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Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia Urban Air Quality Management Capability of Selected Asian Cities.

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Presentation on theme: "Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia Urban Air Quality Management Capability of Selected Asian Cities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Urban Air Quality Management Capability of Selected Asian Cities 2006 Update Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia A CAI-Asia Program Kong Ha Chairman Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Strategic Policy Directions for Air Quality Risk Management/NERAM Colloquium

2 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Ambient air quality in Asia is generally improving despite increase in motorization and energy use Average ambient TSP, PM10 and SO 2 trends are improving Average ambient TSP and PM10, however, continue to exceed WHO and USEPA guidelines Average ambient SO 2 is in compliance with WHO guideline NO 2 close to guidelines Insufficient information on O 3 for reliable trend analysis It is uncertain whether the observed improvements in air quality will be sustained Aggregated Annual Ambient AQ Trends,  g/m 3 (1993 to 2005) WHO (1979) TSP guideline,  g/m 3 WHO SO 2 guideline, 50  g/m 3 WHO (2005) PM10 guideline, 20  g/m 3 WHO NO 2 guideline, 40  g/m 3 Status of Air Quality in Asia

3 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia USEPA EU *No annual ambient air quality standards, only 24-hour limits Annual Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM10

4 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities (2005) WHO 2005 Guideline Value for Annual Average of PM10 = 20 µg/m 3

5 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities (2005) WHO 2005 PM10 Interim Target – 1 = 30 µg/m 3

6 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities (2005) WHO 2005 PM10 Interim Target – 2 = 50 µg/m 3

7 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia PM10 Annual Ambient Concentrations in Asian Cities (2005) WHO 2005 PM10 Interim Target – 3 = 70 µg/m 3

8 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Benchmarking Air Quality Management Capabilities in Asia AQM Capability AQM Capability Scoring CitiesLevel of Economic Development/ Trends of Air Pollution Excellent I91-100Hong Kong, Singapore, Taipei, Tokyo High technology applied Low air pollution Excellent II81-90Bangkok, Seoul, Shanghai Good I71-80Beijing, BusanMaturing of cleaner processes, use of cleaner fuels and mature emission controls. Further improvement of air quality Good II61-70New Delhi Moderate I51-60Ho Chi Minh, Jakarta, Kolkata, Manila, Mumbai Cleaner processes developed. Systematic AQM procedures developed Air pollution decreasing from high levels Moderate II41-50Colombo Limited I31-40Hanoi, SurabayaUrbanisation, industrialisation and mobilisation continued. Initial systematic AQM procedures applied High but stabilising levels of air pollution. Serious health and environmental impacts Limited II21-30Dhaka, Kathmandu Minimal0-20-Increased urbanisation, mobilization and industrialisation. Only ad hoc AQM. Deterioration of air quality through rising levels of air pollution The Benchmarking study involved 20 cities in Asia representing various economic levels and geographic coverage. The cities were categorized according to four AQM capability indices – 1) AQ measurement; 2) data availability and assessment; 3) emission estimates; and 4) AQ management enabling capacity. Cities with high levels of economic development tend to have well-developed AQM systems Benchmarking of AQM capability can assist cities in setting priorities and developing strategies for strengthening their AQM capability

9 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Benchmarking UAQM Capability of Asian Cities In collaboration with Stockholm Environment Institute in their Air Pollution in the Megacities of Asia Project and the CAI-Asia Network City Profiles and AQ Data AQM Capability Questionnaire Compilation of information on current policy and practice for key components of AQM Questionnaire to assess AQM capability sent to city authorities Benchmarking Study Approach

10 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Air Quality Measurement Capabilities Air Quality Measurement Index Assesses the ambient air monitoring taking place in a city and the accuracy and precision and representativeness of the data collected Air Quality Data Assessment and Availability Index Assesses how air data is processed to value and provide information in a decision-relevant format. It also assesses the extent to which there is access to air quality information and data through different media Emissions Estimate Index Assesses emission inventories undertaken to determine the extent to which decision-relevant information is available about source pollution in the city Air Quality Management Index Asseses the administrative and legislative framework through which emission control strategies are introduced to manage air quality

11 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Six cities measure the acute and chronic health effects for all criteria compounds (NO 2, SO 2, PM, CO, Pb, O 3 ) Nine cities measure trends in pollutant concentrations for all criteria compounds Five cities measure the spatial distriubution for all compounds 11 cities have the capacity to measure kerbside criteria for all compounds Rigorous QA/QC criteria are applied in eight cities Bangkok  Kolkata  Beijing  Metro Manila  Busan  Mumbai  Colombo  New Delhi  Dhaka  Seoul  Hanoi  Shanghai  Ho Chi Minh  Singapore  Hong Kong  Surabaya  Jakarta  Taipei  Kathmandu  Tokyo  Minimal  Limited  Moderate  Good  Excellent  Air Quality Measurement Index

12 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Status of AQ monitoring in Asia Source: Urban Air Pollution in Asian Cities (2006) - for publication AQ Monitoring Capacity in Asia Air Quality Monitoring Stations CityManualContinuous Bangkok21 Beijing24 Busan14 Colombo1 Delhi102 Dhaka1 Hanoi7 Ho Chi Minh9 Hong Kong14 Jakarta15 Kathmandu6 CityManualContinuous Kolkata125 Manila125 Mumbai22 Osaka14 Seoul27 Shanghai2321 Singapore16 Surabaya5 Taipei19 Tokyo82 Yogyakarta6

13 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia 11 cities undertake prediction modelling for pollutants monitored 11 cities have undertaken epidemiological studies 10 cities issue air quality alerts 9 cities undertake spatial mapping of pollutants 11 cities formally publish AQ data Bangkok  Kolkata  Beijing  Metro Manila  Busan  Mumbai  Colombo  New Delhi  Dhaka  Seoul  Hanoi  Shanghai  Ho Chi Minh  Singapore  Hong Kong  Surabaya  Jakarta  Taipei  Kathmandu  Tokyo  Minimal  Limited  Moderate  Good  Excellent  Air Quality Assessment and Availability Index

14 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Online Ambient Air Quality Data of Selected Asian Cities Online AQ Information

15 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia 14 cities have emission estimates for major source categories (industrial, mobile and domestic/commercial) 15 cities have emission estimates for all criteria pollutants (PM, CO, SO 2, NO 2 and HC) 8 cities have estimates of emissions based on actual measurements 6 cities cross check estimates Bangkok  Kolkata  Beijing  Metro Manila  Busan  Mumbai  Colombo  New Delhi  Dhaka  Seoul  Hanoi  Shanghai  Ho Chi Minh  Singapore  Hong Kong  Surabaya  Jakarta  Taipei  Kathmandu  Tokyo  Minimal  Limited  Moderate  Good  Excellent  Emission Estimates Index

16 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia 11 cities have AQ standards for all criteria pollutants 17 cities have emission limits and controls on stationary and mobile sources 13 cities impose penalties for th exceedance of both stationary and mobile emissions Bangkok  Kolkata  Beijing  Metro Manila  Busan  Mumbai  Colombo  New Delhi  Dhaka  Seoul  Hanoi  Shanghai  Ho Chi Minh  Singapore  Hong Kong  Surabaya  Jakarta  Taipei  Kathmandu  Tokyo  Minimal  Limited  Moderate  Good  Excellent  Air Quality Management Index

17 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Ambient Air Quality Standards in Asia CountryPollutantsRemarks Bangladesh TSP, CO, NOx, and SO standards established for a few pollutants depending on land use category; new standards are pending approval China TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2, NO 2, Pb Standards require cities to comply with Class I, II, or III standards. Class I standards more stringent than the WHO and USEPA limits Hong Kong TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2, NO 2, Pb, O 3 Standards less stringent than WHO and USEPA limits India TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2, NO 2, Pb Established based on different land-use categories i.e. industrial, residential and sensitive areas. Indonesia TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2, NO 2, O 3, Pb National and local (Jakarta) standards less stringent that WHO; PM limits less stringent than USEPA Japan CO, NO 2, O 3, SO 2, TSP Comparable and to some extent more stringent than WHO guidelines with the exception of CO limits for an 8-hour exposure. Nepal TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2, NO 2, Pb, C 6 H 6 Established only in 2003; standards less stringent than WHO; PM limits less stringent than USEPA PakistanNo legislated ambient air quality standards Philippines TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2, NO 2, O 3, Pb based and comparable to WHO and USEPA (for PM 10 ). Standards more lenient, selecting the higher/max allowable limits Singapore PM10, CO, SO 2, NO 2, O 3 Despite adopting only both WHO guidelines and USEPA limits, Singapore PSI reporting is very efficient Sri-Lanka TSP, CO, SO 2, NO 2, O 3, Pb TSP standards twice more lenient than USEPA, No annual standard for SO 2, 24-hour limit for SO 2, a slightly lenient O 3 and NO 2 compared with USEPA and WHO, respectively Thailand TSP, PM10, CO, SO 2, NO 2, O 3, Pb TSP twice more lenient than USEPA; SO 2 and CO almost same as USEPA limit, stringent NO 2 compared to WHO Vietnam TSP, CO, SO 2, NO 2, O 3, Pb Hourly limits for NO 2 and CO are more lenient than WHO, no PM10 standards, the rest of the standards are almost same as WHO Most countries have more lenient standards than those prescribed by WHO and USEPA Standards for PM10 have been largely based on USEPA limits There is a need to review current PM standards – Europe has moved PM10 limit to 50µg/m 3 limit for 24- hour averages and 40 µg/m 3 for annual averages Standards for other air toxics e.g benzene should be legislated In some cases, AQ monitoring plans/ systems, are inconsistent with the established standards most Asian countries do not have specific roadside AQM standards

18 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Motorization Trends in Asia

19 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Motorization Trends in Asia

20 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Vehicle Growth Forecast in Asian Countries (in Millions of Vehicles) Note: Vehicle Population Projection from Segment Y Ltd China, P.R. India Thailand Indonesia

21 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Compared to five years ago, more Asian countries have now adopted or have legislated plans to adopt stricter vehicle emissions standards as well as fuel standards Emphasis has been on institutionalizing new vehicle emissions standards and not enough attention has been given in addressing emissions from in-use vehicles More attention has been given as well to light-duty vehicles compared to heavy duty vehicles One of the most pressing problem of Asian countries is the rapid increase in the motorcycle fleet but not enough attention has been given towards appropriate regulatory measures to control the associated emissions Vehicle Emissions Standards

22 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Vehicle Emission Standards Note: For light-duty vehicles Source: CAI-Asia, 2006

23 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Transportation and Land-use Planning Land-use planning, perhaps the most powerful regulatory tool that can be used to address vehicular emissions, is seldom being used by most Asian countries Governments and development institutions have started to place an increasing emphasis on urban transportation issues, particularly on public transportation International organizations have acknowledged the direct relationship between climate change mitigation and the promotion of public transportation and have initiated several projects on this Several countries in Asia have now started to develop sustainable urban transportation policies promoting public transportation, i.e. Bus-rapid transit In China, the Vice Minister of Construction, Qui Baoxing, has ordered city authorities to improve and maintain cycling facilities and in to order to restore the country’s title as the "kingdom of bicycles"

24 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia The 6-lane Cheonggyecheon highway will soon be transformed into a riverscape Paradigm shift in urban & transportation planning (1) Seoul - Asia’s Big Dig

25 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Nihonbashi, one of the main historic areas in Tokyo sits oppressed under an eight-lane expressway It was once the point from which distances in Japan were measured A government project is now looking at ways to restore Nihonbashi’s old look The recommendation is to transfer 2km of the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway underground and create space along the river for waterside life The committee looking at this issue believe that restoring the Nihonbashi area's cityscape to its original state serves as a basic guideline for urban renewal plans to be put together in the future Paradigm shift in urban & transportation planning (2)

26 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia China and India Urban Transportation Policy Both China, P.R. and India have developed policies that call for the integration of transport system plans with urban development, equitable allocation of road space and increased investments on public transportation, including BRT, rail and non-motorized transportation: –The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Guideline states that the 11th Five-Year Plan of China, P.R. which started in 2006 will prioritize the development of public transportation with mass rapid transit (MRT) as a key transport mode in mega cities. –The 2006 Indian National Urban Transport Policy vision is to “recognize that people occupy center-stage in our (Indian) cities and all plans would be for their common benefit and well being” i.e., invest on more on transport systems that encourage greater use of public transport and non-motorized modes instead of personal motor vehicles

27 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Conclusions (1) Despite considerable progress being made to clean the air in Asian cities, cost of air pollution to human health and environment remains high and public still perceive their air quality as worsening The perceived failing of measures to manage urban air quality could weaken the willingness of the public and stakeholders to reduce emissions and to comply with air pollution regulations and could also discourage decision makers from taking action to improve air quality The measures taken by the cities to improve their existing AQM capability will determine whether PM10 and NO2 levels can be reduced

28 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Conclusions (2) The identification of the stage of development in terms of AQM capability can assist cities in setting priorities and developing strategies to strengthen their AQM capability. Cities with a relative low AQM capability need to focus on establishing or strengthening continuous air quality monitoring system and implementing basic control strategies All cities will need to ensure that their AQM systems not only manage the traditional criteria pollutants such as CO, NOx, SO2, O3, TSP, and PM10 but also fine PM which is monitored as PM2.5 In addition, all countries should review their air quality standards in view of the EU limit values and the new WHO guideline values

29 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia This volume is the most current and comprehensive assessment and comparison of the status and drivers of urban air pollution in 20 Asian cities and the Asian region, covering the effects on the environment, human health, agriculture and cultural heritage and the future implications for planning, transport and energy industries. The book will be formally launched during the Better Air Quality 2006 (http://www.baq2006.org) Workshop on December 2006 in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Cities covered: Bangkok, Beijing, Busan, Colombo, Dhaka, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Kathmandu, Kolkata, Metro Manila, Mumbai, New Delhi, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Surabaya, Taipei and Tokyo Published by Earthscan with the Stockholm Environment Institute, the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities, the Korean Environment Institute and UNEP. For PUBLICATION - Pre-order your copy today!

30 Strengthening the air quality management community in Asia Conclusions (2) Contact: Kong Ha Cornie Huizenga


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