0008$ 8,000$ ,482,000naphtha3$ 1,500$ ,000fuel oil16NH33001$$ ,000sulfur1004$$ ,000Char Price6037$ 2,220$ ,000Total$/ton83$ 27,420$ ,507,000LED is low emission diesel, sometimes referred to as “green diesel” and represents the value of the H2 and CO that is left over from the Partial Oxidation (POX) process which converts the methane into the H2 and CO. Half of the H2 and CO is used to drive the HDP reactor and the other half can be used to make LED or any high value petrochemical. .
10Ultimate Integrated Coal Refining Process Flow AIR SEPARATIONNITROGENOr CO2OXYGENSTEAMINERTGAS FORDRY FEEDPARTIALOXIDATIONPOXREACTORCO / CH4 RICHRECYCLE GASH2COALPREPARATIONANDFEEDSYNGAS1600 F to 2200OFHOT POXGASOptional H2, COGasSeparation for hydro-treatmentFISHER TROPSE(FT)SYNTHESIS OFHIGH VALUEDIESELFTDIESEL$$$STEAMH2SYNGASSWEET GASAROMATIC s, OILSANDSYNGASESCOOLING,LIQUIDSCONDENSATION,AMMONIARECOVERYOPTIONALSHIFT AND / ORSTEAMREFORMREACTORACID GASREMOVALAGRHDPREACTORANDCHARWATER QUENCHSTEAMSULFUR ORSULFURIC ACIDA very detailed process flow diagram showing alternate use of residual syngas for FT LED production, possible recycle of BTX to the HDP unit or reformed into syngas for production of more FT LED, selling of hot , 600 F char to a close coupled boiler, etc.AROMATIC OILSAMMONIAOR OILINJECTED TOPRODUCEMORESYNGASOPTIONAL OIL QUENCH OILSOPTIONAL RECYCLE AROMATIC OILSRECYCLERECOVERHYDROTREATEDOILSBTXHOTCHAR(LOW S&N)OPTIONALRECOVERYORRECYCLECLOSE COUPLEDEXISTING PC, BOILER,OR CFBC, OR PCFBCPOWER FORCOAL REFINERYNAPHTHAON SITEUSEYESFUEL OILEXCESS POWERTO GRIDMAKE UPBFWSLAGSYNTHETICCOAL$$$NOTRANSMISSIONTOWERSPRODUCE PITCHOR BINDERWITH CHARTRAIN
11ACT proprietary Information Hydrodisportionation (HDP) operation and designOptimization of Flash Hydropyrolysis conditionsSeparation of char from gasSlot/star feed system for fast pressurized non-agglomerating feed of coalRecycle of methane to POX for hydrogen conservation and H2 and CO production to initiate Flash HydropyrolysisIntegration of ACT Flash Hydropyrolysis system with oil refinery downstream system.Production of syngas for SASOL conversion to low emission diesel.ACT has proprietary concepts, processes, information, and technology as well as patents.
12Example of what an ACT Coal 21st Coal Refinery would look like (Using the DOE/SC Power System Development Facility for Scale)Fuel HandlingThis is a picture in the day and at night of the DOE/SC PSDF which is similar in scale to the ACT coal refinery. The fuel handling would be the latest improved version of the PSDF fuel handling facility which has been a very successful pressurized pulverized coal feed system. A meeting with ACT in the US could be arranged for the DOE/SC PSDF which is about an hour from the Birmingham, AL airport.
13ACT 100 tpd Optimization Plant Specifications Confidential information in a separate document provided to interested parties
14Coal21st: Economic Benefits High value chemicals produced: primarily benzene with some toluene and xylene (BTX) for chemical processing facilities.Benzene is a raw material for production of phenol, malic acid, caprolactam, alkylbenzene, styrene, and dye stuff intermediates.Toluene (Methylbenzene) is a Solvent for paint and rubber, and Raw material for toluene di-isocyanate, benzoic acid, and dye stuff intermediate.Xylene is solvent for paint and insecticide, and raw material for paraxylene, orthoxylene, and ethylbenzeneNaphtha as N-dodecane with boiling point (bp) of 4210 FFuel Oil as N-pentadecane with bp of 5190 FOther oils like thiophene with some sulfur (bp 1830 F) pyrrole with some nitrogen (bp 2660 F), heavy oils like chrysene (bp 8260 F)Low sulfur diesel, methanol, or other chemicals from residue syngas.Low sulfur, low nitrogen, high Btu solid fuel-CharEconomic Benefits are shown as high value liquid fuels and petrochemicals.
15Why ACT’s Coal 21st Coal Refining Process? Highest throughput (lowest residence time 0.1 to 3.0 seconds) of all synfuels process resulting in lowest capital cost (HDP should be factor of >10 times cheaper than equivalent sized gasifier with residence times in the minutes).Coal 21st maximizes yield of high value aromatics as BTX plus naphtha and fuel oils (can be used directly or refined further into diesel fuel, gasoline)Low emissions of CO2 as BTX when converted primarily into paint and plastics traps about 8% of the carbon. Low emission diesel (LED) has a Cetane number of 78, twice that of conventional diesel. This increases miles per gallon and reduces CO2 another 0.7%. The result is a total potential reduction of about 8.7% over burning the coal for electricity.Potential to be a more flexible and robust design with possible recycle of aromatics, steam reforming of aromatics into syngas, conversion of syngas into multiple productsLow sulfur solid fuel (char) produced as compliance solid fuel for existing and new coal fired power plantsHigh Return on Equity (24% for 100 tpd to 232% for 30,000 tpd) is possible due to the low cost of the HDP, high throughput. (assuming $30 per ton for coal and > $250 per ton for products).Benefits of the Coal 21st Process are listed. Note that the overall reduction in CO2 with ACT’s COAL 21st Coal Refining process is nearly 10% over the CO2 that would be emitted by burning the coal directly while at the same time providing a potentially high ROE for ACT coal refineries.
16Coal21st Societal & Environmental Benefits Twenty 30,000 tpd Coal21st Coal Refineries would generate char for 25,000 MW of clean power and produce 640,000 bbl/day of very low sulfur liquids thereby decreasing dependence on imported or domestic oil.Burning char instead of coal reduces SOx (>85%) and NOx (65%), toxics (mercury, chlorine, etc. total), particulates ( microns) without flue gas desulfurization for SOx or SCR for NOxLow emissions of CO2 as BTX when converted primarily into paint and plastics traps about 8% of the carbon. Low emission diesel (LED) has a Cetane number of 78, twice that of conventional diesel. This increases miles per gallon and reduces CO2 another 0.7%. The result is a total potential reduction of about 8.7% over burning the coal for electricity.Syngas produced by Fisher-Tropsch (FT) yields low emission diesel (LED) with 1 ppm sulfur (exceeds new EPA standards) plus low sulfur naphtha and high value lubricants.Coal refineries can use any local, poor quality, high cost coals (insensitive to coal prices).Coal refineries will draw other petrochemical industries to the location spurring economic development
17IDC is Interest During Construction Range of capital costs as a function of size. It is assumed that costs in Taiwan will be 63% of the costs in the US. A 100 tpd ACT Coal 21st coal refinery process is assumed to cost about $24 million and a 300 tpd is estimated to cost about $52 million. The risks of failure increase with size based on today’s base of knowledge. Success of the 100 tpd is estimated to be > 80%.IDC is Interest During ConstructionInitial 100 tpd is estimated to cost $21 million ($10million equity) in Asia
18100 tpd is estimated to yield 24% ROE Range of ROE as a function of size based on coal input in 1,000 tpd. Note that a 100 tpd unit has a respectable 24% ROE at a $24 million total investment cost. ROE increases significantly up to 5,000 tpd maxing out at 30,000 tpd.100 tpd is estimated to yield 24% ROE
19Potential Competitive Coal Conversion Technologies for FT diesel production International production from associated natural gas (flare gas) and FT diesel synthesis using Gas to Liquids (GTL Processes) requires mega gas fields.Encoal mild gasification produces a char and a reduced sulfur residual fuel oil at high costDomestic production of FT diesel from GTL synthesis with natural gas (which is not economic with high natural gas prices in the US).Coal gasification for FT diesel production (like the Gilberton project in Pennsylvania) which is higher in capital cost and lower in ROE than Coal 21st coal refining process.Headwaters’ Hydrogen Technology’s expensive but high yield coal gasification to GTL or direct coal hydro-cracking with recycled heavy process liquids and use of external hydrogen (currently being licensed in China). Lower ROE than Coal21st.Potential competition are too capital intense and have lower ROEs
20Shell Gasification Markets are Really Coal to Chemicals in China? Shell Coal Gasification Process is being implemented in China to produce ammonia, urea, methanol, etc.; though it is more expensive than ACT’s Coal 21st process.