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ZONA TAMBAHAN DAN ZEE PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA UNIVERSITAS HANG-TUAH SURABAYA Dhiana P, SH, LLM, PhD.

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Presentation on theme: "ZONA TAMBAHAN DAN ZEE PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA UNIVERSITAS HANG-TUAH SURABAYA Dhiana P, SH, LLM, PhD."— Presentation transcript:

1 ZONA TAMBAHAN DAN ZEE PROGRAM PASCA SARJANA UNIVERSITAS HANG-TUAH SURABAYA Dhiana P, SH, LLM, PhD

2 CONTIGUOUS ZONE (ZONE TAMBAHAN) Perkembangan konsep CZ Pengertian CZ The breadth of (Lebar) CZ Legal status CZ Hak dan Kewajiban Negara Pantai

3 PERKEMBANGAN KONSEP CZ Berasal dari Hovering Acts dari UK yang mencegah penyelundupan pada jarak 24 mil ke arah laut bebas —belum ada prkatek negara2 bhw lebar laut teritorial adalah 3 mil (cannon ball theory) Dispute Spains v. British early nineteenth century – Spains objected on the seizure of British ship within the six-mile Spanish custom zone Custom zone – 3 miles---UK 24 miles (kelebihan)

4 Continued 3-miles custom zone recognize, subject to two exceptions: Doctrine constructive presence – utk melepas prisoners Doctrine of Hot- Pursuit – pengejaran ssorg yg melanggar hukum

5 PENGERTIAN CONTIGUOS ZONE IS A ZONE OF SEA CONTIGUOUS TO AND SEAWARD OF THE TERRITORIAL SEA IN WHICH STATES HAVE LIMITED POWERS FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF CUSTOMS, FISCAL, SANITARY AND IMMIGRATION LAWS

6 THE BREADTH OF CZ Negara tidak wajib u/ menentukan CZ seperti halnya TS Berbeda dengan CS, CZ tidak secara otomatis diberikan kepada negara pantai Negara harus dg aktif claim CZ – hanya 1/3 negara pantai yg claim CZ 24 mil dari baselines (article 33 (2) LOSC)

7 LEGAL STATUS OF CZ LOSC: CZ is part of ZEE TSC 1958: CZ is part of High Seas LOSC: inclusion of both enforcement and legislative jurisdiction – dalam hal2 ttt

8 Article 33 of LOSC 1.In a zone contiguousto its territorial sea, described as the contiguous zone, the coastal state may exercise the control necessary to: Prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea Punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea

9 PERKEMBANGAN DAN EVOLUSI ZEE EEZ – Concept of Recent Origin Historical roots lie in the trend since 1945 to extend the limits of coastal state jurisdiction ever seaward – Truman Proclamation Put first time by Kenya to Asian- Africal Legal Consulatative Committee in Januari 1971 dan ke UN Sea Bed Committee in 1972 Gain support both from developing and developed countries

10 RATIONAL PENTINGNYA ZEE EEZ is a reflection of the aspiration of the developing countries for economic development and their desire to gain greater control over the economic resources off their coast Compromised between states claiming 200 nm EEZ and developed states Exploration and exploitation of natural resources – mainly economic

11 PENGERTIAN ZEE No obligation to claim EEZ Is a zone extending up to 200 nautical miles from the baselines, within which the coastal state enjoys extensive rights in relation to natural resources and related jurisdictional rights, and third states enjoy the freedom of navigation, overflight by aircraft and the lying of cables and pipelines

12 BATAS ZEE The inner limit of EEZ is the outer limit of the territorial sea The outer limit of EEZ shall not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Thus, negara bisa claim ZEE kurang dari 200 nm – jika menghendaki

13 LEGAL STATUS ZEE EEZ must be regarded as separate functional zone of a sui generis character, situated between the territorial sea and the high seas The sui generis legal character has the following elements: Rights and duties of coastal states Rights and Duties of other states

14 HAK DAN KEWAJIBAN NEGARA PANTAI DI ZEE Non-Living resources Other economic resources (ps. 56 LOSC) Construction of artificial islands and installations Marine scientific research Pollution control

15 HAK DAN KEWAJIBAN NEGARA LAIN DI ZEE Navigation Overflight Laying of submarine cables and pipelines


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