2IntroductionWhy bother teaching from the Old Testament especially unfamiliar minor prophets?Not under the Law of Moses todayBut, Old Testament including minor prophets great value to us today to encourage our faith and hope in the Lord
3IntroductionAlso, we can be encouraged to faithfully stand for God’s Word as the prophets did although persecuted, some even to deathIncrease appreciation for God’s plan of redemption in Christ
4Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today Rom 15:4 For whatever was written in earlier times was written for our instruction, so that through perseverance and the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope.1Co 10:11 Now these things happened to them as an example, and they were written for our instruction, upon whom the ends of the ages have come.
5Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today 2Ch 36:15 The LORD, the God of their fathers, sent word to them again and again by His messengers, because He had compassion on His people and on His dwelling place;2Ch 36:16 but they continually mocked the messengers of God, despised His words and scoffed at His prophets, until the wrath of the LORD arose against His people, until there was no remedy.
6Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today 2Ch 36:17 Therefore He brought up against them the king of the Chaldeans who slew their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion on young man or virgin, old man or infirm; He gave them all into his hand.
7Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today Heb 11:32 And what more shall I say? For time will fail me if I tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets,Heb 11:33 who by faith conquered kingdoms, performed acts of righteousness, obtained promises, shut the mouths of lions,
8Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today Heb 11:34 quenched the power of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, from weakness were made strong, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight.Heb 11:35 Women received back their dead by resurrection; and others were tortured, not accepting their release, so that they might obtain a better resurrection;
9Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today Heb 11:36 and others experienced mockings and scourgings, yes, also chains and imprisonment.Heb 11:37 They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were tempted, they were put to death with the sword; they went about in sheepskins, in goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated
10Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today Heb 11:38 (men of whom the world was not worthy), wandering in deserts and mountains and caves and holes in the ground.Heb 11:39 And all these, having gained approval through their faith, did not receive what was promised,Heb 11:40 because God had provided something better for us, so that apart from us they would not be made perfect.
11Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today 1Pe 1:10 As to this salvation, the prophets who prophesied of the grace that would come to you made careful searches and inquiries,1Pe 1:11 seeking to know what person or time the Spirit of Christ within them was indicating as He predicted the sufferings of Christ and the glories to follow.
12Old Testament Valuable To Our Faith Today 1Pe 1:12 It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves, but you, in these things which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven--things into which angels long to look.
13IntroductionProphets are “minor” because of length of their writings compared to the “major” prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel)Like the prophets, we need to stand for God’s Word, no matter what may come to our nation, trusting His rule and mercyLike them, we need to trust in the Lord who provides our only true hope, eternal life
14An Introduction To The Minor Prophets What is a prophet?How can we distinguish between true and false prophets?Who are the minor prophets?What information can help us better understand the minor prophets?What did the minor prophets preach?
15An Introduction To The Minor Prophets What are some of the themes found in the minor prophets?Strategy for studying each minor prophet
16What Is A Prophet? Origin uncertain Understood to mean bubble or boil upBible description – a prophet is a spokesman for God, forthtelling His Word revealing past, present and future
17What Is A Prophet?Exo 4:16 "Moreover, he shall speak for you to the people; and he will be as a mouth for you and you will be as God to him.Exo 7:1 Then the LORD said to Moses, "See, I make you as God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron shall be your prophet.Exo 7:2 "You shall speak all that I command you, and your brother Aaron shall speak to Pharaoh that he let the sons of Israel go out of his land.
18What Is A Prophet?2Pe 1:19 So we have the prophetic word made more sure, to which you do well to pay attention as to a lamp shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star arises in your hearts.2Pe 1:20 But know this first of all, that no prophecy of Scripture is a matter of one's own interpretation,
19What Is A Prophet?2Pe 1:21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.
20What Is A Prophet?Jer 20:7 O LORD, You have deceived me and I was deceived; You have overcome me and prevailed. I have become a laughingstock all day long; Everyone mocks me.Jer 20:8 For each time I speak, I cry aloud; I proclaim violence and destruction, Because for me the word of the LORD has resulted In reproach and derision all day long.
21What Is A Prophet?Jer 20:9 But if I say, "I will not remember Him Or speak anymore in His name," Then in my heart it becomes like a burning fire Shut up in my bones; And I am weary of holding it in, And I cannot endure it.
22How Can We Distinguish Between True And False Prophets? Fulfillment test – does what he predicts come to pass?Consistency test – is his teaching in harmony with what God previously revealed?
23Does What He Predicts Come To Pass? Deu 18:21 "You may say in your heart, 'How will we know the word which the LORD has not spoken?'Deu 18:22 "When a prophet speaks in the name of the LORD, if the thing does not come about or come true, that is the thing which the LORD has not spoken. The prophet has spoken it presumptuously; you shall not be afraid of him.
24Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah Jer 28:1 Now in the same year, in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the fourth year, in the fifth month, Hananiah the son of Azzur, the prophet, who was from Gibeon, spoke to me in the house of the LORD in the presence of the priests and all the people, saying,Jer 28:2 "Thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, 'I have broken the yoke of the king of Babylon.
25Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah Jer 28:3 'Within two years I am going to bring back to this place all the vessels of the LORD'S house, which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took away from this place and carried to Babylon.
26Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah Jer 28:4 'I am also going to bring back to this place Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, and all the exiles of Judah who went to Babylon,' declares the LORD, 'for I will break the yoke of the king of Babylon.'"Jer 28:13 "Go and speak to Hananiah, saying, 'Thus says the LORD, "You have broken the yokes of wood, but you have made instead of them yokes of iron."
27Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah Jer 28:14 'For thus says the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, "I have put a yoke of iron on the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and they will serve him. And I have also given him the beasts of the field."'"Jer 28:15 Then Jeremiah the prophet said to Hananiah the prophet, "Listen now, Hananiah, the LORD has not sent you, and you have made this people trust in a lie.
28Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah Jer 28:16 "Therefore thus says the LORD, 'Behold, I am about to remove you from the face of the earth. This year you are going to die, because you have counseled rebellion against the LORD.'"Jer 28:17 So Hananiah the prophet died in the same year in the seventh month.
29Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah Jer 22:24 "As I live," declares the LORD, "even though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were a signet ring on My right hand, yet I would pull you off;Jer 22:25 and I will give you over into the hand of those who are seeking your life, yes, into the hand of those whom you dread, even into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and into the hand of the Chaldeans.
30Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah Jer 22:26 "I will hurl you and your mother who bore you into another country where you were not born, and there you will die.2Ki 25:8 Now on the seventh day of the fifth month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem.
31Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah 2Ki 25:9 He burned the house of the LORD, the king's house, and all the houses of Jerusalem; even every great house he burned with fire.2Ki 25:10 So all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls around Jerusalem.
32Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah 2Ki 25:27 Now it came about in the thirty-seventh year of the exile of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon, in the year that he became king, released Jehoiachin king of Judah from prison;2Ki 25:28 and he spoke kindly to him and set his throne above the throne of the kings who were with him in Babylon.
33Contrast Jeremiah With Hananiah 2Ki 25:30 and for his allowance, a regular allowance was given him by the king, a portion for each day, all the days of his life.
34Is His Teaching In Harmony With What God Previously Revealed? Deu 13:1 "If a prophet or a dreamer of dreams arises among you and gives you a sign or a wonder,Deu 13:2 and the sign or the wonder comes true, concerning which he spoke to you, saying, 'Let us go after other gods (whom you have not known) and let us serve them,'
35Is His Teaching In Harmony With What God Previously Revealed? Deu 13:3 you shall not listen to the words of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams; for the LORD your God is testing you to find out if you love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul.Deu 13:4 "You shall follow the LORD your God and fear Him; and you shall keep His commandments, listen to His voice, serve Him, and cling to Him.
36Is His Teaching In Harmony With What God Previously Revealed? Deu 13:5 "But that prophet or that dreamer of dreams shall be put to death, because he has counseled rebellion against the LORD your God who brought you from the land of Egypt and redeemed you from the house of slavery, to seduce you from the way in which the LORD your God commanded you to walk. So you shall purge the evil from among you.
37Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree Deu 28:47 "Because you did not serve the LORD your God with joy and a glad heart, for the abundance of all things;Deu 28:48 therefore you shall serve your enemies whom the LORD will send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness, and in the lack of all things; and He will put an iron yoke on your neck until He has destroyed you.
38Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree Mic 3:11 Her leaders pronounce judgment for a bribe, Her priests instruct for a price And her prophets divine for money. Yet they lean on the LORD saying, "Is not the LORD in our midst? Calamity will not come upon us."
39Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree Mic 3:12 Therefore, on account of you Zion will be plowed as a field, Jerusalem will become a heap of ruins, And the mountain of the temple will become high places of a forest.
40Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree Jer 26:4 "And you will say to them, 'Thus says the LORD, "If you will not listen to Me, to walk in My law which I have set before you,Jer 26:5 to listen to the words of My servants the prophets, whom I have been sending to you again and again, but you have not listened;
41Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree Jer 26:6 then I will make this house like Shiloh, and this city I will make a curse to all the nations of the earth."'"Jer 26:17 Then some of the elders of the land rose up and spoke to all the assembly of the people, saying,
42Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree Jer 26:18 "Micah of Moresheth prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah; and he spoke to all the people of Judah, saying, 'Thus the LORD of hosts has said, "Zion will be plowed as a field, And Jerusalem will become ruins, And the mountain of the house as the high places of a forest."'
43Moses, Micah and Jeremiah Agree Jer 26:19 "Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah put him to death? Did he not fear the LORD and entreat the favor of the LORD, and the LORD changed His mind about the misfortune which He had pronounced against them? But we are committing a great evil against ourselves."
44Who Are The Minor Prophets? They were 12 prophets who spoke and wrote probably between 845 BC and 432 BCNation divided in 931 BC with 10 tribes forming Israel, northern kingdomJudah and Benjamin remaining in Jerusalem forming Judah, the southern kingdom
45Who Are The Minor Prophets? They prophesied to idolatrous nations, Israel (northern kingdom) and Judah (southern kingdom)Most prophets appeared during or after two major crisesCrisis BC – Israel (northern kingdom) taken captive by Assyria
46Who Are The Minor Prophets? Crisis BC – Judah (southern kingdom) taken captive by Babylon with Jerusalem and Temple destroyedFrom different backgrounds teaching with different styles, they all spoke forth God’s Word to the peopleNot in chronological order in Old TestamentWill try to list in chronological order
47Major Prophets Not Covered In This Study Isaiah Jehovah Saves Messianic ProphetBCJeremiah May Jehovah Lift UpWarning of captivity but future hopeBC
48Major Prophets Not Covered In This Study Ezekiel God Will Strengthen Judah’s judgment and restorationBCDaniel God Is JudgeGod’s rule above the nations and hope of a Messianic kingdomBC
49Obadiah Servant of Jehovah Proud Edom Falls 845 BC? Joel The Minor ProphetsObadiah Servant of JehovahProud Edom Falls845 BC?JoelJehovah is GodJudgment and blessings830 BC?JonahDoveWarning to NinevehBCAmosBurden BearerIsrael’s just punishment755 BC
50Adulterous Israel judged 750-725 BC Micah Who is like Jehovah? The Minor ProphetsHosea SalvationAdulterous Israel judgedBCMicahWho is like Jehovah?Judah’s sins rebukedBCZephaniah Jehovah HidesJudah’s coming judgmentBCNahum ConsolationNineveh’s final destructionBC
51Righteous live by faith The Minor ProphetsHabakkuk EmbraceRighteous live by faithBCHaggai FestivalFinish the temple520 BC
52Zechariah Whom Jehovah Remembers Finish the temple 520-518 BC The Minor ProphetsZechariah Whom Jehovah RemembersFinish the templeBCMalachiMy MessengerCorrupt worship rebukedBC
53What Information Can Help Us Better Understand The Minor Prophets? Political, social and religious conditions at the time of the prophetGod’s relationship with and rule over the Gentile nationsTeaching of Messianic hope in His coming kingdom
54What Did The Minor Prophets Preach? Need for people to confess sins, repent and return to Law of MosesGod is the ruler and controller of historyComing of the Messiah and His kingdom
55What Are Some Of The Themes Found In The Minor Prophets? Main ideas are repeated throughout the minor prophetsWe will list some of them that we will see throughout our study
56God’s Unchanging Perfect Character Nah 1:2 A jealous and avenging God is the LORD; The LORD is avenging and wrathful. The LORD takes vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserves wrath for His enemies.Nah 1:3 The LORD is slow to anger and great in power, And the LORD will by no means leave the guilty unpunished. In whirlwind and storm is His way, And clouds are the dust beneath His feet.
57God’s Unchanging Perfect Character Hos 11:8 How can I give you up, O Ephraim? How can I surrender you, O Israel? How can I make you like Admah? How can I treat you like Zeboiim? My heart is turned over within Me, All My compassions are kindled.Hos 11:9 I will not execute My fierce anger; I will not destroy Ephraim again. For I am God and not man, the Holy One in your midst, And I will not come in wrath.
58God’s Unchanging Perfect Character Mal 3:6 "For I, the LORD, do not change; therefore you, O sons of Jacob, are not consumed.Heb 13:8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.
59God Rules All Nations By His Word Jehovah is the Lord of history carrying out His purposeStated more completely by Isaiah but found in pieces throughout the Minor ProphetsHe rules over all nations, not just Israel and Judah
60God Rules All Nations By His Word Although people have their free choice, His will is ultimately doneToday, this power is given to Jesus to rule over all nations
61God Rules All Nations By His Word Isa 44:24 Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, and the one who formed you from the womb, "I, the LORD, am the maker of all things, Stretching out the heavens by Myself And spreading out the earth all alone,Isa 44:25 Causing the omens of boasters to fail, Making fools out of diviners, Causing wise men to draw back And turning their knowledge into foolishness,
62God Rules All Nations By His Word Isa 44:26 Confirming the word of His servant And performing the purpose of His messengers. It is I who says of Jerusalem, 'She shall be inhabited!' And of the cities of Judah, 'They shall be built.' And I will raise up her ruins again.Isa 44:27 "It is I who says to the depth of the sea, 'Be dried up!' And I will make your rivers dry.
63God Rules All Nations By His Word Isa 44:28 "It is I who says of Cyrus, 'He is My shepherd! And he will perform all My desire.' And he declares of Jerusalem, 'She will be built,' And of the temple, 'Your foundation will be laid.'"Isa 45:1 Thus says the LORD to Cyrus His anointed, Whom I have taken by the right hand, To subdue nations before him And to loose the loins of kings; To open doors before him so that gates will not be shut:
64God Rules All Nations By His Word Isa 45:2 "I will go before you and make the rough places smooth; I will shatter the doors of bronze and cut through their iron bars.Isa 45:3 "I will give you the treasures of darkness And hidden wealth of secret places, So that you may know that it is I, The LORD, the God of Israel, who calls you by your name.
65God Rules All Nations By His Word Isa 45:4 "For the sake of Jacob My servant, And Israel My chosen one, I have also called you by your name; I have given you a title of honor Though you have not known Me.Isa 45:5 "I am the LORD, and there is no other; Besides Me there is no God. I will gird you, though you have not known Me;
66God Rules All Nations By His Word Isa 45:6 That men may know from the rising to the setting of the sun That there is no one besides Me. I am the LORD, and there is no other,Isa 45:7 The One forming light and creating darkness, Causing well-being and creating calamity; I am the LORD who does all these.
67God Punishes Sins Of All Nations Amo 1:3 Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Damascus and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they threshed Gilead with implements of sharp iron.Amo 1:6 Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Gaza and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they deported an entire population To deliver it up to Edom.
68God Punishes Sins Of All Nations Amo 1:11 Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Edom and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because he pursued his brother with the sword, While he stifled his compassion; His anger also tore continually, And he maintained his fury forever.
69God Punishes Sins Of All Nations Amo 2:4 Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Judah and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they rejected the law of the LORD And have not kept His statutes; Their lies also have led them astray, Those after which their fathers walked.
70God Punishes Sins Of All Nations Amo 2:6 Thus says the LORD, "For three transgressions of Israel and for four I will not revoke its punishment, Because they sell the righteous for money And the needy for a pair of sandals.
71God Demands Repentance And Righteousness Joe 2:12 "Yet even now," declares the LORD, "Return to Me with all your heart, And with fasting, weeping and mourning;Joe 2:13 And rend your heart and not your garments." Now return to the LORD your God, For He is gracious and compassionate, Slow to anger, abounding in lovingkindness And relenting of evil.
72God Demands Repentance And Righteousness Zec 7:8 Then the word of the LORD came to Zechariah saying,Zec 7:9 "Thus has the LORD of hosts said, 'Dispense true justice and practice kindness and compassion each to his brother;Zec 7:10 and do not oppress the widow or the orphan, the stranger or the poor; and do not devise evil in your hearts against one another.'
73God Demands Repentance And Righteousness Zec 7:11 "But they refused to pay attention and turned a stubborn shoulder and stopped their ears from hearing.Zec 7:12 "They made their hearts like flint so that they could not hear the law and the words which the LORD of hosts had sent by His Spirit through the former prophets; therefore great wrath came from the LORD of hosts.
74God Demands Repentance And Righteousness Mic 6:6 With what shall I come to the LORD And bow myself before the God on high? Shall I come to Him with burnt offerings, With yearling calves?Mic 6:7 Does the LORD take delight in thousands of rams, In ten thousand rivers of oil? Shall I present my firstborn for my rebellious acts, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?
75God Demands Repentance And Righteousness Mic 6:8 He has told you, O man, what is good; And what does the LORD require of you But to do justice, to love kindness, And to walk humbly with your God?
76God Rejects Superficial Worship Amo 5:21 "I hate, I reject your festivals, Nor do I delight in your solemn assemblies.Amo 5:22 "Even though you offer up to Me burnt offerings and your grain offerings, I will not accept them; And I will not even look at the peace offerings of your fatlings.
77God Rejects Superficial Worship Amo 5:23 "Take away from Me the noise of your songs; I will not even listen to the sound of your harps.Amo 5:24 "But let justice roll down like waters And righteousness like an ever-flowing stream.
78Trust In God Above AllHab 3:16 I heard and my inward parts trembled, At the sound my lips quivered. Decay enters my bones, And in my place I tremble. Because I must wait quietly for the day of distress, For the people to arise who will invade us.
79Trust In God Above AllHab 3:17 Though the fig tree should not blossom And there be no fruit on the vines, Though the yield of the olive should fail And the fields produce no food, Though the flock should be cut off from the fold And there be no cattle in the stalls,Hab 3:18 Yet I will exult in the LORD, I will rejoice in the God of my salvation.
80Trust In God Above AllHab 3:19 The Lord GOD is my strength, And He has made my feet like hinds' feet, And makes me walk on my high places. For the choir director, on my stringed instruments.
81Coming Messiah And His Kingdom For Penitent Remnant Mic 5:1 "Now muster yourselves in troops, daughter of troops; They have laid siege against us; With a rod they will smite the judge of Israel on the cheek.Mic 5:2 "But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Too little to be among the clans of Judah, From you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His goings forth are from long ago, From the days of eternity."
82Some Relevant Lessons For Today God’s unchanging perfect characterGod rules all nations by His WordGod punishes sins of all nationsGod demands repentance and righteousnessGod rejects superficial worshipTrust in God above allComing Messiah and His kingdom for penitent remnant
83Strategy For Studying Minor Prophets Background of the prophetContemporary and historic backgroundMain points of the prophetPractical lessons for today
84An Introduction To The Minor Prophets What is a prophet?How can we distinguish between true and false prophets?Who are the minor prophets?What information can help us better understand the minor prophets?What did the minor prophets preach?
85An Introduction To The Minor Prophets What are some of the themes found in the minor prophets?Strategy for studying each minor prophet