Presentation on theme: "WWII – EAST MEETS WEST IVAN MEETS GI JOE X THE CHANGING FACE OF CANADA SUBURBS/ AUTOMOBILE 1950s WOMEN (Stay-at-home, femininity, resentment) Read “When."— Presentation transcript:
THE CHANGING FACE OF CANADA SUBURBS/ AUTOMOBILE 1950s WOMEN (Stay-at-home, femininity, resentment) Read “When He Comes Home From Work” TEEN CULTURE (Boomers, Guides/Scouts, Educated, Rockers/Elvis - No hip shots), TV / CONSUMERS (Ed Sullivan, Mickey, Roy Rogers) (Appliances, Barbie, Sugar Cereals) MASSEY COMMISSION Protect Can.Identity (CRTC, CBC, NFB) IMMIGRATION - 1945-60 = 2 MILLION 1956 HUNGARIAN REV. - 37 000
THE IRON CURTAIN Compare NATO & the Warsaw Pact to the ‘Iron Curtain”
STATE OF THE WORLD As a nation did not exist. ‘Sectioned off’ A crushed nation, looking to rebuild. Was in a civil war, with Mao rising up Occupied by America. Future unknown. A battered nation looking For identity. (Ex. Vietnam) In serious decline & as an Empire, she was collapsing. In turmoil heading to independence EASTERN EUROPE Had been a major Battlefield. Rebuilding
USSR Russia was spent; it would have lost war if not for USA/”Lend Lease.” Became a military giant, but economically poor. Did not have the A-Bomb until 1949. Used its new found ‘Empire’ to develop resources. Controlled Eastern European Nations and led them into Communism. ABSOLUTE CONFORMITY - Shot or imprisoned POWs - Anti-Semitism for fear of new Israel influencing Jews. - Dismissed WW II heroes. - Censorship. - Eliminated rivals
Became the true ‘World Superpower.’ World’s strongest military. USA The only nation to come out of war better-off than it went in. Looked upon to lead the ‘Democratic Nations. “New World Order” to benefit Capitalism. The American perception of immortality would Last right up until Korea & then further lowered Her self esteem in Vietnam. (The Vietnam Syndrome ) TrumanEisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Roosevelt ½ World’s Manufacturing Greatest exporter of goods
THE COLD WAR – THE BIPOLAR WORLD THE ISSUES Soviet Union vs. USA East vs. West Communism vs. Capitalism Gov’t Control vs. Private Enterprise. No Opposition vs. Basic Freedoms. Soviet Expansion (E. Europe) = American Suspicion. Vice-versa – Soviets feared US expansion. After WW II, a war of propaganda and fear materialized between the USA and the Soviet Union. No shots were fired but the two superpowers stockpiled nuclear weapons. Did ‘Nukes’ create peace?
KEY COLD WAR TERMS Domino Theory – If one country falls to Comm..…the rest will. Satellite States – Soviet control of its Eastern States. Iron Curtain – Separates E. Europe (Commi) from W, Europe (Democracy) National Security Council – Advised US president on defence issues. Central Intelligence Agency – CIA American espionage agency to find any Threats to the US. (Today – terrorists)
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. ALLIED CONTROL COUNCIL Implemented to overlook this Arrangement. Note – USSR & France = Reparations
TRUMAN DOCTRINE (Political) Truman wanted to support ‘Free People’ = ANTI-COMMUNISTS Political, economic, & military aid To ‘friends’ of the USA “America’s Line In The Sand!” Ex. Greece/Turkey = $$ to bail out so no need to turn to USSR. ($400 Million) MARSHALL PLAN (Economic) The economic response to the threat of communism. Even the USSR inquired but couldn’t meet the ‘freedom’ requirements. $28 Billion spent – Most from USA Communist take-over in 1948 (Czech.) gave the Marshall Plan credibility. “Two halves of the same walnut”? “Totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples undermine…. the security of the US” Go Team!! Want $$$?
BERLIN (Truman Doctrine @ Work!!) 1945 - After WW II Germany was divided between East & West. - Berlin = also divided between East & West - democratic city within E. Germany 1948 – Berlin Airlift. U.S. airlifted supplies. - US $ & new democratic gov’t broke Yalta agreement. => Stalin was mad. 1. New Currency 2. B-29s in Britain) 1961 - East Germans built the Berlin Wall - ‘ Wall of Shame’- to keep ‘fascism out.’ OR in????? 1990 – Berlin Wall crumbles. “We are staying, period.” Soviets – “What happens in Berlin happens in Europe ”
WESTERN RESPONSES TO THE COLD WAR NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Org.) (1949) US, Canadian, & Western Europe defence organization. ○ Attack one – Attack all!! ○ Soviets responded with ‘The Warsaw Pact ’(1951 ). St. Laurent pushed for Canada’s middle power involvement. ○ Canada adapted defence to align with NATO. Smart??? Independence??? U.S. Marshal Plan $ to help poor European Nations
DUCK & COVER DUCK & COVER VIDEO COLD WAR AT HOME Gouzenko’s story sparked fear: - Bomb Shelters - Civil Defence Plans - “Duck & Cover” campaigns - The “Red Mennace” - McCarthy’s ‘Witch-hunts’ (USA) - Can. refused to outlaw Communism. Igor Gouzenko – Russian spy who came forward to notify authorities – no one believed him at first. Atomic secrets. 1949 – USSR Gets A-Bomb Alger Hiss – Russian Spy in USA???? Klaus Fuchs – Physicist selling secrets to USSR from Britain
WESTERN RESPONSES (cont.) DEW (Distant Early Warning Sign) A joint system of radar was put in place to warn/protect N. Amer. from attack. - Long range bombers put N. America at risk. NORAD (North American Aerospace Defence Command) Defienbaker committed to a joined US/Can. fighter force, missile bases, & air defence. NORAD - Today US military in Can. caused many Canadians alarm.
PLANNING FOR PEACE THE UNITED NATIONS (UN) Collective Security - Formed after WW II to keep peace Two bodies: General Assembly (all members) Security Council. (Super Powers) The Security Councils ‘veto’ - prevented effectiveness - the Soviets vetoed 75 of the 78 times. The UN also pledged to abolish disease, famine & help improve human rights. (WHO, UNICEF, IMO) Canada involved in almost every UN operation since 1956. League of Nations Approximately 200 Member States (192)
THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953 NORTH KOREA -Soviets liberated the North from Japanese rule. North invades South. North captures everything North of Pusan. => UN helps South!! Why??? Veto?? SOUTH KOREA - USA liberated South from Japanese Rule. -Supported corrupt democratic gov’t (Syngman Rhee) -Truman declares the Truman Doctrine applies in Asia. 38 th Parallel Tensions rose but USA & USSR did little to help Japan
THE KOREAN CONFLICT -UN was able to help south because of USSR boycott due to no Communist Chinese seat) - Although UN sanctioned = Led by USA. -MacArthur regained S. & kept going. Truman’s fears: 1. China. 2. Russian retaliation in Europe. China Enters: Push Amer. back past the 38 th. - Truman/MacArthur talk ‘Nukes.’ - Truman & Atlee reconsider. Truman / MacArthur Split!! - Truman containment / MacArthur Nukes - Truman fires MacArthur (USA loves MacA. ) Wounded in action story. Gen. MacArthur “Canada’s Forgotten War” Note – Truman = Liberation vs. Containment??
KOREA REMAINS SPLIT -1952 Dwight Eisenhower became US president. -1953 = Ceasefire – Border remains 38 th Parallel. Note – Anti-Communist John Foster Dulles threatened China with Nukes if POWs not returned. - Peace talks dragged on for years. STAY TUNED => Vietnam 1960s. Eventually Americans gave into containment. Other Alliances to promote containment include: - NATO – W. Europe / N. America - OAS – Latin Amer. / USA - ANZUS – New Zealand / Aussies / USA - SEATO – S. East Asia - CENTO – USA / Mid. East Kim Jong Un KOREA 2012
THE WARSAW PACT MALENKOV Replaced Stalin Until 1955 KHRUSHCHEV Took over & Started De-Stalinization (1955-64) STALIN Died in 1953 DE-STALINIZATION -Khrushchev relaxed relations with the Soviet satellite states. -Stalin = Harsh measures / Complete Conformity - Brought Satellites into THE WARSAW PACT (alliance vs. dictatorship)
PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE Khrushchev (1956) openly stated USSR to globally compete with USA USA responded with Eisenhower Doctrine – Force in Mid East against Communism Was Peaceful Co-existence meant to be aggressive or peaceful? Aggressive -USSR broke Baghdad Pact (CENTO) – sold arms to Czechs & Egyptians. -Influence/Force in Middle East -Visited ‘friendlies’; India, Afghan - Burma. -Cuban Missile Crisis (More to come) -Khrushchev’s speech “We will bury you” Peaceful -Moved away from stand-offs like Korea & Berlin airlift (1948). -Space race not aggressive?? -Visited USA to smooth differences. - Caused Sino-Soviet split (China/Russian Split) -Would be the start of Détente (More to Come) 1961 = Berlin Wall???
SUEZ CANAL CRISIS – (1956) -Nasser takes power & accepts Communist arms. - West pulls dam $$$. - Nasser took over Canal. - Brt., Fr., Israel = ‘Operation Musketeer’ - Soviets defended Egypt (Bomb??). - USA angry & caught in Middle - PM Pearson initiated UN peacekeeping. Egypt and the Suez Canal PM Pearson awarded Nobel Peace Prize THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA
ATTEMPTS AT BREAKING SOVIET DOMINANCE POLAND – 1956 -Strikers had enough & demanded more freedoms. -Gomulka (Jailed by Stalin) put in power. -Stayed part of Commi Bloc but eased restrictions. 1. De-collectivized agriculture 2. Allowed Catholicism PRAGUE – 1968 NOTE - Czech. was democratic after WWI. In 1968, Dubcek replaced Stalinist Novotny. “Socialism with a Human Face” – Freedoms with socialism (travel/elections/media) Romania was tempted to follow as well. Romania’s Mov’t threatened splitting Warsaw Pact!!! Soviets invaded => Dubcek out => Husak In / Back to old ways Breshnev Doctrine – (Soviet president ) Use force to protect Socialism HUNGARY – 1956 -Harsh Communist Rakosi out & once imprisoned Nagy in. - Pressured by the people he made anti- Soviet demands & wanted out of the Warsaw Pact. -Soviet tanks rolled in (30,000 dead). -Nagy out & Pro-Soviet Kadar in. -USA not welcome in Soviet “Backyard.” Gomulka Nagy Dubcek E. Bloc Nations “Coming Soon”– 1989 Poland breaks free & “The Walls Come Tumbling Down” Khrushchev Era GOLDEN RULE – Don’t break Warsaw Pact Soviet Prez. Breshnev
U-2 INCIDENT - US spy planes over USSR. -USSR finally shot 1 down. - Summit Conference – Khrushchev refused to meet until US apologized. KHRUSHCHEV CONTINUED SPUTNIK (1957) -USSR beat USA to space. - size of B-Ball & beeped??? - Amer. knew missiles = next. - No defence from missiles. -US adapted schools etc. Sputnik II THE BERLIN WALL 1961 -E. Germ were leaving to W. -“Brain Drain” -Embarrassment 4 Soviets. Kennedy pushed harder Khrushchev built a wall. “Shoot to Kill Guards.” US could do nothing but watch Both Kennedy & Khrushchev seen as soft. Khrushchev tests 58 Megaton bomb.(2900 x Hiroshima)
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS 1959 – Fidel Castro overthrows pro-US dictator Batista. US Reaction – Trade Sanctions imposed. 1961 – Kennedy approves Bay of Pigs invasion. Cuban Reaction – Turn to USSR for help 1962 – US surveillance (U-2)shows Soviet Missiles US Reaction – Naval & Air Blockade 3 CHOICES: 1.Bomb Missiles 2. Invade 3. Negotiate Khrushchev refused to remove missiles. WAR????? US & USSR = ALERT CONCLUSION – USSR removes missiles but US must agree not to invade Cuba (Missiles out of Turkey?? / Not Public) Fidel Castro Nationalized Pro-US Cuba PM Diefenbaker CANADA - Asked for UN checks before total commitment. -US upset and questioned Canada’s loyalty to NORAD -80% of Canadians felt ‘Dief’ was wrong. Cuban Cigars BRINKMANSHIP
SIGNIFICANCE OF CUBA 1. DIRECT & MILITARY - For 1 st time did not involve ‘Client States’ 2.NUCLEAR FORCE - ALL about ‘Nukes’ 3.BRINKMANSHIP - Taking events to the ‘edge.’ RESULTS OF CUBA 1.Direct Link Phone Lines – Communication Scared both Kennedy & Khrushchev / (Note- Kennedy assassinated in 1963) 2.Led to Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty 3.Cuba = Soviet Satellite State 4.Would lead to Khrushchev’s dismissal
THE NUCLEAR AGE H-BOMB – 2900 x greater than Hiroshima A-Bomb. PEACENIKS – Anti-war, Anti-weapons movements “GUNS & BUTTER”- Nukes took $ away from economy. USSR society suffered – Could not afford luxury & Nukes. “HAWKS”- Nukes became an election issue – “Our way is better” NUKES = PEACE MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction SAC – Strategic Air Command – USA = 24 Hr planes with Nukes CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS – Not Nukes / USSR = more PRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE – A surprise nuke attack / The Great Fear ICBM – Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile – Rocket with Nuke / No Defence
THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (France/W. Germany/Italy/Belgium/Netherlands/Luxembourg0 An attempt to bring the European community into an economic alliance. Three main goals: 1. Limit the effects of nationalism - Council of Europe 1949 – promote unity/rights 2. Establish a Free Trade Bloc - Schuman Plan 1950 – Unite steel & coal plans. - Euratom 1957 – Nuclear power to lower Arab Oil. 3. Establish a common front against Communism. - European Defence Community Rivaled E. Blocs Comecon. (See Map) NOTE – Britain was first denied as too close to USA. - Later Brt., Denmark, Ireland, & Norway joined as EEC boomed
JFK / OSWALD Jack Ruby Died of lung cancer Lee Harvey Oswald Acting Alone?? Why assassinated? Obama of the 60s. CIA / Mafia / Russia / Cuba / Banks - Bush Three shot theory: 1. Missed 2. Head /Kill-Shot 3. Magic Bullet Police announced time etc.?? Bullet fragment found pristine. Grassy knoll theory
VIETNAM WAR - BACKGROUND Prior to WWII Vietnam was an Ex-French Colony During WWII Ho Chi Min fought the Japanese. After WWII France wanted Vietnam back. BUT Vietnamese DID NOT want France back!! A war of decolonization broke out (1946-54) Note – Not a war of Communism!!!! After French loss at Dien Bien Phu, Phase I of Vietnam was over N.= Commi / S.=Democratic-Dictator (Diem) 1954 Geneva Agreement = 1956 unity elections (X) Laos & Cambodia = Independence USA feared Domino Effect / Phase II 1961-75 1 st =Advisors=>Supplies=>60s = Soldiers. USSR & China sent weapons & aid to North Diem ‘Corrupt’ Formerly known as Fr. Indo-China
VIETNAM WAR / AMERICAN REACTION (1961-73) Why was the USA committed? SEATO / Domino Theory / Red Menace / Containment in Korea / Was the US committed to a fault? Diem corrupt / Amer. Advisors = no win Many locals supported National Liberation Front (NLF) & Vietcong / No presence shows weakness. Ho Chi Minh Trail US did not know enemy from friendly More bombs dropped on Vietnam Than all of WWII combined.
AMERICAN TIMELINE 1946-54 – Supported French - advisors etc. 1962 - Kennedy = 10 000 Soldiers to help Diem. 1963 - Diem booted ( US help ) Thieu in power. 1964 - Gulf of Tonkin incident - US = more Air & Troops 600 000 by 1968. 1968 - Nixon in power - Vietnamization From 1 corrupt leader to the Next. Diem Thieu Viet Cong sank US ship Tet Offensive turned public
EFFECTS OF VIETNAM CANADA’S REACTION 50/50 => Anti-war Opted out – Volunteers to US Anti-Draft groups for Draft-dodgers US questioned Canada’s loyalty Pearson / Johnson feud after US bombs THE COST OF WAR - $150 Billion - 2 million soldiers sent - 60 000 dead - US world prestige gone ‘Vietnam Syndrome’ - People questioned gov’ts FIRST TV WAR Turned The American public. AGENT ORANGE Agent Orange Pre-Natal Exposure THE DRAFT
VIETNAM TODAY A One Party Socialist State Despite American loss the Domino Theory did not hold true. Communism did not spread. Outside French-Indo China. Today both Laos & Cambodia remain democratic. NIXON & WATERGATE During 1972 election (the term After Nixon installed Vietnamization) two of his Republicans caught planting ‘bugs’ in Democrat office. Nixon swore innocence!! “I am not a crook” 1974 eveidence proved he Was a criminal & he resigned. Biggest political scandal Ever proved.
1980s COLD WAR COLD WAR CONTINUES Note – In 1970s USSR winning arms race; 1980s Reagan was to change that. USA - increases budget - Supported questionable right wing gov’ts - Nicaragua - US supported Contras???? USSR – Supported Pro-Communist struggles. EVENTS – USSR shoots down S. Korean airliner over Soviet airspace. - USA invades Communist Grenada (Caribbean) CANADA – Trudeau appeals to both for more restraint. Mulroney forge closer US ties. 1983 Strategic Defence Initiative ( ‘Star Wars’) Can. Eventually backed out. Too much $ & US ties. Soviets criticized as $ encouraging more ‘Nukes’ THE END OF THE COLD WAR Mid 80s Gorbachev’s USSR could not keep pace ($$$) - Proposed massive cuts - Perestroika – Reconstruction - Glasnost – Openess - Encourage other Soviet Bloc nations to follow. 1991 USSR had collapsed. Member Republics = Independence Yeltsin = Democracy CHINA Encouraged Peresroika => Capitalism Freedoms crushed in Tianaanmen Square 1990 – Berlin Wall Crumbles