3THE CHANGING FACE OF CANADA 1950s WOMEN(Stay-at-home, femininity,resentment)Read “When He ComesHome From Work”SUBURBS/ AUTOMOBILETV / CONSUMERS(Ed Sullivan, Mickey, Roy Rogers)(Appliances, Barbie, Sugar Cereals)TEEN CULTURE(Boomers, Guides/Scouts, Educated,Rockers/Elvis - No hip shots),IMMIGRATION= 2 MILLION1956 HUNGARIAN REV.MASSEY COMMISSIONProtect Can.Identity(CRTC, CBC, NFB)
4THE IRON CURTAINCompare NATO & the WarsawPact to the ‘Iron Curtain”
5STATE OF THE WORLD As a nation did not exist. ‘Sectioned off’ A battered nation lookingFor identity. (Ex. Vietnam)In serious decline & as anEmpire, she was collapsing .A crushed nation,looking to rebuild.In turmoil headingto independenceWas in a civil war,with Mao rising upEASTERN EUROPEHad been a majorBattlefield.RebuildingOccupied by America.Future unknown.
6USSR Russia was spent; it would have lost war if not for USA/”Lend Lease.” Controlled Eastern EuropeanNations and led them intoCommunism.Became a military giant, buteconomically poor.Did not have the A-Bombuntil 1949.ABSOLUTE CONFORMITY- Shot or imprisoned POWs- Anti-Semitism for fear ofnew Israel influencing Jews.- Dismissed WW II heroes.- Censorship.- Eliminated rivalsUsed its new found ‘Empire’to develop resources.
7USA The only nation to come out of war better-off than it went in. ½ World’s ManufacturingGreatest exporter of goodsTrumanEisenhowerKennedyJohnsonNixonBecame the true ‘World Superpower.’World’s strongest military.Looked upon to lead the ‘Democratic Nations.“New World Order” to benefit Capitalism.The American perception of immortality wouldLast right up until Korea & then further loweredHer self esteem in Vietnam. (The Vietnam Syndrome)Roosevelt
8THE COLD WAR – THE BIPOLAR WORLD After WW II, a war of propaganda and fear materializedbetween the USA and the Soviet Union. No shots werefired but the two superpowers stockpiled nuclear weapons.THE ISSUESSoviet Union vs. USAEast vs. WestCommunism vs. CapitalismGov’t Control vs. Private Enterprise.No Opposition vs. Basic Freedoms.Soviet Expansion (E. Europe) = American Suspicion.Vice-versa – Soviets feared US expansion.Did ‘Nukes’create peace?
9KEY COLD WAR TERMS Domino Theory – If one country falls to Comm..…the rest will.Satellite States – Soviet controlof its Eastern States.Iron Curtain – Separates E. Europe(Commi) from W, Europe (Democracy)Central Intelligence Agency – CIAAmerican espionage agency to find anyThreats to the US. (Today – terrorists)National Security Council – AdvisedUS president on defence issues.
11ALLIED CONTROL COUNCIL Iron Curtain –A term used byWinston Churchillto describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.Divided GermanyALLIED CONTROL COUNCILImplemented to overlook thisArrangement.Note – USSR & France = Reparations
13“Two halves of the same walnut”? “Totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoplesundermine…. the security of the US”Go Team!!Want $$$?TRUMAN DOCTRINE (Political)Truman wanted to support ‘FreePeople’ = ANTI-COMMUNISTSPolitical, economic, & military aidTo ‘friends’ of the USA“America’s Line In The Sand!”Ex. Greece/Turkey = $$ to bail outso no need to turn to USSR.($400 Million)MARSHALL PLAN (Economic)The economic response to the threatof communism.Even the USSR inquired but couldn’tmeet the ‘freedom’ requirements.$28 Billion spent – Most from USACommunist take-over in 1948 (Czech.)gave the Marshall Plan credibility.“Two halves of the same walnut”?
15BERLIN (Truman Doctrine @ Work!!) After WW II Germany was dividedbetween East & West.- Berlin = also divided between East & West- democratic city within E. Germany1948 – Berlin Airlift. U.S. airlifted supplies.- US $ & new democratic gov’t broke Yalta agreement.=> Stalin was mad. 1. New Currency 2. B-29s in Britain)East Germans built the Berlin Wall-‘Wall of Shame’- to keep ‘fascism out.’ OR in?????1990 – Berlin Wall crumbles.“We are staying ,period.”Soviets – “What happens in Berlin happens in Europe”
16WESTERN RESPONSES TO THE COLD WAR NATO(North Atlantic Treaty Org.)(1949)US, Canadian, & Western Europe defence organization.Attack one – Attack all!!Soviets responded with‘The Warsaw Pact’(1951).St. Laurent pushed for Canada’smiddle power involvement.Canada adapted defence to align with NATO.Smart??? Independence???U.S. Marshal Plan$ to help poor European Nations
17COLD WAR AT HOME DUCK & COVER Gouzenko’s story sparked fear: - Bomb Shelters- Civil Defence Plans- “Duck & Cover” campaigns- The “Red Mennace”- McCarthy’s ‘Witch-hunts’(USA)- Can. refused to outlawCommunism.DUCK & COVER VIDEOAlger Hiss – RussianSpy in USA????Klaus Fuchs – Physicistselling secrets to USSRfrom Britain1949 – USSRGets A-BombIgor Gouzenko – Russian spy who cameforward to notify authorities – no onebelieved him at first. Atomic secrets.
19WESTERN RESPONSES (cont.) NORAD(North American AerospaceDefence Command)Defienbaker committed to a joined US/Can.fighter force, missile bases, & air defence.NORAD - TodayUS military in Can. causedmany Canadians alarm.DEW(Distant Early Warning Sign)A joint system of radar was put in place towarn/protect N. Amer. from attack.- Long range bombers put N. America at risk.
20PLANNING FOR PEACE THE UNITED NATIONS (UN) Collective Security - Formed after WW II tokeep peaceTwo bodies: General Assembly (all members)Security Council. (Super Powers)The Security Councils ‘veto’- prevented effectiveness- the Soviets vetoed 75 of the 78 times.The UN also pledged to abolishdisease, famine & help improvehuman rights. (WHO, UNICEF, IMO)Canada involved in almost everyUN operation since 1956.League of NationsApproximately 200 Member States (192)
21THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953 SOUTH KOREA USA liberated South from Japanese Rule.Supported corrupt democratic gov’t(Syngman Rhee)Truman declaresthe Truman Doctrineapplies in Asia.NORTH KOREASoviets liberated theNorth from Japaneserule.North invades South.North captures everything North ofPusan.=> UN helpsSouth!!Why??? Veto??38th ParallelTensions rose but USA &USSR did little to helpJapan
22THE KOREAN CONFLICT UN was able to help south because of USSR boycott due to noCommunist Chinese seat)- Although UN sanctioned = Led by USA.MacArthur regained S. & kept going.Truman’s fears: 1. China.2. Russian retaliation in Europe.China Enters: Push Amer. back past the 38th.- Truman/MacArthur talk ‘Nukes.’- Truman & Atlee reconsider.Truman / MacArthur Split!!- Truman containment / MacArthur Nukes- Truman fires MacArthur (USA loves MacA.)Gen. MacArthurNote – Truman = Liberation vs. Containment??“Canada’s Forgotten War”Wounded inaction story.
23KOREA REMAINS SPLIT 1952 Dwight Eisenhower became US president. 1953 = Ceasefire – Border remains 38th Parallel.Note – Anti-Communist John Foster Dulles threatenedChina with Nukes if POWs not returned.- Peace talks dragged on for years.STAY TUNED => Vietnam 1960s.Eventually Americans gave into containment.Other Alliances to promote containment include:- NATO – W. Europe / N. America- OAS – Latin Amer. / USA- ANZUS – New Zealand / Aussies / USA- SEATO – S. East Asia- CENTO – USA / Mid. EastKOREA2012Kim Jong Un
24THE WARSAW PACT DE-STALINIZATION MALENKOV Replaced Stalin Until 1955 KHRUSHCHEVTook over & StartedDe-Stalinization( )STALINDied in 1953DE-STALINIZATIONKhrushchev relaxed relations with the Soviet satellite states.Stalin = Harsh measures / Complete ConformityBrought Satellites into THE WARSAW PACT(alliance vs. dictatorship)
25PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE Khrushchev (1956) openly stated USSR to globally compete with USA USA responded with Eisenhower Doctrine – Force in Mid East against CommunismWas Peaceful Co-existence meant to be aggressive or peaceful?AggressiveUSSR broke Baghdad Pact(CENTO) – sold arms to Czechs& Egyptians.Influence/Force in Middle EastVisited ‘friendlies’; India, AfghanBurma.Cuban Missile Crisis (More to come)Khrushchev’s speech“We will bury you”PeacefulMoved away from stand-offs likeKorea & Berlin airlift (1948).Space race not aggressive??Visited USA to smooth differences.- Caused Sino-Soviet split(China/Russian Split)Would be the start of Détente(More to Come)1961 = Berlin Wall???
26THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA SUEZ CANAL CRISIS – (1956) Nasser takes power & accepts Communist arms.- West pulls dam $$$.Nasser took over Canal.Brt., Fr., Israel =‘Operation Musketeer’Soviets defended Egypt (Bomb??).USA angry & caught in MiddlePM Pearson initiatedUN peacekeeping.Egypt and theSuez CanalPM Pearson awardedNobel Peace Prize
27ATTEMPTS AT BREAKING SOVIET DOMINANCE HUNGARY – 1956Harsh Communist Rakosi out& once imprisoned Nagy in.Pressured by the people he made anti-Soviet demands & wanted out ofthe Warsaw Pact.Soviet tanks rolled in (30,000 dead).Nagy out & Pro-Soviet Kadar in.USA not welcome in Soviet“Backyard.”POLAND – 1956Strikers had enough & demandedmore freedoms.Gomulka (Jailed by Stalin) put in power.Stayed part of Commi Bloc but easedrestrictions.1. De-collectivized agriculture2. Allowed CatholicismNagyGomulkaKhrushchev EraPRAGUE – 1968NOTE - Czech. was democratic after WWI.In 1968, Dubcek replaced Stalinist Novotny.“Socialism with a Human Face” – Freedoms with socialism (travel/elections/media)Romania was tempted to follow as well.Romania’s Mov’t threatened splitting Warsaw Pact!!!Soviets invaded => Dubcek out => Husak In / Back to old waysBreshnev Doctrine – (Soviet president )Use force to protect SocialismDubcekGOLDEN RULE –Don’t break Warsaw PactE. BlocNations“Coming Soon”– 1989 Poland breaks free& “The Walls Come Tumbling Down”Soviet Prez.Breshnev
28KHRUSHCHEV CONTINUED THE BERLIN WALL 1961 E. Germ were leaving to W. -“Brain Drain”Embarrassment 4 Soviets.Kennedy pushed harderKhrushchev built a wall.“Shoot to Kill Guards.”US could do nothing but watchBoth Kennedy & Khrushchevseen as soft.Khrushchev tests 58 Megatonbomb.(2900 x Hiroshima)SPUTNIK (1957)USSR beat USA to space.size of B-Ball & beeped???Amer. knew missiles = next.No defence from missiles.US adapted schools etc.Sputnik IIU-2 INCIDENT- US spy planes over USSR.USSR finally shot 1 down.Summit Conference –Khrushchev refusedto meet until USapologized.
29Nationalized Pro-US Cuba CUBAN MISSILE CRISISCuban Cigars1959 – Fidel Castro overthrows pro-US dictator Batista.US Reaction – Trade Sanctions imposed.1961 – Kennedy approves Bay of Pigs invasion.Cuban Reaction – Turn to USSR for help1962 – US surveillance (U-2)shows Soviet MissilesUS Reaction – Naval & Air Blockade3 CHOICES: 1.Bomb Missiles 2. Invade 3. NegotiateKhrushchev refused to remove missiles.WAR????? US & USSR = ALERTCONCLUSION – USSR removes missiles butUS must agree not to invade Cuba (Missiles out of Turkey?? / Not Public)Fidel CastroNationalized Pro-US CubaBRINKMANSHIPCANADA- Asked for UN checks beforetotal commitment .US upset and questionedCanada’s loyalty to NORAD80% of Canadians felt ‘Dief’was wrong.PM Diefenbaker
30SIGNIFICANCE OF CUBA 1. DIRECT & MILITARY SIGNIFICANCE OF CUBA 1. DIRECT & MILITARY - For 1st time did not involve ‘Client States’ 2.NUCLEAR FORCE - ALL about ‘Nukes’ 3.BRINKMANSHIP - Taking events to the ‘edge.’RESULTS OF CUBADirect Link Phone Lines – CommunicationScared both Kennedy & Khrushchev / (Note- Kennedy assassinated in 1963)Led to Atmospheric Test Ban TreatyCuba = Soviet Satellite StateWould lead to Khrushchev’s dismissal
31THE NUCLEAR AGE H-BOMB – 2900 x greater than Hiroshima A-Bomb. PEACENIKS – Anti-war, Anti-weapons movements“GUNS & BUTTER”- Nukes took $ away from economy.USSR society suffered – Could not afford luxury & Nukes.“HAWKS”- Nukes became an election issue – “Our way is better”NUKES = PEACEMAD – Mutually Assured DestructionSAC – Strategic Air Command – USA = 24 Hr planes with NukesCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS – Not Nukes / USSR = morePRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE – A surprise nuke attack / The Great FearICBM – Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile– Rocket with Nuke / No Defence
32THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (France/W THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (France/W. Germany/Italy/Belgium/Netherlands/Luxembourg0An attempt to bring the European community into an economic alliance.Three main goals:1. Limit the effects of nationalism- Council of Europe 1949 – promote unity/rights2. Establish a Free Trade Bloc- Schuman Plan 1950 – Unite steel & coal plans.- Euratom 1957 – Nuclear power to lower Arab Oil.3. Establish a common front against Communism.- European Defence CommunityRivaled E. Blocs Comecon. (See Map)NOTE – Britain was first denied as too close to USA.- Later Brt., Denmark, Ireland, & Norway joined as EEC boomed
33JFK / OSWALD Why assassinated? Obama of the 60s. Three shot theory: CIA / Mafia / Russia / Cuba / Banks - BushGrassy knoll theoryThree shot theory:1. Missed2. Head /Kill-Shot3. Magic BulletBullet fragment found pristine.Jack RubyDied of lung cancerLee Harvey OswaldActing Alone??Police announced time etc.??
34VIETNAM WAR - BACKGROUND Prior to WWII Vietnam was an Ex-French ColonyDuring WWII Ho Chi Min fought the Japanese.After WWII France wanted Vietnam back.BUT Vietnamese DID NOT want France back!!A war of decolonization broke out ( )Note – Not a war of Communism!!!!After French loss at Dien Bien Phu,Phase I of Vietnam was overN.= Commi / S.=Democratic-Dictator (Diem)1954 Geneva Agreement = 1956 unity elections (X)Laos & Cambodia = IndependenceUSA feared Domino Effect / Phase II1st =Advisors=>Supplies=>60s = Soldiers.USSR & China sent weapons & aid to NorthFormerly known asFr. Indo-ChinaDiem‘Corrupt’
35VIETNAM WAR / AMERICAN REACTION (1961-73) Ho Chi Minh TrailVIETNAM WAR / AMERICAN REACTION ( )Why was the USA committed?SEATO / Domino Theory / Red Menace /Containment in Korea /Was the US committed to a fault?Diem corrupt / Amer. Advisors = no winMany locals supported National Liberation Front (NLF)& Vietcong / No presence shows weakness.More bombs dropped on VietnamThan all of WWII combined.US did not know enemy from friendly
36AMERICAN TIMELINE 1946-54 – Supported French - advisors etc. Kennedy =Soldiers to help Diem.Diem booted (US help)Thieu in power.Gulf of Tonkin incident- US = more Air & Troopsby 1968.Nixon in power- VietnamizationViet Congsank US shipThieuFrom 1 corruptleader to theNext.DiemTet Offensive turned public
37EFFECTS OF VIETNAM THE COST OF WAR AGENT ORANGE - $150 Billion - 2 million soldiers sentdead- US world prestige gone‘Vietnam Syndrome’- People questioned gov’tsAgent OrangePre-NatalExposureTHE DRAFTFIRST TV WARTurned The American public.CANADA’S REACTION50/50 => Anti-warOpted out – Volunteers to USAnti-Draft groups for Draft-dodgersUS questioned Canada’s loyaltyPearson / Johnson feud after US bombs
38VIETNAM TODAY A One Party Socialist State Despite American loss the Domino Theory did not hold true. Communism did not spread. Outside French-Indo China. Today both Laos & Cambodiaremain democratic.NIXON & WATERGATEDuring 1972 election (the termAfter Nixon installedVietnamization) twoof his Republicanscaught planting ‘bugs’in Democrat office.Nixon swore innocence!!“I am not a crook”1974 eveidence proved heWas a criminal & he resigned.Biggest political scandalEver proved.
39Member Republics = Independence 1980s COLD WARTHE ENDOF THECOLD WARMid 80s Gorbachev’s USSR could not keep pace ($$$)- Proposed massive cuts- Perestroika – Reconstruction- Glasnost – Openess- Encourage other Soviet Blocnations to follow.1991 USSR had collapsed.Member Republics = IndependenceYeltsin = DemocracyCOLD WAR CONTINUESNote – In 1970s USSR winning arms race; 1980s Reaganwas to change that.USA - increases budget- Supported questionable right wing gov’ts-Nicaragua - US supported Contras????USSR – Supported Pro-Communist struggles.EVENTS – USSR shoots down S. Koreanairliner over Soviet airspace.- USA invades Communist Grenada (Caribbean)CANADA – Trudeau appeals to both for more restraint.Mulroney forge closer US ties.1983 Strategic Defence Initiative(‘Star Wars’)Can. Eventually backed out.Too much $ & US ties.Soviets criticized as $ encouraging more ‘Nukes’1990 – Berlin Wall CrumblesCHINAEncouraged Peresroika=> CapitalismFreedoms crushed inTianaanmenSquare