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How To Draw Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds Using CO 2 as an Example.

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Presentation on theme: "How To Draw Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds Using CO 2 as an Example."— Presentation transcript:

1 How To Draw Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds Using CO 2 as an Example

2 Calculate the number of valence electrons. –What is the electron configuration for each atom? C O2 – 6 1 atom of Carbon x 4 valence electrons each 2 atoms of Oxygen x 6 valence electrons each 1(4 e - ) + 2(6 e - ) =16 e - Red indicates valence electrons

3 Draw a skeletal structure Identify a central atom –Often the element that appears only once in the formula –Often carbon COO

4 Add electrons so that each atom has eight electrons Exception H, He, Li, Be, B Always do this step despite the number of valence electrons you calculated in step 1. COO

5 So now each atom has 8 electrons or dots C OO Central Carbon has 8 electrons

6 So now each atom has 8 electrons or dots C OO Left Oxygen has 8 electrons

7 So now each atom has 8 electrons or dots C OO Right Oxygen has 8 electrons

8 BUT There are a total of 20 dots or electrons. We need 16 dots or electrons. C OO We must add at least one double bond.

9 To share an additional pair of electrons and form a double bond, two pairs must be removed from two adjacent atoms and a pair must be shared between those atoms. C OO

10 C OO Now there are 18 electrons or dots. To get 16, add another double bond (share another pair of electrons).

11 To share an additional pair of electrons and form a double bond, two pairs must be removed from two adjacent atoms and a pair must be shared between those atoms. C OO Now there are 16 electrons. This is our final structure.

12 We often rearrange the electrons to show that they separate as much as possible from each other. C OO Now lets check that all atoms still have 8 electrons each.

13 OOC Final Structure

14 OOC 8 Electrons Around Central Carbon

15 OOC 8 Electrons Around Left Oxygen

16 OOC 8 Electrons Around Right Oxygen

17 OOC Final Structure

18 2 atoms More than 2 atoms

19 Bonding domains domain Domains

20 Now we can predict molecular shape and polarity for CO 2 How many bonding domains does the central atom have?2 How many nonbonding pairs or lone pairs or nonbonding domains does the central atom have?0 What is the shape from the table? Linear Bond Angle180 degrees OOC

21 Polarity Draw an arrow from the more electronegative atom(s) to the less electronegative atom(s). If the arrows point in one general direction, the molecule is polar. If the arrows cancel out the molecule is nonpolar. Be certain that the structure takes into account the shape of the molecule.

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