Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "WWII – EAST MEETS WEST IVAN MEETS GI JOE X THE CHANGING FACE OF CANADA SUBURBS/ AUTOMOBILE 1950s WOMEN (Stay-at-home, femininity, resentment) Read “When."— Presentation transcript:



3 THE CHANGING FACE OF CANADA SUBURBS/ AUTOMOBILE 1950s WOMEN (Stay-at-home, femininity, resentment) Read “When He Comes Home From Work” TEEN CULTURE (Boomers, Guides/Scouts, Educated, Rockers/Elvis - No hip shots), TV / CONSUMERS (Ed Sullivan, Mickey, Roy Rogers) (Appliances, Barbie, Sugar Cereals) MASSEY COMMISSION Protect Can.Identity (CRTC, CBC, NFB) IMMIGRATION - 1945-60 = 2 MILLION 1956 HUNGARIAN REV. - 37 000

4 THE IRON CURTAIN Compare NATO & the Warsaw Pact to the ‘Iron Curtain”

5 STATE OF THE WORLD As a nation did not exist. ‘Sectioned off’ A crushed nation, looking to rebuild. Was in a civil war, with Mao rising up Occupied by America. Future unknown. A battered nation looking For identity. (Ex. Vietnam) In serious decline & as an Empire, she was collapsing. In turmoil heading to independence EASTERN EUROPE Had been a major Battlefield. Rebuilding

6 USSR Russia was spent; it would have lost war if not for USA/”Lend Lease.” Became a military giant, but economically poor. Did not have the A-Bomb until 1949. Used its new found ‘Empire’ to develop resources. Controlled Eastern European Nations and led them into Communism. ABSOLUTE CONFORMITY - Shot or imprisoned POWs - Anti-Semitism for fear of new Israel influencing Jews. - Dismissed WW II heroes. - Censorship. - Eliminated rivals

7 Became the true ‘World Superpower.’ World’s strongest military. USA The only nation to come out of war better-off than it went in. Looked upon to lead the ‘Democratic Nations. “New World Order” to benefit Capitalism. The American perception of immortality would Last right up until Korea & then further lowered Her self esteem in Vietnam. (The Vietnam Syndrome ) TrumanEisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Roosevelt ½ World’s Manufacturing Greatest exporter of goods

8 THE COLD WAR – THE BIPOLAR WORLD THE ISSUES Soviet Union vs. USA East vs. West Communism vs. Capitalism Gov’t Control vs. Private Enterprise. No Opposition vs. Basic Freedoms. Soviet Expansion (E. Europe) = American Suspicion. Vice-versa – Soviets feared US expansion. After WW II, a war of propaganda and fear materialized between the USA and the Soviet Union. No shots were fired but the two superpowers stockpiled nuclear weapons. Did ‘Nukes’ create peace?

9 KEY COLD WAR TERMS Domino Theory – If one country falls to Comm..…the rest will. Satellite States – Soviet control of its Eastern States. Iron Curtain – Separates E. Europe (Commi) from W, Europe (Democracy) National Security Council – Advised US president on defence issues. Central Intelligence Agency – CIA American espionage agency to find any Threats to the US. (Today – terrorists)

10 The Cold War 1945- 1991

11 Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. ALLIED CONTROL COUNCIL Implemented to overlook this Arrangement. Note – USSR & France = Reparations


13 TRUMAN DOCTRINE (Political) Truman wanted to support ‘Free People’ = ANTI-COMMUNISTS Political, economic, & military aid To ‘friends’ of the USA “America’s Line In The Sand!” Ex. Greece/Turkey = $$ to bail out so no need to turn to USSR. ($400 Million) MARSHALL PLAN (Economic) The economic response to the threat of communism. Even the USSR inquired but couldn’t meet the ‘freedom’ requirements. $28 Billion spent – Most from USA Communist take-over in 1948 (Czech.) gave the Marshall Plan credibility. “Two halves of the same walnut”? “Totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples undermine…. the security of the US” Go Team!! Want $$$?


15 BERLIN (Truman Doctrine @ Work!!) 1945 - After WW II Germany was divided between East & West. - Berlin = also divided between East & West - democratic city within E. Germany 1948 – Berlin Airlift. U.S. airlifted supplies. - US $ & new democratic gov’t broke Yalta agreement. => Stalin was mad. 1. New Currency 2. B-29s in Britain) 1961 - East Germans built the Berlin Wall - ‘ Wall of Shame’- to keep ‘fascism out.’ OR in????? 1990 – Berlin Wall crumbles. “We are staying, period.” Soviets – “What happens in Berlin happens in Europe ”

16 WESTERN RESPONSES TO THE COLD WAR NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Org.) (1949) US, Canadian, & Western Europe defence organization. ○ Attack one – Attack all!! ○ Soviets responded with ‘The Warsaw Pact ’(1951 ). St. Laurent pushed for Canada’s middle power involvement. ○ Canada adapted defence to align with NATO. Smart??? Independence??? U.S. Marshal Plan $ to help poor European Nations

17 DUCK & COVER DUCK & COVER VIDEO COLD WAR AT HOME Gouzenko’s story sparked fear: - Bomb Shelters - Civil Defence Plans - “Duck & Cover” campaigns - The “Red Mennace” - McCarthy’s ‘Witch-hunts’ (USA) - Can. refused to outlaw Communism. Igor Gouzenko – Russian spy who came forward to notify authorities – no one believed him at first. Atomic secrets. 1949 – USSR Gets A-Bomb Alger Hiss – Russian Spy in USA???? Klaus Fuchs – Physicist selling secrets to USSR from Britain


19 WESTERN RESPONSES (cont.) DEW (Distant Early Warning Sign) A joint system of radar was put in place to warn/protect N. Amer. from attack. - Long range bombers put N. America at risk. NORAD (North American Aerospace Defence Command) Defienbaker committed to a joined US/Can. fighter force, missile bases, & air defence. NORAD - Today US military in Can. caused many Canadians alarm.

20 PLANNING FOR PEACE THE UNITED NATIONS (UN) Collective Security - Formed after WW II to keep peace Two bodies: General Assembly (all members) Security Council. (Super Powers) The Security Councils ‘veto’ - prevented effectiveness - the Soviets vetoed 75 of the 78 times. The UN also pledged to abolish disease, famine & help improve human rights. (WHO, UNICEF, IMO) Canada involved in almost every UN operation since 1956. League of Nations Approximately 200 Member States (192)

21 THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953 NORTH KOREA -Soviets liberated the North from Japanese rule. North invades South. North captures everything North of Pusan. => UN helps South!! Why??? Veto?? SOUTH KOREA - USA liberated South from Japanese Rule. -Supported corrupt democratic gov’t (Syngman Rhee) -Truman declares the Truman Doctrine applies in Asia. 38 th Parallel Tensions rose but USA & USSR did little to help Japan

22 THE KOREAN CONFLICT -UN was able to help south because of USSR boycott due to no Communist Chinese seat) - Although UN sanctioned = Led by USA. -MacArthur regained S. & kept going. Truman’s fears: 1. China. 2. Russian retaliation in Europe. China Enters: Push Amer. back past the 38 th. - Truman/MacArthur talk ‘Nukes.’ - Truman & Atlee reconsider. Truman / MacArthur Split!! - Truman containment / MacArthur Nukes - Truman fires MacArthur (USA loves MacA. ) Wounded in action story. Gen. MacArthur “Canada’s Forgotten War” Note – Truman = Liberation vs. Containment??

23 KOREA REMAINS SPLIT -1952 Dwight Eisenhower became US president. -1953 = Ceasefire – Border remains 38 th Parallel. Note – Anti-Communist John Foster Dulles threatened China with Nukes if POWs not returned. - Peace talks dragged on for years. STAY TUNED => Vietnam 1960s. Eventually Americans gave into containment. Other Alliances to promote containment include: - NATO – W. Europe / N. America - OAS – Latin Amer. / USA - ANZUS – New Zealand / Aussies / USA - SEATO – S. East Asia - CENTO – USA / Mid. East Kim Jong Un KOREA 2012

24 THE WARSAW PACT MALENKOV Replaced Stalin Until 1955 KHRUSHCHEV Took over & Started De-Stalinization (1955-64) STALIN Died in 1953 DE-STALINIZATION -Khrushchev relaxed relations with the Soviet satellite states. -Stalin = Harsh measures / Complete Conformity - Brought Satellites into THE WARSAW PACT (alliance vs. dictatorship)

25 PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE Khrushchev (1956) openly stated USSR to globally compete with USA USA responded with Eisenhower Doctrine – Force in Mid East against Communism Was Peaceful Co-existence meant to be aggressive or peaceful? Aggressive -USSR broke Baghdad Pact (CENTO) – sold arms to Czechs & Egyptians. -Influence/Force in Middle East -Visited ‘friendlies’; India, Afghan - Burma. -Cuban Missile Crisis (More to come) -Khrushchev’s speech “We will bury you” Peaceful -Moved away from stand-offs like Korea & Berlin airlift (1948). -Space race not aggressive?? -Visited USA to smooth differences. - Caused Sino-Soviet split (China/Russian Split) -Would be the start of Détente (More to Come) 1961 = Berlin Wall???

26 SUEZ CANAL CRISIS – (1956) -Nasser takes power & accepts Communist arms. - West pulls dam $$$. - Nasser took over Canal. - Brt., Fr., Israel = ‘Operation Musketeer’ - Soviets defended Egypt (Bomb??). - USA angry & caught in Middle - PM Pearson initiated UN peacekeeping. Egypt and the Suez Canal PM Pearson awarded Nobel Peace Prize THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA

27 ATTEMPTS AT BREAKING SOVIET DOMINANCE POLAND – 1956 -Strikers had enough & demanded more freedoms. -Gomulka (Jailed by Stalin) put in power. -Stayed part of Commi Bloc but eased restrictions. 1. De-collectivized agriculture 2. Allowed Catholicism PRAGUE – 1968 NOTE - Czech. was democratic after WWI. In 1968, Dubcek replaced Stalinist Novotny. “Socialism with a Human Face” – Freedoms with socialism (travel/elections/media) Romania was tempted to follow as well. Romania’s Mov’t threatened splitting Warsaw Pact!!! Soviets invaded => Dubcek out => Husak In / Back to old ways Breshnev Doctrine – (Soviet president ) Use force to protect Socialism HUNGARY – 1956 -Harsh Communist Rakosi out & once imprisoned Nagy in. - Pressured by the people he made anti- Soviet demands & wanted out of the Warsaw Pact. -Soviet tanks rolled in (30,000 dead). -Nagy out & Pro-Soviet Kadar in. -USA not welcome in Soviet “Backyard.” Gomulka Nagy Dubcek E. Bloc Nations “Coming Soon”– 1989 Poland breaks free & “The Walls Come Tumbling Down” Khrushchev Era GOLDEN RULE – Don’t break Warsaw Pact Soviet Prez. Breshnev

28 U-2 INCIDENT - US spy planes over USSR. -USSR finally shot 1 down. - Summit Conference – Khrushchev refused to meet until US apologized. KHRUSHCHEV CONTINUED SPUTNIK (1957) -USSR beat USA to space. - size of B-Ball & beeped??? - Amer. knew missiles = next. - No defence from missiles. -US adapted schools etc. Sputnik II THE BERLIN WALL 1961 -E. Germ were leaving to W. -“Brain Drain” -Embarrassment 4 Soviets. Kennedy pushed harder Khrushchev built a wall. “Shoot to Kill Guards.” US could do nothing but watch Both Kennedy & Khrushchev seen as soft. Khrushchev tests 58 Megaton bomb.(2900 x Hiroshima)

29 CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1959 – Fidel Castro overthrows pro-US dictator Batista. US Reaction – Trade Sanctions imposed. 1961 – Kennedy approves Bay of Pigs invasion. Cuban Reaction – Turn to USSR for help 1962 – US surveillance (U-2)shows Soviet Missiles US Reaction – Naval & Air Blockade 3 CHOICES: 1.Bomb Missiles 2. Invade 3. Negotiate Khrushchev refused to remove missiles. WAR????? US & USSR = ALERT CONCLUSION – USSR removes missiles but US must agree not to invade Cuba (Missiles out of Turkey?? / Not Public) Fidel Castro Nationalized Pro-US Cuba PM Diefenbaker CANADA - Asked for UN checks before total commitment. -US upset and questioned Canada’s loyalty to NORAD -80% of Canadians felt ‘Dief’ was wrong. Cuban Cigars BRINKMANSHIP

30 SIGNIFICANCE OF CUBA 1. DIRECT & MILITARY - For 1 st time did not involve ‘Client States’ 2.NUCLEAR FORCE - ALL about ‘Nukes’ 3.BRINKMANSHIP - Taking events to the ‘edge.’ RESULTS OF CUBA 1.Direct Link Phone Lines – Communication Scared both Kennedy & Khrushchev / (Note- Kennedy assassinated in 1963) 2.Led to Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty 3.Cuba = Soviet Satellite State 4.Would lead to Khrushchev’s dismissal

31 THE NUCLEAR AGE H-BOMB – 2900 x greater than Hiroshima A-Bomb. PEACENIKS – Anti-war, Anti-weapons movements “GUNS & BUTTER”- Nukes took $ away from economy. USSR society suffered – Could not afford luxury & Nukes. “HAWKS”- Nukes became an election issue – “Our way is better” NUKES = PEACE MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction SAC – Strategic Air Command – USA = 24 Hr planes with Nukes CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS – Not Nukes / USSR = more PRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE – A surprise nuke attack / The Great Fear ICBM – Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile – Rocket with Nuke / No Defence

32 THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (France/W. Germany/Italy/Belgium/Netherlands/Luxembourg0 An attempt to bring the European community into an economic alliance. Three main goals: 1. Limit the effects of nationalism - Council of Europe 1949 – promote unity/rights 2. Establish a Free Trade Bloc - Schuman Plan 1950 – Unite steel & coal plans. - Euratom 1957 – Nuclear power to lower Arab Oil. 3. Establish a common front against Communism. - European Defence Community Rivaled E. Blocs Comecon. (See Map) NOTE – Britain was first denied as too close to USA. - Later Brt., Denmark, Ireland, & Norway joined as EEC boomed

33 JFK / OSWALD Jack Ruby Died of lung cancer Lee Harvey Oswald Acting Alone?? Why assassinated? Obama of the 60s. CIA / Mafia / Russia / Cuba / Banks - Bush Three shot theory: 1. Missed 2. Head /Kill-Shot 3. Magic Bullet Police announced time etc.?? Bullet fragment found pristine. Grassy knoll theory

34 VIETNAM WAR - BACKGROUND Prior to WWII Vietnam was an Ex-French Colony During WWII Ho Chi Min fought the Japanese. After WWII France wanted Vietnam back. BUT Vietnamese DID NOT want France back!! A war of decolonization broke out (1946-54) Note – Not a war of Communism!!!! After French loss at Dien Bien Phu, Phase I of Vietnam was over N.= Commi / S.=Democratic-Dictator (Diem) 1954 Geneva Agreement = 1956 unity elections (X) Laos & Cambodia = Independence USA feared Domino Effect / Phase II 1961-75 1 st =Advisors=>Supplies=>60s = Soldiers. USSR & China sent weapons & aid to North Diem ‘Corrupt’ Formerly known as Fr. Indo-China

35 VIETNAM WAR / AMERICAN REACTION (1961-73) Why was the USA committed? SEATO / Domino Theory / Red Menace / Containment in Korea / Was the US committed to a fault? Diem corrupt / Amer. Advisors = no win Many locals supported National Liberation Front (NLF) & Vietcong / No presence shows weakness. Ho Chi Minh Trail US did not know enemy from friendly More bombs dropped on Vietnam Than all of WWII combined.

36 AMERICAN TIMELINE 1946-54 – Supported French - advisors etc. 1962 - Kennedy = 10 000 Soldiers to help Diem. 1963 - Diem booted ( US help ) Thieu in power. 1964 - Gulf of Tonkin incident - US = more Air & Troops 600 000 by 1968. 1968 - Nixon in power - Vietnamization From 1 corrupt leader to the Next. Diem Thieu Viet Cong sank US ship Tet Offensive turned public

37 EFFECTS OF VIETNAM CANADA’S REACTION 50/50 => Anti-war Opted out – Volunteers to US Anti-Draft groups for Draft-dodgers US questioned Canada’s loyalty Pearson / Johnson feud after US bombs THE COST OF WAR - $150 Billion - 2 million soldiers sent - 60 000 dead - US world prestige gone ‘Vietnam Syndrome’ - People questioned gov’ts FIRST TV WAR Turned The American public. AGENT ORANGE Agent Orange Pre-Natal Exposure THE DRAFT

38 VIETNAM TODAY A One Party Socialist State Despite American loss the Domino Theory did not hold true. Communism did not spread. Outside French-Indo China. Today both Laos & Cambodia remain democratic. NIXON & WATERGATE During 1972 election (the term After Nixon installed Vietnamization) two of his Republicans caught planting ‘bugs’ in Democrat office. Nixon swore innocence!! “I am not a crook” 1974 eveidence proved he Was a criminal & he resigned. Biggest political scandal Ever proved.

39 1980s COLD WAR COLD WAR CONTINUES Note – In 1970s USSR winning arms race; 1980s Reagan was to change that. USA - increases budget - Supported questionable right wing gov’ts - Nicaragua - US supported Contras???? USSR – Supported Pro-Communist struggles. EVENTS – USSR shoots down S. Korean airliner over Soviet airspace. - USA invades Communist Grenada (Caribbean) CANADA – Trudeau appeals to both for more restraint. Mulroney forge closer US ties. 1983 Strategic Defence Initiative ( ‘Star Wars’) Can. Eventually backed out. Too much $ & US ties. Soviets criticized as $ encouraging more ‘Nukes’ THE END OF THE COLD WAR Mid 80s Gorbachev’s USSR could not keep pace ($$$) - Proposed massive cuts - Perestroika – Reconstruction - Glasnost – Openess - Encourage other Soviet Bloc nations to follow. 1991 USSR had collapsed. Member Republics = Independence Yeltsin = Democracy CHINA Encouraged Peresroika => Capitalism Freedoms crushed in Tianaanmen Square 1990 – Berlin Wall Crumbles


Download ppt "WWII – EAST MEETS WEST IVAN MEETS GI JOE X THE CHANGING FACE OF CANADA SUBURBS/ AUTOMOBILE 1950s WOMEN (Stay-at-home, femininity, resentment) Read “When."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google