Presentation on theme: "Fritz Haber Enabled the survival of billions: the Haber Process to synthesize ammonia Ammonia is used to create fertilizer Enabled the death of millions:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fritz HaberEnabled the survival of billions: the Haber Process to synthesize ammoniaAmmonia is used to create fertilizerEnabled the death of millions: the “father of chemical warfare”Poison gases of WWI and WWIIHaber Video Web Link (File Link)
2 Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis (Combination)DecompositionSingle ReplacementDouble ReplacementCombustion
3 Synthesis (Combination) Reactions Two or more reactants combine to produce a new product.A + B ABO + O OORUST: 4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3
4 Decomposition Reactions A compound breaks down into two or more compounds or elements.AB A + BOO O + OWATER (electrolysis): 2H2O 2H2 + O2MERCURY OXIDE: 2HgO 2Hg + O2
5 Pop: Synthesis and Decomposition Pop is carbonated water (Carbonic Acid)Synthesis: CO2 + H2O H2CO3This causes the pop to fizz and bubbleWhen pop goes flat or is shaken up the opposite happens.Decomposition: H2CO3 CO2 + H2OThe CO2 is released as a gas and water is left over.
6 Single Displacement O + OO OO + O OO + O OO + O A + BX AX + B One element of a compound is replaced by a new element to form a new compound.A + BX AX + BO + OO OO + OORAX + Y AY + XOO + O OO + OEXAMPLE: 2Na + CaCl2 2NaCl + CaThe sodium and the calcium “trade places”
7 Double DisplacementThe elements of two different compounds exchange places, forming two new compounds.AX + BY AY + BXOO + OO OO + OOAgNO3 + NaCl AgCl + NaNO3
8 Combustion ReactionA combustion reaction is when oxygen combines with another compound to form water and oxides.Combustion reactions are exothermic: they produce heat and light.Often, the compound reacting with oxygen is an organic compound (contains carbon).Example:Octane (component of gasoline)2C8H O2 16CO2 + 18H2OBurn a Buck
9 Chemical Reactions Video The Five Major Chemical ReactionsYouTubeFile Link
10 Problems “Types of Reactions” Worksheet Textbook Word Problems… Identify the Type of ReactionTextbook Word Problems…Pg 145: Q2, Q4Pg 149: Q9, Q10Pg 155, Q3, Q4, Q6, Q7, Q8, Q13Balance Equations
11 Carbon CompoundsOrganic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain carbon.The study of all other compounds is known as inorganic chemistry.Some carbon compounds are not considered organic (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ionic carbonates).
12 HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons are organic compounds that only contain carbon and hydrogen atoms.The main sources of hydrocarbons are crude oil and natural gas.Combustion reactions involving hydrocarbons are exothermic – a lot of energy is released (heat and light).Thermal energy heats our homes and powers transportation.
14 Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas → carbon dioxide + water Complete CombustionA reaction can have different levels of combustion depending on how much oxygen is present during the reaction.When the hydrocarbon is burned in a plentiful supply of oxygen complete combustion occurs.Hydrocarbon + oxygen gas → carbon dioxide + water
15 Incomplete Combustion A hydrocarbon burned in a poor supply of oxygen results in incomplete combustion.Not as much heat generated.Carbon monoxide and carbon (soot) by-products.hydrocarbon + oxygen gas → carbon dioxide + water + carbon + carbon monoxideCarbon Monoxide is Lethal!
16 The Future of Hydrocarbons: Peak Oil ? A Visual Tour of Peak Oil (3:06)ABC Catalyst – Peak Oil (12:23)Peak Oil Club of Rome (10:04)How many barrels of oil does the world consume each day?
18 International Energy Agency Hydrocarbon Estimates
19 Questions About Hydrocarbons Question 1: How would the end of cheap oil affect:IndividualsSocietyThe EnvironmentThe EconomyQuestion 2: What actions could (1) individuals and (2) governments take to conserve oil and offset the effects of rising prices?Question 3: Do you agree or disagree with this whole peak oil theory? Why or why not?
20 Summary Definitions Synthesis Two or more compounds come together and produce one compound.DecompositionOne compound breaks down into two or more compounds.Single DisplacementOne element replaces another in a compound to produce a new compound.Double DisplacementTwo elements switch places with each other to produce to new compoundsCombustionOxygen combines with another compound to form water and carbon dioxide.
21 Summary Table (without Combustion) Pg 151 of text (with combustion)