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Public Media in Canada Group 11 is: Adella Angela Hanna Jasleen Michaela.

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Presentation on theme: "Public Media in Canada Group 11 is: Adella Angela Hanna Jasleen Michaela."— Presentation transcript:

1 Public Media in Canada Group 11 is: Adella Angela Hanna Jasleen Michaela

2 Good morning beautiful people! You're listening to on J4K FM

3 What is public media? Publically funded Government involvement or entrenchment For the public good Accessible to a majority of the population

4 Public vs. private media Privately funded – more funding options Large media conglomerates Can potentially be partisan or niche Not bound to work in the public interest

5 Ethics Government in power has funding control Tax payer money being spent Private media and owners

6 Mandate of the CBC The Broadcasting Act says the CBC is to inform, enlighten, and entertain Be predominantly and distinctly Canadian Reflect Canada and its regions Contribute to the flow of cultural expression Be in English and French and be available throughout Canada Contribute to the shared national consciousness and identity

7 Early radio in Canada Radio first appeared in Canada in 1920 – in three years, 3/4 households owned one Huge growth here American stations and programs dominated Fears of Americanisation

8 Organization takes shape 1928 Royal Commission to advise on the control, organization and financing Recommended creating a public broadcasting company

9 The CBC is born In 1932, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission is established In 1936, it became the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, like it is today Supervise the private stations and “foster a national spirit” Limited funds meant limited programming

10 The approach to TV Television becomes a possibility in the late 1940s The CBC prepares a 15-year plan In 1952, the first two CBC television stations began broadcasting 66 per cent able to access television by 1955 Like radio, huge growth

11 Legislative framework Fowler Commission establishes the CRTC in 1957 The 1968 Broadcasting Act entrenched CBC as the national service provider of media Important in identity entrenchment in Canada

12 Advancing technology Satellite technology in the 1970s This is an important development for those who couldn’t previously access services

13 An examination of private media 1980 Royal Commission on Newspapers Since then, the CRTC has attempted to fix this Concerns over the fair representation of all view points

14 What is the CBC today? Many national news services 2/3 budget provided by the government, the rest from advertising $1.5 billion on average is funded - $30 per Canadian per year

15 Problems facing the CBC today CBC French programs have a 3x larger audience than English Funding is always a challenge Private media is always a challenge

16 Comparisons to private media Private media does not offer content in Aboriginal languages, not as much French But, more financial resources Coverage is based on financial aspects The two mediums provide options for consumers

17 NPR: The Funding Model “We are unbought and unbossed. The Listeners own us.” – Michel Martin, host of Tell Me More, quoting congresswoman Shirley Chisholm

18 Where do the dollars come from? Source:

19 Member Stations There are about 900 member stations that carry NPR’s content NPR does not own any stations; member stations own NPR They are independent, locally owned and operated broadcasters About two-thirds of stations are licensed to, or are affiliated with, colleges or universities Partners with NPR in newsgathering Member stations pay fees for the individual NPR programs they choose to broadcast. These fees and dues make up the largest source of operating revenue for NPR. Source:


21 Corporations that Support Member Stations AMC American Apparel Apple Capitol Records Chrysler Group ESPN Fox Searchlight General Mills HarperCollins HBONetflixPBS Rosetta Stone Starbucks CorporationVisa Walt Disney Records Weight Watchers Source: 2010 NPR Annual Report

22 Source:

23 Audience Growth from 1998 to 2009 Source: 2010 NPR Annual Report

24 The (Apparent) Freedom to Report The economic climate still affects not for profit organizations Two different notions of what constitutes the public interest: The Market Model versus The Civic Model Source: Wade Rowland. Saving the CBC (2013)

25 Jeffrey Dvorkin, Lecturer and Journalism Program Director, University of Toronto

26 “If it Bleeds, it Leads.”

27 Let me offer you an example…

28 What city in the United States has the fastest growing classical music audience?



31 “The CBC may have a bigger house proportionally, but NPR has a bigger backyard.” – Jeffrey Dvorkin, former NPR ombudsman



34 An Evolving Financial Strategy CBC faced with a $115 million budget reduction from the government Partnership between CBC and VIA Rail lets passengers watch a variety of Canadian programming on demand On Radio-Canada International (RCI), the number of languages they broadcast in was reduced from seven to five Sold Bold, one of their specialty channels. Reduced the square footage of their newsrooms Source: CBC Annual Report, 2012-2013

35 The Need for Digital Spaces Advertising revenue decreased by $42.9 million compared to 2011–2012. The Corporation will face $200 million in financial pressures over the next three years. 600 analogue transmitters were shut down. And yet… The CBC feels the need to “create and nurture Canadian digital spaces” To enhance the reach of their content, CBC renewed existing agreements with Netflix, Air Transat, Telus, Rogers On Demand, Rogers Wireless, Vidéotron, France Télévisions, Bell, Samsung and Xbox Obtained a licence from the CRTC for Trésor, an upcoming new French-language specialty channel In 2013, portal expanded from 40 to 50 channels, and CBC Music mobile apps for Android and Blackberry 10 were introduced. Source: CBC Annual and Quarter Financial Reports, 2012-2013, 2013-2014

36 How does the economic climate change the way journalists feel about their job? Voice of Caitlin Crockard, CBC Producer, All In A Day

37 “In the future we need to be more nimble when it comes to playing around with new ways to let people hear and see us.” – Caitlin Crockard “No single national voice reflects all of Canada.” Maybe the CBC needs to be decentralized into smaller blocks, with one English service for the West and another for the East. Source: Roland Renner. “Options for the CBC: Alternative roles for the national public broadcaster.” (2013)

38 A broad outlook on CBC radio content More sensational, hard news stories to appeal to a younger audience If it bleeds, it leads CBC has also changed some of their music selection to play occasional pop songs Becoming increasingly similar to private radio

39 Sarah MacFadyen, former CBC Radio Broadcaster, now teaches radio at Carleton University

40 Radio: Changing content “CBC television news has ceased to be serious. The truth is if you watch The National, three out of four days starts with some awful, horrible accident. It’s become un-serious, the opposite of serious.” – Eric Koch, former producer of CBC TV

41 Ethical impacts of changes in content Public radio exists to keep the public well informed and updated on the news in their local area and around the world. Ethically, when sensational stories run simply to draw in a broader audience, the good of the public is not always being served.

42 Impact on stories There are hardly any government voices in public radio Lack of government support has caused funding cuts for CBC Radio Journalists are now required to do more stories on a tight deadline, which can affect the quality of the stories Stories are less layered with fewer sources Model has shifted from “user-informed” to “user- driven”

43 Canadian content and national identity 50% of CBC’s popular music content must Canadian Only 35% of private radio popular music content must be Canadian Promotes national identity


45 What is NPR? NPR is a national public broadcaster in the United States. It has roots across the country, much like the CBC does here. Best known for programming like “All Things Considered” and “This American Life”, which are accessible as podcasts worldwide.

46 How did they start? NPR started in the 1970s as a radio network by a group of public radio stations, allowing them to share content. They started earnest expansion into national news right before 9/11, which acted as a good transitioning time because people were hungry for information.

47 What do they do now? Everything. NPR has become a news organization that shares content across the country from local stations, as well as their own programming, and uses this content across platforms. You can find them on the radio, on, or on a They cover political news in the United States Had the first online stream of The Great Gatsby soundtrack, and has syndicated radio programs. They’re listenership has more than doubled since 1999 and they have an operating budget of $183 million.

48 Why are they so successful? They’re everywhere. They work with member stations across the country so they have content originating from all of these stations, and share their content with them. Ninety-five per cent of Americans live within listening range of a station carrying NPR programming.

49 Aaaand the Radio BOOM Whereas the CBC saw the Canadian public radio boom in the 1970s, the U.S. is in the midst of it. “Because public radio in the United States grows from the tips of the roots in, rather than from the main trunk out, it comes more slowly”—Dick Gordon

50 Digital Media They train everyone on digital media Every journalist, producer, editor, etc. gets trained on how to put together and think about digital media, allowing them to be ahead of the curve in connecting media. They were the first mainstream-media organization to enter podcasting and are still succeeding there, with top programs in iTunes.

51 Quick facts: 27 million average monthly downloads of NPR podcasts 23 million average monthly unique visitors for NPR digital media 26.8 million average weekly listeners for NPR programming and newscasts In 2011 CBC listenership was at an apparent high with 4.9 million listeners on CBC Radio One and 2.1 million listeners on CBC Radio 2 That fall CBC also had over one million unique pages views per month 5.7 million podcast downloads per month

52 INTRODUCING: Dick Gordon Worked at the CBC for over 20 years when they were experiencing the radio boom, moved to NPR for a few years in the early 2000s, and worked with another public radio station in North Carolina on The Story until he retired last fall.


54 Funding for public TV Over the past decades, however, funding has been either been flat or declining, and with inflation 'flat' means it's declining In the 2012 budget, it was announced that CBCs budget would be cut by $115 by 2015

55 Why no funding? Canada does not put an importance on investing in the public broadcasting system. Mark Allen, Director of Research and Analysis at the CBC/Radio-Canada says: ◦We have an industry that's focused on private broadcasters ◦The biggest problem for Canadian TV is the regulation behind it

56 Canadian content regulations CRTC established Canadian Content regulations: Private television stations and networks (e.g., CTV, Global) and ethnic TV stations must achieve a yearly Canadian content level of: ◦60 percent overall, measured during the day (i.e., between 6 a.m. and midnight) ◦50 percent, measured during the evening broadcast period (i.e., 6 p.m. to midnight) CBC (public) must ensure that at least 60 percent of its overall schedule, measured during the day (i.e., 6 a.m. to midnight), is Canadian

57 Affects on Canadian TV programming Almost all the shows played during primetime, when the most people are watching, are American The Canadian content that is produced to fill quotas in the private sector are usually American knock-offs (cheap to make)

58 Affects on news programming Bottom-line affects when the news in aired Supposed to be watchdog on government for the public, but problematic with the power the government has with funding

59 For the future of TV broadcasting in Canada, ideally… Mark Allen, Director of Research and Analysis at the CBC/Radio-Canada

60 What we can learn from the British system Britain puts the responsibility on the public broadcaster The result: their private sector is trying to catch up to the quality of the BBC programs, which are very popular with the British public

61 Where does public radio and TV fit in a world of citizen journalism? Citizen journalism can be a great tool for public media However, CBC must have methods in place in order for it to be successful This should include methods for reviewing the work of citizen journalists to ensure there are no factual errors as well as having back up plans in case deadlines are missed

62 How will this evolution of public media affect newsrooms? Additional pressure on journalists to turn around multiple stories quickly in several different mediums Staff burnout More jobs for younger reporters but a loss of knowledge from experienced reporters Speed vs. accuracy

63 Some tips for journalists… Wait before you tweet Have journalistic skills in all forms of media Have knowledge in as many subjects as possible Be prepared to chase several stories per day Be flexible, adapt when stories take a different turn than anticipated and run with it Always be on the lookout for hard news stories that can be turned around quickly

64 So, what does the future hold for Canadian public broadcasting? Is public media still relevant? With increasing private concentration, public media has become important Private and public media are still trying to fix their revenue models Shrinking budgets, changing newsrooms Cultural identity? (Legislative mandate?) Privatization? Digital platforms, apps, innovation Journalists being experts in all fields

65 Thanks for listening to Check out our J4K FM website to revisit this topic!

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