Presentation on theme: "WHAT IS DATA? EDUC 894 Week 3. Plan for Today Reading Cheques & Tech Talk Erickan and Roth – What is Data? Human Subjects Discussion ----------Dinner."— Presentation transcript:
Plan for Today Reading Cheques & Tech Talk Erickan and Roth – What is Data? Human Subjects Discussion ----------Dinner Break------------- Groupwork & Team Consultations RQ honing + Methods & Methodology Planning Human Subjects / Logistics Planning For Next Week Review relevant chapters in Creswell – what is useful? Deliverable 1 Due Next Week
Data are Just Representations Two aspects of phenomena in the world: Quantitative (continuous, additive structure, magnitude) Qualitative (discontinuous, non additive, multitude) What’s the difference? Let’s look at some examples: Material Situation Social Situation Quick Check… Quick Check…
Quick Check Which Kind of Data Involves measurement? Best represents someone’s ethnicity? Lead to generalizable claims? Is more objective?
The Myth of Psychological Measurement Classic Definition of Measurement “the estimation of the ratio of a magnitude of a quantity to a unit of the same quantity” (Michell, 1999) Quantity = number * unit Once a base unit is defined, we can have any multiple Example: The Kilogram International prototype kept under 3 bell jars in a vault at the BIPM 2 kg is twice as much mass as the base unit Image source: http://www.bipm.org/en/si/base_units/
So what do we have in psychology? Constructs: E.g. self-esteem Do we all agree on what it is? Theoretically, maybe:“the confidence and satisfaction a person has in him/herself” How do we measure it? Operational definitions For example, a 3 factor definitions Internal locus of control Sense of belonging and acceptance Sense of competence: Indirectly through responses to specific questions on each factor (“a sampling of indicators”) The common “Likert scale”
So what do we have in psychology? 2 But, what does 1 unit of self-esteem look like? Do we all agree on this? Is 2 units of self-esteem twice as much as 1 unit? How do we know? What does it mean to have 0 self-esteem Can we have negative self-esteem? Does self-esteem only vary in one way? These may sound like silly questions – but statistical calculations assume that “quantities” have these properties
Psychological Definition of Measurement “The assignment of numbers to quantities of the properties of an object according to certain rules” (Stevens, 1946) 4 Kinds of scales Ratio (“Distance to where I am standing right now”) Interval (“30 o Celsius this weekend”) Ordinal (“Toy Poodle is Best in Show”) Nominal (“It’s a boy”) Which takes us back to Erickan and Roth’s point…
Erickan & Roth’s Call to Arms Let your Research Questions drive your methods What kind of question are you asking? What is happening? Is there a systemic effect? Why/how is it happening? What level of inference is required? How will you collect and analyze data to make that inference? How will both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the phenomenon your are studying come into play?
Research Ethics – Key Concepts Informed Consent What information How to consent Right to Withdraw Risks versus Benefits Evaluating the trade-off Anticipating & minimizing the risk Informing the subjects Confidentiality Data storage and collection Conflict of interest Oversight Course “review board” Providing my contact information
For Next Week Review relevant chapters in Creswell What is useful? On your wiki collaboratively make a list of Chapters you found useful Specific points in the chapters to keep in mind as you craft your methods Deliverable 1 Due Next Week Please bring a hard copy to next class