Presentation on theme: "Technology and Education – Best Practice for University Departments and Faculty Professor Richard Ladyshewsky Curtin University Perth, Western Australia."— Presentation transcript:
Technology and Education – Best Practice for University Departments and Faculty Professor Richard Ladyshewsky Curtin University Perth, Western Australia
Global and Canadian Issues in Online Learning Growth rates in online enrolments in higher education have increased up to per cent (Sun, Tsai et al. 2008) and continue to grow. During 2007 – 2008, online course enrolments in the United States of America increased by 12.9 per cent in excess of total higher education student enrolments (Baker 2010). “Enrolments are growing, although likely more slowly and at lower levels than our competitors” “… unlike nearly every other country in the OECD, Canada does not have a national strategy to support e‐learning or the use of technology in teaching. As a result Canada has lost its lead in e‐ learning and is slipping behind countries such as Australia and the UK.” - Dr Tony Bates to the Senate Standing Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology Online University Education in Canada: Challenges and Opportunities (2012)
Online versus Traditional There is now ample evidence that learning online can be as effective as traditional forms of education (Ladyshewsky, 2004) and perhaps even superior in terms of learning outcome (Schachar & Neumann, 2010; Yuki Toyama, Murphy, Bakia, & Jones, 2009).Ladyshewsky, 2004Schachar & Neumann, 2010Yuki Toyama, Murphy, Bakia, & Jones, 2009 The ‘no significant difference’ perspective between fully online learning and traditional face-to-face instruction is fairly well established, and research is now exploring what instructional strategies are most effective for online learning.
MOOCs - Massive Online Open Courses PT Practice and the Canadian Health Care System
Moving to more Fully Online/Blended Delivery What does the instructor need to do in online learning? Ladyshewsky R (2013) Instructor Presence in Online Courses and Student Satisfaction. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 7:1; Measuring and Monitoring Quality of an Online Program Ladyshewsky, R & Ling, Siew Liem (2013) A Quality Framework for Improving Teaching and Learning Outcomes in a Fully Online MBA Program, EdMedia Conference, June, Victoria BC.
What does the instructor need to do in online learning? This case study explored the role of the online instructor and how they influence student satisfaction. While there has been a substantial body of literature on what impacts on student satisfaction when students study online, there is far less literature focusing on how the instructor mediates this satisfaction, in particular satisfaction related to quality of feedback and teaching. The role of the instructor has been neglected in much of the online education research, especially conduct factors (Arbaugh et al., 2009) (Bair & Bair, 2011).Arbaugh et al., 2009Bair & Bair, 2011
In the researcher’s course (Post Graduate Leadership and Management) they noticed a big difference in student satisfaction scores between an associate faculty (sessional) member and a tenured faculty member. This difference (lower sessional; higher faculty) was consistent over time. What does the instructor need to do in online learning? * Not a performance management issue
To explore differences … data captured across 6 deliveries of course (2 years): Course evaluation data - student satisfaction system (eVALUate) Academic grades Instructor and student postings – number of postings – social network maps – qualitative comments What does the instructor need to do in online learning?
Social Presence: Because of lack of a physical presence in online classes, building a community is important to heighten participation and motivation to learn. Evidence suggests that online classes can be designed in such a way that students’ satisfaction rates regarding perceptions of social interaction are similar to a classroom (Hostetter & Busch, 2006).Hostetter & Busch, 2006 Cognitive presence: Constructing and confirming meaning through critical conversations and reflection (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) which are facilitated by the instructor is cognitive presence. Cognitive presence is linked to perceptions of learning.Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000 Teaching presence: Teaching presence includes how the design and organization of the course has been laid out, how it is facilitated and how much direct instruction takes place. What does the instructor need to do in online learning?
Study Period (SP)SP 1SP 2SP 3SP 4SP 5SP 6 Number of Responses / Course Enrolment 23/3618/3515/2616/2510/2319/31 Response Rate64%51 %58%64%43%61% Mean Grade (2 Major Assignments) What does the instructor need to do in online learning?
Study Period (SP)SP 1 SP 2 SP 3 SP 4 SP 5 SP 6 Percentage Agreement with Each Evaluation Item 1 - Learning Outcomes (LOs) Clearly Identified Learning Experiences Help Achieve LOs – Learning Resources Help Achieve LOs – Assessment Tasks Evaluate Achievement of LOs – Feedback in Course Helps Achieve LOs – Workload in Course Appropriate to Achieve LOs – Quality of Teaching Helps Achieve LOs – Am Motivated to Achieve LOs – Make Best Use of Learning Experiences in Course – Think About How Can Learn More Effectively – Overall Am Satisfied with Course Instructor112212
Section 1: Instructor and Student Posting Frequency Feedback Forum: Number of Instructor Posts Feedback Forum: Number of Student Posts Discussion 1: Number of Instructor Posts Discussion 1: Number of Student Posts Discussion 2: Number of Instructor Posts Discussion 2: Number of Student Posts Discussion 3: Number of Instructor Posts Discussion 3: Number of Student Posts Section 2: Total Instructor Posts / Total Student Posts Feedback Percentage Ratio (FPR) Instructor112212
Instructor 2 – Study Period 6 (33.8 FPR)
Qualitative Comments - Instructors Instructor 1 - Teaching / Cognitive / Social Presence “Some very good points in your post about 'asking questions' and differentiating your coaching when dealing with younger versus older staff and different experience levels. Your description describes a manager who values learning on the job.” “Hi All, results posted with the exception of a couple of late submissions...Specific detailed feedback is provided in feedback sheets attached to your results. General feedback: average grade is 74%, some individuals did not reference properly, please refer to referencing guide....Regards Mary (pseudonym)
Qualitative Comments - Instructors Instructor 2 - Teaching/ Cognitive / Social Presence “ You made a very good point about trust in a 'manager as coach' relationship and the fact that sometimes, managers, don't get to choose their staff.... We can have compassion for our direct reports and co- workers, even though we don't choose them. Having compassion, or basically caring about your staff, will produce all sorts of signals within your team.... I remember a great story on TV about the Captain of a Women's Basketball team. It was very clear that she didn't like her coach from the way she talked about him, however, she had great respect for him (compassion).... Good post, very rich conceptually. Thanks.” “Thank you for your posts. The coaching discussion room is now closed. Very interesting reading and nearly everyone had a story to tell about coaching in the workplace – positive and negative – which says a lot about the state of affairs of coaching and the Manager as Coach role.... I will be posting discussion grades today. Our next discussion... Best wishes, John (pseudonym).
Qualitative Comments - Students Re: Instructor 1 “I felt there needed to be more interaction with the teacher on a weekly basis. Each week there were recommended readings & lengthy online lectures reinforced through peer discussion boards yet given our inexperience I wanted more regular interaction with the teacher.” Re: Instructor 2 “I really enjoyed the discussions. John (instructor pseudonym) gave very encouraging and provoking comments in a respectful manner. I felt it was a very safe discussion environment.”
What does the instructor need to do in online learning? Some Conclusions… Feedback Percentage Ratio of 25%+ (1:4) linked to 80 per cent student satisfaction. Balance is needed as excessive teaching presence by the instructor can reduce student satisfaction due to the extra reading work it creates (Arbaugh, 2010) (An, et al., 2009; Rollag, 2010). (Arbaugh, 2010). HOWEVER …..Arbaugh, 2010An, et al., 2009Rollag, 2010Arbaugh, 2010 Students often perceive instructors who post often, as enthusiastic and possessing greater expertise, and this translates into higher levels of student satisfaction (Mazzolini & Maddison, 2002).Mazzolini & Maddison, 2002 Prestige posting (Shea et al., 2010).Shea et al., 2010 Students themselves can also increase social presence within a course by increasing their interaction with one another, however, this type of interaction does not necessarily lead to higher levels of student satisfaction (Kim, Kwon, & Cho, 2011)Kim, Kwon, & Cho, 2011 The instructor’s positive attitude towards technology, their interactive teaching style and control over the technology were important factors contributing to learning effectiveness (Baker, 2010) - RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION – TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.Baker, 2010
How do you know your running a quality online/blended program?
Standard Module Layout Welcome to Module – Objectives Module Overview – Lecturer Notes Readings – direct links (required & supplemental) i-Lecture/Videos Weblinks Practical Activities Discussion Forums Standard Module Layout Welcome to Module – Objectives Module Overview – Lecturer Notes Readings – direct links (required & supplemental) i-Lecture/Videos Weblinks Practical Activities Discussion Forums Discussion Board 1.Question and Answer 2.Assignments 3.Can I ask a Question 4.Graded Discussion Forums 5.Café 6.Help us to Help You Discussion Board 1.Question and Answer 2.Assignments 3.Can I ask a Question 4.Graded Discussion Forums 5.Café 6.Help us to Help You Learning Hub Student Home Journal Standardized School Template – Cognitive Load
How do you know your running a quality online program? Historical surveys of student satisfaction demonstrated a lower level of satisfaction for fully online courses in comparison to the same courses that were delivered in face to face mode. To improve these lower ratings a strategic plan for technology enhanced learning was developed.
Ladyshewsky and Soontiens (2013) Maastricht School of Management 3 rd Annual Research Conference, Sept
Strategic Plan - Technology Enhanced Learning Curtin Graduate School of Business, Perth, Australia
Course design and delivery elementsOnline Presence A welcome message by the course controller in an audio- visual format Social A minimum of six audio/audio-visual i-lecture captures on course content Cognitive & Teaching Expansive multi-media content from diverse sources Teaching & Cognitive A LMS journal tool for student biographiesSocial Communication strategy – announcements (not s)Social & Teaching Communication strategy - discussion forumsCognitive Communication strategy - Blackboard Collaborate live session Teaching & Cognitive Sign - postingTeaching Communication strategy - assignment submission and feedback through Blackboard Grade Centre and Turnitin (system compliance)
Audit 1 – Trimester Courses
CGSB Staff Orientation and Support Staff Learning Hub
Staff Learning Hub ‘Help sheets’ on how to perform the most common functions in Blackboard. These were developed by the instructional design team based on input from Online MBA program leader ……………. Building content in Blackboard – linking, cutting and pasting, etc… Communicating with Students on Blackboard Effective Online Discussion iLecture capture on Blackboard Scheduling a Blackboard Collaborate Live Chat Session Blackboard Group Tools Online Assignment and Submission Links Printing and Marking Online Assignments Archiving Content in a course Netiquette Live Blackboard Collaborate Training Session: Whole School (55% - 100%)
Audit 2 – Instructor Presence To explore instructor interactivity as part of this second audit, social network analysis was undertaken using the SNAPP (Social Networks Adapting Pedagogical Practice) tool. (http://research.uow.edu.au/learningnetworks/ seeing/snapp/index.html)http://research.uow.edu.au/learningnetworks/ seeing/snapp/index.html
Instructor Presence – Q & A Forum
Instructor Presence : Graded Discussion
Mean Student Satisfaction Data (9 courses)
Conclusions for University Departments and Faculty Academic staff may not necessarily have the skills to teach on line effectively. Good classroom teachers are not necessarily good online teachers In the online world academics require advanced skills which they may not even know they lack. Recruitment, retention, training and development, performance management questions… Unless there are systems to manage and monitor uptake of new technologies and quality, an online / blended course can quickly fall behind industry standards.
Conclusions for University Departments and Faculty A strategic plan for technology - framework and benchmark for expected quality and performance. Academic freedom vs. Bureaucracy - a university must ensure that its products are up to date, relevant and using the most appropriate teaching technology available. Intellectual Property Centralisation versus Decentralisation of instructional design and LMS support. Impact on client satisfaction *