5After North Korean strike, South Korean leader threatens 'retaliation' By the CNN Wire StaffSeoul, South Korea (CNN) -- Hours after North Korea's deadly artillery attacks Tuesday, South Korea's president said "enormous retaliation" is needed to stop Pyongyang's incitement, but international diplomats urgently appealed for restraint."The provocation this time can be regarded as an invasion of South Korean territory," President Lee Myung-bak said at the headquarters of the Joint Chiefs of Staff here, according to South Korea's Yonhap news agency.The incident -- in which two South Korean marines died -- is "the first direct artillery attack on South Korean territory since the Korean War ended in an armistice" in 1953, Yonhap reported.The United States has about 28,500 troops deployed in South Korea. A U.S. defense official said more than 50 U.S. Navy vessels are in the area, including a carrier strike group led by the USS George Washington.
7CubaNATONuclear missiles – Weapons of Mass DestructionNuclear missile defenseAfghanistanAfricaAnti-communism/socialism – USSpace ProgramUS military basesUnderdevelopment in Eastern Europe
8What are the Origins of the Cold War? Before WWIIDuring WWIIAfter WWII
9Before Russian Revolution Conflicting Ideologies Marxism vs Capitalism Russian Civil War Spanish Civil WarRise of Fascism/GermanyMunich agreementsNazi Soviet Pact
10During the War Atmosphere of distrust Nazi-Soviet collaboration Poland – Katyn MassacreSpheres of InfluenceSecond FrontTehranYaltaPotsdamRussian casualtiesSoviet occupation forcesSoviet puppet governmentsUS nuclear monopoly – Bombing of Japan
11Political Division of Europe Political vacuum in central Europe (due to German collapse)Pro-western and Soviet spheres of influenceEach sphere would adopt the political institutions, economic systems and foreign policies of its liberators/conquerorsWestern half of continent adopted parliamentary style governance, capitalist economic structures, and Anglo-American foreign policiesEastern half of continent adopted Soviet political and economic models and supported the Kremlin in foreign policies (under the eyes of the Soviet occupation armies)
14Suppression in the Eastern Bloc The determination of the Soviet Union to establish a protective ring of subservient client states in Eastern Europe (from the Black Sea to the Baltic)Although non-communist political parties were allowed in Eastern Europe for a time, by this was no longer allowedAll democratic and non-socialist parties were purged on orders by StalinIn 1948, Czechoslovakia’s coalition government was dissolved and became the last state to become fully communist in Eastern Europe
15Why suppression?The Soviet Union will seek this protective ring, in order to avoid another eastern invasion of its territory (like in 1914 and 1941)What was the U.S. response?
16Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” Speech March 5, 1946Fulton, MissouriFrom Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere
17Sent a warning to Americans who many in the government were looking to keep out of international affairsWartime Propaganda
19U.S. Response - Containment George Kennan – “Long Telegram”Director of the Policy Planning Staff of the State Department – Deputy Chief US Mission in Moscow USSR still lives in antagonistic "capitalist encirclement" with which in the long run there can be no permanent peaceful coexistence.It was in the national interest of the US to contain any such expansion by strengthening the political, social, and economic institutions of countries subject to such expansionist pressures
20Truman Doctrine- With the void of German power, the USA feared a Soviet expansionist policy that stretched from the Sea of Japan to Western Europe- The Anglo-American alliance feared that the Soviet Union would be in better position for world domination than even Germany itself- Policy of containment was created to contain Soviet expansion to Eastern Europe- Stalin’s effort to establish a security zone in Eastern Europe was seen as a drive for continental hegemony and world domination
21"the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." Truman reasoned, because these "totalitarian regimes" coerced "free peoples," they represented a threat to international peace and the national security of the United States.
22Military Situation in Europe 1945 – USA had 1.2 million1947 – USA had 1.4 million1945 – USSR had 20+ million1947 – USSR had 4 millionWhy would this make the American’s European Allies uneasy?
23Why such a difference?US forces were brought home from Europe and demobilized , since it would have been impossible to explain that such large forces would be needed to oppose the forces of a wartime allyAs well, the US monopoly on nuclear weapons would counter balance such large conventional (non-nuclear) forces
24The Marshall Plan US Secretary of State George C. Marshall Proposed a plan to of economic aid to Europe to solve its postwar financial collapseAuthorized by the US Congress as the European Recovery ActBetween , $13.2 billion was given to western European nations
26Effects of Marshall Plan By 1952, European industrial production had risen 35% above pre 1939 levelsBy 1952, European agricultural production had risen 10% above pre 1939 levelsThe US dollar became the world’s principal currencyWhile USA quadrupled its exports to Europe, it still only amounted to 10% of its overall GNP (90% of its wealth was created in the domestic market)
27Soviet Reaction to Marshall Plan Marshall invited all the nations in Europe, including the Soviet Union to participate in this programThe Soviet delegation walked out of the discussion and forbade its satellite states from participatingThis was because of two American demands for economic aid:1) Access to internal budgets of states that accept the loans and aid2) Washington maintained that much of the aid money be spent on American exportsThus, these terms were unacceptable to the USSR, since they renounced capitalism and did not want the USA to have any access to their economic statements (security threat)
28Division of GermanyBy 1947, the divisions in Europe now spread to GermanyIn all three zones of western occupation (USA, UK and France), Marshall Plan aid was used to revive the German economyA common West German currency was establishedThe Soviets viewed this with suspicion, and talks of a “reunification” were put on hold “indefinitely”
30DecolonizationWhile the European powers expected to retain their colonies in 1945, several colonial people’s now had other ideasDue to Japan’s rapid defeat of the UK, France and the Dutch in WWII, the idea of European invincibility was now brokenThese actions for independence ranged from civil disobedience (British India) to outright war (French Indochina, Dutch Indonesia)