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1 Human Factors Course Session 3 Eric Davey Crew Systems Solutions 2007 March 28.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Human Factors Course Session 3 Eric Davey Crew Systems Solutions 2007 March 28."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Human Factors Course Session 3 Eric Davey Crew Systems Solutions 2007 March 28

2 2 Session 3 - Design to support human-system interaction Topics Expectations and challenges Principles and practices Automation Application process  Integrating HF with system design Resources Regulatory expectations Case Study - Therac 25 Medical Accelerator Introduction

3 3 CLS Mission Expectations Expectations Excellence in performance Increasing effectiveness and efficiencies Safety and production Environment Ongoing facility change and evolution Increasing complexity Increasing applications of technology/automation Background

4 4 Achieving Expectations Systematic Approach Well defined goals Understanding of hazards and risks Rigourous equipment design Defined practices and processes Controlled operations Ongoing assessment of performance Use of standards and peer guidance Continual learning and improvement Background

5 5 Importance of Human Performance Responsibility People design, direct and supervise facility operation Human Impact Pervasiveness of human involvement in facility operation Experience Need to provide support for human performance Background

6 6 Operational Challenges Gulf Execution Goals Conversion Gulfs Process State Evaluation Activities Intentions State Information ActionsData Gulf Automation Background

7 7 Supporting Human Performance User Support Principles Environment  Reduce distractions User Accommodations  Reduce memory dependence  Simplify tasks  Standardize  Expect variability  Expect errors Principles & Practices Recognizing capabilities

8 8 Supporting Human Performance System Design Principles Conceptual Model Visibility Info completeness & validity Mappings Feedback Affordances & constraints Shrinking the gulfs Principles & Practices

9 9 Supporting Human Performance Operating Practices Pre-job briefing Procedure use and adherence Self-check (STAR) Three-way communication Questioning attitude Independent verification Conservative decision-making Reducing variability and error Principles & Practices

10 10 Automation Duties Application Levels Facility Processes Business Processes Control Information Management Automation Closed loop control Protection Testing Conversion Presentation Archival Work management Planning Automation

11 11 Supervisory Control Challenges Detrimental Automation Properties Complexity Coupling Autonomy Inadequate feedback Automation

12 12 Supervisory Control Principles Authority Operator must be in command Process Status Operator must be informed of plant state and trends Automation Status Operator must be informed about and able to monitor automation Automation

13 13 Supervisory Control Principles Predictability Automation must be predictable Human Error Automation must be able to monitor operator actions and intervene when appropriate Knowledge of Intent To effectively monitor, the operator and automation should have knowledge of the others intent Automation

14 14 Automation Principles Four Groups of Automation Principles General (applicable to all three categories) Category Specific  Control  Information  Management Design Principles

15 15 Automation Principles - General Operator Involvement Design automation and function allocations to promote meaningful operator involvement Operator Awareness Use automation to maintain and enhance operator situation awareness Ease of Use Provide automation that is easy to use Design Principles

16 16 Automation Principles - General Reliance Assume operators will rely on automation if it is available Backup Provide means to gracefully transition to backup functions on failure Training Design automation so that learning to use it is simple Design Principles

17 17 Automation Principles - Control Visibility Make the performance and failure of control functions visible Autonomy Limit independence of control actions Operating Limits Provide capability for operators to override operating limits to preserve or re-establish safety Design Principles

18 18 Automation Principles - Information Context Present information in situational context Operator Tasks Provide direct support for operator tasks Validity of Information Differentiate between valid and invalid indications Design Principles

19 19 Automation Principles - Management Operator Tasks Provide support for additional operator tasks beyond direct supervision and control Information Exchange Facilitate information exchange and use between systems Design Principles

20 20 Applying HF - Guiding Principles Value HF activities must make sense from your business perspective first and foremost Emphasis Up-front, pro-active application Integration HF activities integrated with other project activities Delivery 80 versus 20 rule Application Process

21 21 HF Application Model Planning Analysis Design Testing Use Performance Monitoring Change Management Verification Validation Equipment Workspace Interface Analysis Contexts Tasks Errors Review Experience Need Functions People Equipment Application Process RequirementsImplementCommission In-service Staff & Training Knowledge Skills Goals Assessment Application (HF Plan) Procedures Content Representation

22 22 Planning Planning Analysis Design Testing Use Need Goals Determination of the need and emphasis for human factors activities Assessment Selection of human factors activities, resources, and deliverables Application (HF Plan) Application Process

23 23 Analysis Planning Analysis Design Testing Use Analysis Contexts Tasks Errors Review Experience Functions People Equipment Requirements Describe distribution of function elements to people and equipment Describe operating situations Describe tasks performed by users Assess potential for task error & impacts Identify lessons learned from previous experience Application Process

24 24 Design Planning Analysis Design Testing Use Equipment Workspace Interface Procedures Content Representation Implement Staff & Training Knowledge Skills Input to definition of all design elements Contexts Task content Information needs Guidance based on proven practice Application Process

25 25 Testing Planning Analysis Design Testing Use Verification Validation CommissionConfirm design and implementation conforms to human factors requirements Task information Conventions and standards A performance test to confirm integrated system meets operational intent and human needs: Measures Standards for acceptance Application Process

26 26 Use Planning Analysis Design Testing Use Performance Monitoring Change Management In-service Identification and control of system and environmental changes Ongoing assessment of human performance with system to detect changes from expected performance Application Process

27 27 Concepts and Standards HF Concepts Psychology of Everyday Things - Norman The Human Factor - Vicente On Intelligence - Hawkins Application Process IEEE 1023 NUREG 0711 CNSC Policy and Regulatory Guides Resources

28 28 Guidance Interface Design NUREG 700 IEEE series Handbook of Human Factors - Salvendy Operational Practices Industrial Operators Handbook - Howlett Procedures Procedure Writing - Principles and Practices Resources

29 29 Canadian Regulatory Basis Objective Protect people and environment from man-made radiation Principles Licensees to prove operations are safe Multiple layers of protection People or technology are not infallible Regulatory Expectations

30 30 CNSC HF Regulatory Basis P-119 Policy on Human Factors Safety - Man-made radiation - Environment, People C-276 HF Engineering Program Plan - Draft Communication of HF application intent  Goals & Scope  Criteria & Methods  Deliverables and Schedule C-278 HF Verification & Validation Plan - Draft Communication of assessment intent Regulatory Expectations

31 31 CNSC HF Oversight Principles Emphasis Changes and impacts Beliefs Any aspect of how you do business is a reflection of your approach to safety Production challenges are a precursor to safety challenges Review Scope Process Products Regulatory Expectations

32 32 CNSC HF Expectations Program Definition Goals to be achieved Rigour a function of safety risk Scope of Application Organization design Operational practices Workspaces Roles and uses of technology Procedures Staff qualification and training Regulatory Expectations

33 33 CNSC HF Expectations Approach Knowledgeable staff Task understanding as basis for design Use of guidance and previous experience HF integrated with other project activities Visibility of HF activities Ongoing regulatory dialog Design verification Operational validation Performance and issue tracking Regulatory Expectations

34 34 CNSC HF Expectations Documentation Plans Analyses Design  Equipment, Procedures & Work Practices Assessment  Methods + Results In Service Preparation  Training  Commissioning Regulatory Expectations

35 35 Therac 25 Medical Accelerator Discussion of mis-operation with respect to human factors issues Case Study

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