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Synthetic Biology Part 1: Introduction Input Output Gene A Gene B Gene C 1
micro.magnet.fsu.edu Prokaryotic cell
Cell-Cell communication in prokaryotes http://parts.mit.edu/igem07/index.php/Chiba/Communicati on 3
DNA RNA PROTEIN Transcription by RNA polymerase Translation by ribosomes Flow of genetic information 4
DNA structure 5
Gene structure Gene Promoter Coding sequenceTerminator chromosome 6
RNA Transcription start site Promoter Gene structure Terminator 7
Promoter structure 8
bioap.wikispaces.com Transcription 9
AUGUGA Ribosome binding site to initiate translation Start codon (first amino acid of the protein) Stop codon (signal to end protein synthesis) = untranslated region 5’3’ mRNA structure 12
+1 -10 Box TATAA -35 Box TTGTCA RNA Core promoter = Binding site for RNA polymerase In this configuration transcription is ON RNA Pol Transcription 13
RNA +1 RNA Pol A A = Activator of transcription bad promoter Transcription 14
+1 -10 box -35 box operator R R = Repressor In this configuration RNA Polymerase cannot bind transcription is OFF X Repression of transcription 15
The lactose operon of E. coli R lacI repressor R -35 O -10 Transcription is OFF Active repressor X Repression of transcription 16
The lactose operon of E. coli R lacI repressor -35 O -10 Transcription is ON Inactive repressor = inducer (lactose) RNA Pol X Induction of gene expression 17
AUGUGA 5’3’ 5’ siRNA Binding of siRNA causes mRNA degradation Translation X Silencing by antisense RNA 18
AUGUGA 5’3’ Ribozymes + aptamer RNA cleavage Repression by mRNA cleavage 19
AUGUGA Ribosome binding site to initiate translation Start codon (first amino acid of the protein) Stop codon (signal to end protein synthesis) = untranslated region 5’3’ mRNA structure 20
brooklyn.cuny.edu The genetic code 22
Protein structure biochem.arizona.edu 23
Slide 1 of 26 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.
12-3 RNA and Protein Synthesis
Controlling Gene Expression. Control Mechanisms Determine when to make more proteins and when to stop making more Cell has mechanisms to control transcription.
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GENE EXPRESSION and the LAC OPERON We have about genes inside our DNA that code for proteins. Clearly not all the proteins are needed at the same.
The Programming of a Cell By L Varin and N Kharma Biology and Computer Engineering Departments Concordia University.
PowerPoint Presentation Materials to accompany Genetics: Analysis and Principles Robert J. Brooker Copyright ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission.
WEEK 1 You have 10 seconds to name…
Addition 1’s to
GENETICS UNIT FIVE DAY 1. OPENER If you did your Spring Break Genetics Review HW, take it out and raise your hand in the NEXT 30 SECONDS.
Gene Expression. Remember, every cell in your body contains the exact same DNA… …so why does a muscle cell have different structure and function than.
© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint Lectures Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Eighth Edition REECE TAYLOR SIMON DICKEY HOGAN Chapter 11.
Gene Expression and Regulation. Gene Expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional PROTEIN.
Gene Mutations and Expression. Mutations -mutation- random change in genetic material -can happen during replication, transcription, translation, or cell.
Jeopardy Q 1 Q 6 Q 11 Q 16 Q 21 Q 2 Q 7 Q 12 Q 17 Q 22 Q 3 Q 8 Q 13
Part Transcription 1 Transcription 2 Translation.
Business Transaction Management Software for Application Coordination 1 Business Processes and Coordination.
Ch 15 -.Gene Regulation Prokaryote Regulation Operon * not found in eukaryotes Operon * not found in eukaryotes Regulator gene = codes for repressor.
Chapter 11 Molecular Mechanisms of Gene regulation Jones and Bartlett Publishers © 2005.
DNA and RNA Chapter 12 JEOPARDY #2 S2C06 Jeopardy Review
Gene Expression and Regulation Chapter All of your cells contain the same DNA. Your nerve cells do not look like or act like skin cells, so how.
Trp Operon A brief description. Introduction a repressible system In this system, though, unlike the lac operon, the gene for the repressor is not adjacent.
Regulation of Gene Activity. Conservation Remember, our bodies are conservative, they only make what we need, when we need it. How do they know this???
1. What does the phrase “gene regulation” mean? 2. If the lac operon cannot bind to the repressor.. What would be the outcome? (Assume E. Coli) 3.
Prokaryotic Gene Regulation: Lecture 5. Introduction The two types of transcription regulation control in prokaryotic cells The lac operon an inducible.
By D. Fisher Geometric Transformations. Reflection, Rotation, or Translation 1.
DIVIDING INTEGERS 1. IF THE SIGNS ARE THE SAME THE ANSWER IS POSITIVE 2. IF THE SIGNS ARE DIFFERENT THE ANSWER IS NEGATIVE.
OPERONS: BACTERIAL GENE CONTROL. OPERONS Bacterial cells A group of genes that work together Illustrate how genes expression (“on”) and repression (“off”)
We will resume in: 25 Minutes We will resume in: 24 Minutes.
12-5 GENE REGULATION. I. GENE REGULATION: AN EXAMPLE.
Regulation of gene expression References: 1.Stryer: “Biochemistry”, 5 th Ed. 2.Hames & Hooper: “Instant Notes in Biochemistry”, 2 nd Ed.
OPERONS – GENES THAT CODE FOR ENZYMES ON THE SAME PATHWAY ARE REGULATED AS A GROUP.
Warm Up Write down 5 times it would be beneficial for a gene to be ‘turned off’ and the protein not be expressed 1.
Controlling Gene Expression. Control Mechanisms Gene regulation involves turning on or off specific genes as required by the cell Determine when to make.
To understand the concept of the gene function control. To understand the concept of the gene function control. To describe the operon model of prokaryotic.
Chapter 16 – Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes.
1 Genetic regulation Genotype is not phenotype: bacteria possess many genes that they are not using at any particular time. Transcription and translation.
Genetics: Chapter 7. What is genetics? The science of heredity; includes the study of genes, how they carry information, how they are replicated, how.
Gene regulation Two types of genes: 1)Structural genes – encode specific proteins 2)Regulatory genes – control the level of activity of structural genes.
The Lac Operon An operon is a length of DNA, made up of structural genes and control sites. The structural genes code for proteins, such as enzymes.
Control of Gene Expression Year 13 Biology. Exceptions to the usual Protein Synthesis Some viruses contain RNA and no DNA. RNA is therefore replicated.
Genetic Control of Growth
CONTROL MECHANISMS 5.5. Controlling Transcription and Translation of Genes Housekeeping Genes: needed at all times: needed for life functions vital.
Gene Regulation. What is gene expression? Gene expression means the DNA has been turned into a protein (the gene has been turned on/expressed) Remember.
Control Mechanisms (Prokaryote) SBI4U. Controlling Expression When a gene is being used by a cell, it gets transcribed, and then the mRNA is translated.
20,000 GENES IN HUMAN GENOME; WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF ALL THESE GENES WERE EXPRESSED IN EVERY CELL IN YOUR BODY? WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THEY WERE EXPRESSED.
Complexities of Gene Expression Cells have regulated, complex systems –Not all genes are expressed in every cell –Many genes are not expressed all of.
For the following replication fork, which strand would be leading? 5’ Top Strand Bottom Strand.
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