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UNIT IV 1945-1963.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT IV 1945-1963."— Presentation transcript:



1950s WOMEN (Stay-at-home, femininity, resentment) Read “When He Comes Home From Work” SUBURBS/ AUTOMOBILE TV / CONSUMERS (Ed Sullivan, Mickey, Roy Rogers) (Appliances, Barbie, Sugar Cereals) TEEN CULTURE (Boomers, Guides/Scouts, Educated, Rockers/Elvis - No hip shots), IMMIGRATION = 2 MILLION 1956 HUNGARIAN REV. MASSEY COMMISSION Protect Can.Identity (CRTC, CBC, NFB)

4 THE IRON CURTAIN Compare NATO & the Warsaw Pact to the ‘Iron Curtain”

5 STATE OF THE WORLD As a nation did not exist. ‘Sectioned off’
A battered nation looking For identity. (Ex. Vietnam) In serious decline & as an Empire, she was collapsing . A crushed nation, looking to rebuild. In turmoil heading to independence Was in a civil war, with Mao rising up EASTERN EUROPE Had been a major Battlefield. Rebuilding Occupied by America. Future unknown.

6 USSR Russia was spent; it would have lost war if not for USA/”Lend Lease.”
Controlled Eastern European Nations and led them into Communism. Became a military giant, but economically poor. Did not have the A-Bomb until 1949. ABSOLUTE CONFORMITY - Shot or imprisoned POWs - Anti-Semitism for fear of new Israel influencing Jews. - Dismissed WW II heroes. - Censorship. - Eliminated rivals Used its new found ‘Empire’ to develop resources.

7 USA The only nation to come out of war better-off than it went in.
½ World’s Manufacturing Greatest exporter of goods Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Became the true ‘World Superpower.’ World’s strongest military. Looked upon to lead the ‘Democratic Nations. “New World Order” to benefit Capitalism. The American perception of immortality would Last right up until Korea & then further lowered Her self esteem in Vietnam. (The Vietnam Syndrome) Roosevelt

After WW II, a war of propaganda and fear materialized between the USA and the Soviet Union. No shots were fired but the two superpowers stockpiled nuclear weapons. THE ISSUES Soviet Union vs. USA East vs. West Communism vs. Capitalism Gov’t Control vs. Private Enterprise. No Opposition vs. Basic Freedoms. Soviet Expansion (E. Europe) = American Suspicion. Vice-versa – Soviets feared US expansion. Did ‘Nukes’ create peace?

9 KEY COLD WAR TERMS Domino Theory – If one country
falls to Comm..…the rest will. Satellite States – Soviet control of its Eastern States. Iron Curtain – Separates E. Europe (Commi) from W, Europe (Democracy) Central Intelligence Agency – CIA American espionage agency to find any Threats to the US. (Today – terrorists) National Security Council – Advised US president on defence issues.

10 The Cold War

Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. Divided Germany ALLIED CONTROL COUNCIL Implemented to overlook this Arrangement. Note – USSR & France = Reparations


13 “Two halves of the same walnut”?
“Totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples undermine…. the security of the US” Go Team!! Want $$$? TRUMAN DOCTRINE (Political) Truman wanted to support ‘Free People’ = ANTI-COMMUNISTS Political, economic, & military aid To ‘friends’ of the USA “America’s Line In The Sand!” Ex. Greece/Turkey = $$ to bail out so no need to turn to USSR. ($400 Million) MARSHALL PLAN (Economic) The economic response to the threat of communism. Even the USSR inquired but couldn’t meet the ‘freedom’ requirements. $28 Billion spent – Most from USA Communist take-over in 1948 (Czech.) gave the Marshall Plan credibility. “Two halves of the same walnut”?

14 BERLIN Divided Germany Divided Berlin

15 BERLIN (Truman Doctrine @ Work!!)
After WW II Germany was divided between East & West. - Berlin = also divided between East & West - democratic city within E. Germany 1948 – Berlin Airlift. U.S. airlifted supplies. - US $ & new democratic gov’t broke Yalta agreement. => Stalin was mad. 1. New Currency 2. B-29s in Britain) East Germans built the Berlin Wall -‘Wall of Shame’- to keep ‘fascism out.’ OR in????? 1990 – Berlin Wall crumbles. “We are staying , period.” Soviets – “What happens in Berlin happens in Europe”

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Org.) (1949) US, Canadian, & Western Europe defence organization. Attack one – Attack all!! Soviets responded with ‘The Warsaw Pact’(1951). St. Laurent pushed for Canada’s middle power involvement. Canada adapted defence to align with NATO. Smart??? Independence??? U.S. Marshal Plan $ to help poor European Nations

17 COLD WAR AT HOME DUCK & COVER Gouzenko’s story sparked fear:
- Bomb Shelters - Civil Defence Plans - “Duck & Cover” campaigns - The “Red Mennace” - McCarthy’s ‘Witch-hunts’(USA) - Can. refused to outlaw Communism. DUCK & COVER VIDEO Alger Hiss – Russian Spy in USA???? Klaus Fuchs – Physicist selling secrets to USSR from Britain 1949 – USSR Gets A-Bomb Igor Gouzenko – Russian spy who came forward to notify authorities – no one believed him at first. Atomic secrets.


NORAD (North American Aerospace Defence Command) Defienbaker committed to a joined US/Can. fighter force, missile bases, & air defence. NORAD - Today US military in Can. caused many Canadians alarm. DEW (Distant Early Warning Sign) A joint system of radar was put in place to warn/protect N. Amer. from attack. - Long range bombers put N. America at risk.

Collective Security - Formed after WW II to keep peace Two bodies: General Assembly (all members) Security Council. (Super Powers) The Security Councils ‘veto’ - prevented effectiveness - the Soviets vetoed 75 of the 78 times. The UN also pledged to abolish disease, famine & help improve human rights. (WHO, UNICEF, IMO) Canada involved in almost every UN operation since 1956. League of Nations Approximately 200 Member States (192)

USA liberated South from Japanese Rule. Supported corrupt democratic gov’t (Syngman Rhee) Truman declares the Truman Doctrine applies in Asia. NORTH KOREA Soviets liberated the North from Japanese rule. North invades South. North captures everything North of Pusan. => UN helps South!! Why??? Veto?? 38th Parallel Tensions rose but USA & USSR did little to help Japan

22 THE KOREAN CONFLICT UN was able to help south because of
USSR boycott due to no Communist Chinese seat) - Although UN sanctioned = Led by USA. MacArthur regained S. & kept going. Truman’s fears: 1. China. 2. Russian retaliation in Europe. China Enters: Push Amer. back past the 38th. - Truman/MacArthur talk ‘Nukes.’ - Truman & Atlee reconsider. Truman / MacArthur Split!! - Truman containment / MacArthur Nukes - Truman fires MacArthur (USA loves MacA.) Gen. MacArthur Note – Truman = Liberation vs. Containment?? “Canada’s Forgotten War” Wounded in action story.

23 KOREA REMAINS SPLIT 1952 Dwight Eisenhower became US president.
1953 = Ceasefire – Border remains 38th Parallel. Note – Anti-Communist John Foster Dulles threatened China with Nukes if POWs not returned. - Peace talks dragged on for years. STAY TUNED => Vietnam 1960s. Eventually Americans gave into containment. Other Alliances to promote containment include: - NATO – W. Europe / N. America - OAS – Latin Amer. / USA - ANZUS – New Zealand / Aussies / USA - SEATO – S. East Asia - CENTO – USA / Mid. East KOREA 2012 Kim Jong Un

KHRUSHCHEV Took over & Started De-Stalinization ( ) STALIN Died in 1953 DE-STALINIZATION Khrushchev relaxed relations with the Soviet satellite states. Stalin = Harsh measures / Complete Conformity Brought Satellites into THE WARSAW PACT (alliance vs. dictatorship)

25 PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE Khrushchev (1956) openly stated USSR to globally compete with USA USA responded with Eisenhower Doctrine – Force in Mid East against Communism Was Peaceful Co-existence meant to be aggressive or peaceful? Aggressive USSR broke Baghdad Pact (CENTO) – sold arms to Czechs & Egyptians. Influence/Force in Middle East Visited ‘friendlies’; India, Afghan Burma. Cuban Missile Crisis (More to come) Khrushchev’s speech “We will bury you” Peaceful Moved away from stand-offs like Korea & Berlin airlift (1948). Space race not aggressive?? Visited USA to smooth differences. - Caused Sino-Soviet split (China/Russian Split) Would be the start of Détente (More to Come) 1961 = Berlin Wall???

26 THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA SUEZ CANAL CRISIS – (1956) Nasser takes power &
accepts Communist arms. - West pulls dam $$$. Nasser took over Canal. Brt., Fr., Israel = ‘Operation Musketeer’ Soviets defended Egypt (Bomb??). USA angry & caught in Middle PM Pearson initiated UN peacekeeping. Egypt and the Suez Canal PM Pearson awarded Nobel Peace Prize

HUNGARY – 1956 Harsh Communist Rakosi out & once imprisoned Nagy in. Pressured by the people he made anti- Soviet demands & wanted out of the Warsaw Pact. Soviet tanks rolled in (30,000 dead). Nagy out & Pro-Soviet Kadar in. USA not welcome in Soviet “Backyard.” POLAND – 1956 Strikers had enough & demanded more freedoms. Gomulka (Jailed by Stalin) put in power. Stayed part of Commi Bloc but eased restrictions. 1. De-collectivized agriculture 2. Allowed Catholicism Nagy Gomulka Khrushchev Era PRAGUE – 1968 NOTE - Czech. was democratic after WWI. In 1968, Dubcek replaced Stalinist Novotny. “Socialism with a Human Face” – Freedoms with socialism (travel/elections/media) Romania was tempted to follow as well. Romania’s Mov’t threatened splitting Warsaw Pact!!! Soviets invaded => Dubcek out => Husak In / Back to old ways Breshnev Doctrine – (Soviet president ) Use force to protect Socialism Dubcek GOLDEN RULE – Don’t break Warsaw Pact E. Bloc Nations “Coming Soon”– 1989 Poland breaks free & “The Walls Come Tumbling Down” Soviet Prez. Breshnev

28 KHRUSHCHEV CONTINUED THE BERLIN WALL 1961 E. Germ were leaving to W.
-“Brain Drain” Embarrassment 4 Soviets. Kennedy pushed harder Khrushchev built a wall. “Shoot to Kill Guards.” US could do nothing but watch Both Kennedy & Khrushchev seen as soft. Khrushchev tests 58 Megaton bomb.(2900 x Hiroshima) SPUTNIK (1957) USSR beat USA to space. size of B-Ball & beeped??? Amer. knew missiles = next. No defence from missiles. US adapted schools etc. Sputnik II U-2 INCIDENT - US spy planes over USSR. USSR finally shot 1 down. Summit Conference – Khrushchev refused to meet until US apologized.

29 Nationalized Pro-US Cuba
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS Cuban Cigars 1959 – Fidel Castro overthrows pro-US dictator Batista. US Reaction – Trade Sanctions imposed. 1961 – Kennedy approves Bay of Pigs invasion. Cuban Reaction – Turn to USSR for help 1962 – US surveillance (U-2)shows Soviet Missiles US Reaction – Naval & Air Blockade 3 CHOICES: 1.Bomb Missiles 2. Invade 3. Negotiate Khrushchev refused to remove missiles. WAR????? US & USSR = ALERT CONCLUSION – USSR removes missiles but US must agree not to invade Cuba (Missiles out of Turkey?? / Not Public) Fidel Castro Nationalized Pro-US Cuba BRINKMANSHIP CANADA - Asked for UN checks before total commitment . US upset and questioned Canada’s loyalty to NORAD 80% of Canadians felt ‘Dief’ was wrong. PM Diefenbaker

SIGNIFICANCE OF CUBA 1. DIRECT & MILITARY - For 1st time did not involve ‘Client States’ 2.NUCLEAR FORCE - ALL about ‘Nukes’ 3.BRINKMANSHIP - Taking events to the ‘edge.’ RESULTS OF CUBA Direct Link Phone Lines – Communication Scared both Kennedy & Khrushchev / (Note- Kennedy assassinated in 1963) Led to Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty Cuba = Soviet Satellite State Would lead to Khrushchev’s dismissal

31 THE NUCLEAR AGE H-BOMB – 2900 x greater than Hiroshima A-Bomb.
PEACENIKS – Anti-war, Anti-weapons movements “GUNS & BUTTER”- Nukes took $ away from economy. USSR society suffered – Could not afford luxury & Nukes. “HAWKS”- Nukes became an election issue – “Our way is better” NUKES = PEACE MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction SAC – Strategic Air Command – USA = 24 Hr planes with Nukes CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS – Not Nukes / USSR = more PRE-EMPTIVE STRIKE – A surprise nuke attack / The Great Fear ICBM – Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile – Rocket with Nuke / No Defence

THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (France/W. Germany/Italy/Belgium/Netherlands/Luxembourg0 An attempt to bring the European community into an economic alliance. Three main goals: 1. Limit the effects of nationalism - Council of Europe 1949 – promote unity/rights 2. Establish a Free Trade Bloc - Schuman Plan 1950 – Unite steel & coal plans. - Euratom 1957 – Nuclear power to lower Arab Oil. 3. Establish a common front against Communism. - European Defence Community Rivaled E. Blocs Comecon. (See Map) NOTE – Britain was first denied as too close to USA. - Later Brt., Denmark, Ireland, & Norway joined as EEC boomed

33 JFK / OSWALD Why assassinated? Obama of the 60s. Three shot theory:
CIA / Mafia / Russia / Cuba / Banks - Bush Grassy knoll theory Three shot theory: 1. Missed 2. Head /Kill-Shot 3. Magic Bullet Bullet fragment found pristine. Jack Ruby Died of lung cancer Lee Harvey Oswald Acting Alone?? Police announced time etc.??

Prior to WWII Vietnam was an Ex-French Colony During WWII Ho Chi Min fought the Japanese. After WWII France wanted Vietnam back. BUT Vietnamese DID NOT want France back!! A war of decolonization broke out ( ) Note – Not a war of Communism!!!! After French loss at Dien Bien Phu, Phase I of Vietnam was over N.= Commi / S.=Democratic-Dictator (Diem) 1954 Geneva Agreement = 1956 unity elections (X) Laos & Cambodia = Independence USA feared Domino Effect / Phase II 1st =Advisors=>Supplies=>60s = Soldiers. USSR & China sent weapons & aid to North Formerly known as Fr. Indo-China Diem ‘Corrupt’

Ho Chi Minh Trail VIETNAM WAR / AMERICAN REACTION ( ) Why was the USA committed? SEATO / Domino Theory / Red Menace / Containment in Korea / Was the US committed to a fault? Diem corrupt / Amer. Advisors = no win Many locals supported National Liberation Front (NLF) & Vietcong / No presence shows weakness. More bombs dropped on Vietnam Than all of WWII combined. US did not know enemy from friendly

36 AMERICAN TIMELINE 1946-54 – Supported French - advisors etc.
Kennedy = Soldiers to help Diem. Diem booted (US help) Thieu in power. Gulf of Tonkin incident - US = more Air & Troops by 1968. Nixon in power - Vietnamization Viet Cong sank US ship Thieu From 1 corrupt leader to the Next. Diem Tet Offensive turned public

- 2 million soldiers sent dead - US world prestige gone ‘Vietnam Syndrome’ - People questioned gov’ts Agent Orange Pre-Natal Exposure THE DRAFT FIRST TV WAR Turned The American public. CANADA’S REACTION 50/50 => Anti-war Opted out – Volunteers to US Anti-Draft groups for Draft-dodgers US questioned Canada’s loyalty Pearson / Johnson feud after US bombs

38 VIETNAM TODAY A One Party Socialist State Despite American loss the Domino Theory did not hold true. Communism did not spread. Outside French-Indo China. Today both Laos & Cambodia remain democratic. NIXON & WATERGATE During 1972 election (the term After Nixon installed Vietnamization) two of his Republicans caught planting ‘bugs’ in Democrat office. Nixon swore innocence!! “I am not a crook” 1974 eveidence proved he Was a criminal & he resigned. Biggest political scandal Ever proved.

39 Member Republics = Independence
1980s COLD WAR THE END OF THE COLD WAR Mid 80s Gorbachev’s USSR could not keep pace ($$$) - Proposed massive cuts - Perestroika – Reconstruction - Glasnost – Openess - Encourage other Soviet Bloc nations to follow. 1991 USSR had collapsed. Member Republics = Independence Yeltsin = Democracy COLD WAR CONTINUES Note – In 1970s USSR winning arms race; 1980s Reagan was to change that. USA - increases budget - Supported questionable right wing gov’ts -Nicaragua - US supported Contras???? USSR – Supported Pro-Communist struggles. EVENTS – USSR shoots down S. Korean airliner over Soviet airspace. - USA invades Communist Grenada (Caribbean) CANADA – Trudeau appeals to both for more restraint. Mulroney forge closer US ties. 1983 Strategic Defence Initiative (‘Star Wars’) Can. Eventually backed out. Too much $ & US ties. Soviets criticized as $ encouraging more ‘Nukes’ 1990 – Berlin Wall Crumbles CHINA Encouraged Peresroika => Capitalism Freedoms crushed in Tianaanmen Square


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