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OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 1 From Chapter 6 of Distributed Systems Concepts and Design,4 th Edition, By G. Coulouris, J. Dollimore and T. Kindberg Published.

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Presentation on theme: "OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 1 From Chapter 6 of Distributed Systems Concepts and Design,4 th Edition, By G. Coulouris, J. Dollimore and T. Kindberg Published."— Presentation transcript:

1 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 1 From Chapter 6 of Distributed Systems Concepts and Design,4 th Edition, By G. Coulouris, J. Dollimore and T. Kindberg Published by Addison Wesley/Pearson Education June 2005

2 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 2 Topics  Introduction  The Operating System Layer  Processes and Threads  Operating System Architecture Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

3 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 3 Introduction  Many distributed operating systems have been investigated, but there are none in general/wide use.  But network operating system are in wide use for various reasons both technical and non-technical.  Users have much invested in their application software; they will not adopt a new operating system that will not run their applications. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

4 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 4 Introduction  The second reason against the adoption of distributed operating system is that users tend to prefer to have a degree of autonomy for their machines, even in a organization.  Unix and Windows are two examples of network operating systems.  Those have a networking capability built into them and so can be used to access remote resources using basic services such as rlogin and telnet. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

5 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 5 Introduction  The combination of middleware and network operating systems provides an acceptance balance between the requirement of autonomy and network transparency.  The network operating systems allows users to run their favorite word processor and other standalone applications. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

6 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 6 Introduction  Middleware enables users to take advantage of services that become available in their distributed system. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

7 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 7 The Operating System Layer Figure 1. System layers Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

8 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 8 The Operating System Layer  Figure 1 shows how the operating system layer at each of two nodes supports a common middleware layer in providing a distributed infrastructure for applications and services.  Kernels and server processes are the components that manage resources and present clients with an interface to the resources. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

9 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 9 The Operating System Layer  The OS facilitates:  Encapsulation  Protection  Concurrent processing  Invocation mechanism is a means of accessing an encapsulated resource. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

10 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 10 The Operating System Layer Figure 2. Core OS functionality Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

11 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 11 The Operating System Layer  Figure 2 shows the core OS components:  Process manager  Thread manager  Memory manager  Communication manager  Supervisor Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

12 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 12 Processes and Threads  Process  A process consists of an execution environment together with one or more threads.  A thread is the operating system abstraction of an activity.  An execution environment is the unit of resource management: a collection of local kernel managed resources to which its threads have access. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

13 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 13 Processes and Threads  An execution environment consists of :  An address space  Thread synchronization and communication resources (e.g., semaphores, sockets)  Higher-level resources (e.g., file systems, windows) Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

14 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 14 Processes and Threads  Threads  Threads are schedulable activities attached to processes.  The aim of having multiple threads of execution is :  To maximize degree of concurrent execution between operations  To enable the overlap of computation with input and output  To enable concurrent processing on multiprocessors. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

15 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 15 Processes and Threads  Threads can be helpful within servers:  Concurrent processing of client’s requests can reduce the tendency for servers to become bottleneck. E.g. one thread can process a client’s request while a second thread serving another request waits for a disk access to complete. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

16 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 16 Processes and Threads  Processes vs. Threads  Threads are “lightweight” processes,  processes are expensive to create but threads are easier to create and destroy. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

17 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 17 Processes and Threads  Threads programming  Thread programming is concurrent programming.  Java provides methods for creating, destroying and synchronizing threads.  The Java thread class includes the constructor and management methods listed in Figure 3.  The thread and object synchronization methods are in Figure 4. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

18 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 18 Processes and Threads Thread(ThreadGroup group, Runnable target, String name) Creates a new thread in the SUSPENDED state, which will belong to group and be identified as name; the thread will execute the run() method of target. setPriority(int newPriority), getPriority() Set and return the thread’s priority. run() A thread executes the run() method of its target object, if it has one, and otherwise its own run() method (Thread implements Runnable). start() Change the state of the thread from SUSPENDED to RUNNABLE. sleep(int millisecs) Cause the thread to enter the SUSPENDED state for the specified time. yield() Enter the READY state and invoke the scheduler. destroy() Destroy the thread. Figure 3. Java thread constructor and management methods Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

19 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 19 Processes and Threads thread.join(int millisecs) Blocks the calling thread for up to the specified time until thread has terminated. thread.interrupt() Interrupts thread: causes it to return from a blocking method call such as sleep(). object.wait(long millisecs, int nanosecs) Blocks the calling thread until a call made to notify() or notifyAll() on object wakes the thread, or the thread is interrupted, or the specified time has elapsed. object.notify(), object.notifyAll() Wakes, respectively, one or all of any threads that have called wait() on object. Figure 4. Java thread synchronization calls Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

20 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 20 Processes and Threads  Programs can manage threads in groups.  Every thread belongs to one group assigned at thread creation time.  thread groups are useful to shield various applications running in parallel on one Java Virtual Machine (JVM).  A thread in one group cannot perform management operations on a thread in another group.  E.g., an application thread may not interrupt a system windowing (AWT) thread. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

21 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 21 Processes and Threads  Thread synchronization  The main difficult issues in multi-threaded programming are the sharing of objects and the techniques used for thread coordination and cooperation.  Each thread’s local variables in methods are private to it.  Threads have private stack.  Threads do not have private copies of static (class) variables or object instance variables. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

22 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 22 Processes and Threads  Java provides the synchronized keyword for thread coordination.  any object can only be accessed through one invocation of any of its synchronized methods.  an object can have synchronized and non- synchronized methods.  example  synchronized addTo() and removeFrom() methods to serialize requests in worker pool example. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

23 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 23 Processes and Threads  Threads can be blocked and woken up  The thread awaiting a certain condition calls an object’s wait() method.  The other thread calls notify() or notifyAll() to awake one or all blocked threads.  example  When a worker thread discovers that there are no requests to process, it calls wait() on the instance of Queue.  When the I/O thread adds a request to the queue, it calls the queue’s notify() method to wake up the worker. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

24 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 24 Processes and Threads  The Java synchronization methods are given in Figure 4. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

25 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 25 Client and server with threads Server N threads Input-output Client Thread 2 makes T1 Thread 1 requests to server generates results Requests Receipt & queuing Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

26 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 26 Operating System Architecture  A key principle of distributed systems is openness.  The major kernel architectures:  Monolithic kernels  Micro-kernels Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

27 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 27 Operating System Architecture  An open distributed system should make it possible to:  Run only that system software at each computer that is necessary for its particular role in the system architecture. For example, system software needs for PDA and dedicated server are different. Loading redundant modules wastes memory resources.  Allow the software (and the computer) implementing any particular service to be changed independent of other facilities. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

28 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 28 Operating System Architecture  Allow for alternatives of the same service to be provided, when this is required to suit different users or applications.  Introduce new services without harming the integrity of existing ones. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

29 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 29 Operating System Architecture  A guiding principle of operating system design:  The separation of fixed resource management “mechanisms“ from resource management “policies”, which vary from application to application and service to service.  For example, an ideal scheduling system would provide mechanisms that enable a multimedia application such as videoconferencing to meet its real-time demands while coexisting with a non- real-time application such as web browsing. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

30 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 30 Operating System Architecture  The kernel would provide only the most basic mechanisms upon which the general resource management tasks at a node are carried out.  Server modules would be dynamically loaded as required, to implement the required resourced management policies for the currently running applications. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

31 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 31 Operating System Architecture  Monolithic Kernels  A monolithic kernel can contain some server processes that execute within its address space, including file servers and some networking.  The code that these processes execute is part or the standard kernel configuration. (Figure 5) Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

32 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 32 Operating System Architecture Figure 5. Monolithic kernel and microkernel Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

33 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 33 Operating System Architecture  Microkernel  The microkernel appears as a layer between hardware layer and a layer consisting of major systems.  If performance is the goal, rather than portability, then middleware may use the facilities of the microkernel directly. (Figure 6) Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

34 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 34 Operating System Architecture Figure 6. The role of the microkernel Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

35 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 35 Operating System Architecture  Monolithic and Microkernel comparison  The advantages of a microkernel  Its extensibility  Its ability to enforce modularity behind memory protection boundaries.  Its small kernel has less complexity.  The advantages of a monolithic  The relative efficiency with which operations can be invoked because even invocation to a separate user-level address space on the same node is more costly. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005

36 OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT 36 Operating System Architecture  Hybrid Approaches  Pure microkernel operating system such as Chorus & Mach have changed over a time to allow servers to be loaded dynamically into the kernel address space or into a user-level address space.  In some operating system such as SPIN, the kernel and all dynamically loaded modules grafted onto the kernel execute within a single address space. Couloris,Dollimore and Kindberg Distributed Systems: Concepts & Design Edn. 4, Pearson Education 2005


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