2 E1.1 - Pollution•Pollution refers to changes in the equilibrium (or balance) of biological and non-biological systems, as a result of human activity•Although many so-called pollutants are substances that occur naturally, such as ozone or carbon dioxide, human activity has led to an increase in the concentrations of such substances, which upsets the delicate balance of natural cycles•The atmosphere consists of a relatively thin layer of gas surrounding the Earth. (to 100km)By comparison, the earth is 6400km in radius
3 E1.1 – Layers of the Atmosphere •The atmosphere consists of four layers, separated by a change in temperature gradientTroposphere-Most of human activity takes place here-Up to km-90% of matter in the atmosphereStratosphereMesosphereThermosphere
4 E1.1 - Troposphere•In the troposphere temperature falls with increasing height, so that at a height of 12 km the temperature is about -55oC•This temperature gradient allows convection currents (warm gases rise, cool gases sink) causing mixing in the atmosphere pollutants.•Pollutants at ground level quickly spread throughout the troposphere (not true in stratosphere).•Also, horizontal movement of air masses (wind) causes lateral dispersion of pollutants as well.
5 E1.1 – Atmospheric Pollutants •As discussed, many gases we consider pollutants, also occur naturally (CO, CO2, etc)•Anthropogenic, or man-made, output is often not even a large proportion of the worldwide total but can cause issues due to high concentrations in localized areas.•Many atmospheric pollutants arise from the combustion of fossil fuels in motor vehicles or in power stations. This effect has the potential to be minimized
7 E1.2 – Reduction of Pollution •In the internal combustion engine, hydrocarbon fuels are mixed with air, injected into a cylinder and ignited with a spark•The resultant explosion forces the piston to move and is converted to the rotation of the crankshaft, which in turn drives the wheels of the vehicle•We can have complete, partial, and incomplete combustion of the hydrocarbon, ideally it would be complete as follows:2C8H O2 → 16CO2 + 18H2O Ratio of air/fuel (mass) is approx 15:1
8 E1.2 – Incomplete Combustion •When the ratio of air/fuel (mass) is less than 15:1, the mixture is said to be ‘rich’ and incomplete combustion ensues•This results in the formation of carbon monoxideC8H O2 → 3CO2 + 5CO + 9H2OThese unburnt hydrocarbon molecules (CO) are called volatile organic compounds (VOC’s) from exhaust•A very poorly designed (or maintained) engine may emit solid particles (soot) from the exhaust (rich)C3H8 + 2O2 → 3C + 4H2O
9 E1.2 – Reaction with Nitrogen •When the air/fuel ratio is increased the mixture is said to be ‘lean’. A lean mixture will not produce carbon monoxide•When a mixture becomes ‘lean’ (excess O2) the likelihood that oxygen will react with nitrogen in the air (78%) increases.•Under extreme conditions (like in an engine) the two elements can combine to form nitrogen oxides NOx which leads to ‘misfire’ in the engine (known as knocking) because the fuel ignites before the spark
10 E1.2 – Rich vs Lean•An engine that runs ‘rich’ will produce a lot of power, but with poor fuel consumption and high emissions of CO and VOC’s•An engine that runs ‘lean’ will produce less power, less CO and VOC’s, consume less fuel, but may produce more nitrogen oxides. When mixture is too lean, misfiring causes rise in VOC productionN2 + O2 → 2NO• (remember the radical?)2NO• + O2 → 2NO2Localized in urban areas, causing health effects and contribute to the formation of acid rain
11 E1.2 – Catalytic Converter •Three way catalytic converter is placed in exhaust systems of cars to treat the exhaust gases•Consists of a fine mesh or honeycomb of ceramic material or metal, coated with a thin layer of finely divided platinum, rhodium, or palladium (these T-metals act as heterogeneous catalysts)•Three way refers to:1.Reduction of nitrogen monoxide to nitrogen2.Oxidation of unburnt hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water vapor3.Oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide
12 E1.2 – Catalytic Converter •First, gases pass over metal catalyst, reacting NO and CO2NO + 2CO → N2 + 2CO2•Then, pass over oxidation catalyst (rhodium). If a proper ratio of air/fuel exists, there is proper O2 remaining for this:2CO + O2 → 2CO2
13 E1.2 – Sulfur as Pollutant•SO2 (sulfur dioxide) is an important primary pollutant.- It’s a pungent smelling toxic gas- damages the respiratory system and may lead to asthma attacks.- Highly soluble in water- Contributes to formation of acid rain
14 E1.2 – Primary/Secondary Pollutants •Primary pollutants are emitted directly from the sources and remain unchanged once they enter the environment (particulate matter, inorganic gases, SO2, etc)•Secondary pollutants are formed in the atmosphere by chemical reactions involving primary pollutants and gases normally present in the air.•Most man-made sulfur dioxide emissions arise from the sulfur that exists as an impurity in coal which is burned extensively in many power plants
15 E1.2 – Sulfur reactions•Sulfur is oxidized during the combustion processS + O2 → SO2•Sulfur dioxide dissolves and reacts with water to produce sulfurous acid, H2SO3SO2 + H2O → H2SO3•Sulfur dioxide also undergoes photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. This occurs in water droplets in which SO2 is dissolved, and is catalyzed by particulates (soot, etc)2SO2 + O2 → 2SO3•Sulfur trioxide dissolves and reacts with water to produce sulfuric acidSO3 + H2O → H2SO4
16 E1.2 – Reducing SO2 Emissions •There are three methods by which sulfur dioxide emissions from power stations can be limitedThe coal or oil can be refined to remove sulfur before combustionFluidized bed combustion (FBC) reduces the amount of sulfur oxides resulting from combustionFlue gas desulfurization (FGD) removes sulfur dioxide from the exhaust gases before they leave the power station flue (chimney)
17 E1.2 – Fluidized Bed Combustion •This process suspends the solid coal on an upward flowing jet of air during combustion•Coal dust is mixed with limestone powder (CaCO3) and blasted into the furnace with a jet of air. The jet of air suspends the solid particle so they flow like a fluidCaCO3 → CaO + CO22CaO + 2SO2 + O2 → 2CaSO4•The Calcium sulfate can then be removed by electrostatic precipitation
18 E1.2 – Flue Gas Desulfurization •Sulfur dioxide emissions can be removed from the flue gases by passing the gases through a suspension of calcium carbonate and calcium oxide in water. Product is calcium sulfiteCaCO3 + SO2 → CaSO3 + CO2CaO + SO2 → CaSO3•Calcium sulfite is then further oxidized, producing calcium sulfate2CaSO3 + O2 → 2CaSO4
19 E1.2 – Particulate Emissions •Particulate emission refers to the generation of small particles of solid or liquid. Some such pollutants are visible to the naked eye, but most are too small to be seen.Metal particlesMetal oxide particlesFly ashAsbestos dustOrganic particlesAerosol mist
20 E1.2 – Fly Ash•Fly ash is a combination of very fine carbon, hydrocarbon and metal oxide particles released during the combustion of fossil fuels•Most fly ash is filtered out in flues, but some very fine particles escape into the atmosphere
21 E1.2 – Removal of Particulates •Via sedimentation which relies on letting heavy particles settle out under gravity, or by filtration, in which simple fabric filters capture particles.•Most effective method is electrostatic precipitation – which has two sectionsIonization section, consists of a mesh with thin wires, carrying an electrical charge. Flue gas passes through this mesh, causing any solid or liquid particles to acquire chargeCollection section, consists of metal plates carrying the opposite charge. Particulates are attracted to the plates, and stick. Plates are shaken at intervals to dislodge the build-up layer of particles, then they are removed.
24 Acid Deposition refers to the process by which acidic particles leave the atmosphere. The most well known example is acid rainbut acidic substances may also be removed by snow and fog, as well as by dry processes involving gases and solid particles.Production of SO2 (as discussed in Part 1) aids in this process
25 E2.1 – Carbonic Acid•Natural rain water is acidic, with a pH around 5.6•The acidity of rain is a result of CO2 naturally present in the atmosphere•When CO2 is dissolved in water it’s referred to as carbonic acid (H2CO3) but only a very small amount actually exists as a solutionH2O + CO2 → H2CO3•Carbonic acid molecules immediately dissociate in water to form hydrogencarbonate ions, HCO3-, and hydronium ions, H3O+H2CO3 + H2O → HCO3- + H3O+
26 E2.1 – Wet Deposition•The most important sources of acid rain are the sulfur oxides produced in power stations•When sulfur oxides dissolve and react in rain water, solutions of sulfuric acids are formed (as discussed in E.1)SO2 + H2O → H2SO3SO3 + H2O → H2SO4Another route to sulfuric acid is a gas-phase reaction of a sulfur dioxide molecule with a hydroxyl radical, OH•, to give sulfuric acidSO2 + OH• → HSO3• + • OH → H2SO4
27 E2.1 – Wet Deposition•Nitrogen Oxides also contribute to acid rain. Formed in vehicle engines:HO• + NO• + M → HNO2 + MM represents the ‘third body’ which is an inert molecule which absorbs some of the excess energy of the reaction (in the atmosphere M is generally N2).•NO2 is formed by the oxidation of NO in the atmosphere and reacts with HO•HO• + • NO2 + M → HNO3 + M
28 E2.1 – Wet Deposition•These acids may be deposited in places other than water, such as snow and fog.•Fog is a particular problem for high-altitude forests•The lower temperature at high altitudes causes water vapor to condense out of the atmosphere, forming a moist ‘blanket’ of acidic fog which surrounds trees.
29 E2.1 – Dry Deposition•Dry deposition refers to acidic substances such as gases and particulates leaving the atmosphere in the absence of precipitation (without rain or fog)•Heavy particulate particles may settle out of the atmosphere under gravity.•Acidic gases such as sulfur dioxide may have directly harmful effects on the environment without first being dissolved in rain water.
30 E2.2 – Environmental Effects •Acid deposition effects the environment in 5 ways1.It affects the pH of lakes/rivers, which impacts organisms living there2.It affects the availability of metal ions in soil, which goes on to affect nearby plant life and surface water3.It directly affects plants4.It affects buildings and other materials5.It directly affects human health
31 E2.2 – Impact(1): Lakes/Rivers •Below a pH of 5.5-Some species of fish (salmon) are killed-Algae, zooplankton, which are food for larger organisms-Prevents hatching of fish eggs•Fish are also killed when aluminum, leached from the soil by acid rain, enters lakes and rivers.•The function of fish gills is affected by Al, leaving the fish unable to extract oxygen from the water
32 E2.2 – Impact(2): Soil•The pH of soil is a key factor which species of plants will grow•Aluminum (naturally present in soil) forms insoluble hydroxide (Al(OH3) at high pH values.•When pH falls due to acid rain, Al becomes soluble and is released into soil.•Other ions (Mg, Ca, etc) which are essential for plant growth are washed away in the same fashion.2Al(OH)3 + 2H2SO4 → Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
33 E2.2 – Impact(3): Plants•Beyond damaging soil, and lowering available nutrients, acid rain can also damage plants directly•Acid deposition can damage leaf chlorophyll, turning leaves brown and reducing the photosynthetic ability of the plant
34 E2.2 – Impact(4): Buildings •Limestone and marble are forms of CaCO3 which can be eroded by acid rain:CaCO3 + H2SO4 → CaSO4 + H2O + CO2•Metallic structures (mainly steel, Fe, Al) are readily attacked. The sulfur dioxide gas may attack directly as follows:Fe + SO2 + O2 → FeSO4•Sulfuric acid may attack Fe as well:Fe + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2Fe + 2H+ → Fe2+ + H2
35 E2.2 – Counteract Acid Dep.•Limit (lower) the amount of acidic substances released to the atmosphereNOx are removed from vehicle emissions with a catalytic converterSO2 emissions from coal power plants can be decreased in several ways (scrubbers, etc)•Addition of compounds that will aid in neutralizing acidic effectsAddition of limestone (CaCO3)Addition of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)
36 Topic E – Enviro Chemistry Part 3 – Greenhouse Effect
37 E3.1 – Greenhouse Effect•Greenhouse gases allow the passage of incoming solar short-wavelength radiation but absorb the longer-wavelength radiation from the Earth. Some of the absorbed radiation is re-radiated back to Earth.•TOK: Some people question the reality of climate change and question the motives of scientists who have “exaggerated” the problem. How do we assess the evidence collected and the models used to predict the impact of human activities?
38 •The greenhouse effect is the cause of the phenomenon of global warming in which the average temperature of Earth rises, causing various environmental disasters•The greenhouse effect itself is absolutely necessary for the Earth to regulate its temperature at a habitable level.•Humans are thought to impact this delicate balance by disrupting the natural equilibrium in the atmosphere, causing the planet to become warmer
39 Earths “Average” Temp.• Average temperature in the troposphere 14-15oCMaintained bc the energy incident on Earth (from sun), is balanced by the energy leaving Earth (to space)• Most radiation from the sun is in the visible region, also along with “near UV” and near “IR radiation”• Only 47% of energy directed at the earth is absorbed, remainder is reflected back to space• The peak radiation is 500nm and is not absorbed by atmospheric gases so is absorbed and radiated by the earth to the rest of the atmosphere
40 •When Earth absorbs energy, surface temperature rises, and energy flows from hot (earth) to atmosphere (cold), etc•Once energy is re-radiated from the earth, it’s no longer in the visible region, it’s wavelength is much longer and in the infrared regionIf all this energy released into space instead, our average atmospheric temp would be -20oCGases such as H2O and CO2 help to re-radiate energy in the atmosphere and toward the earth as well.It can be seen that an increase in [IR absorbing gases] such as CO2 and H2O results in a decreased amount of energy escaping from the Earth by moving toward the surface
41 E3.2 – Factors for GH Gases•A contribution of a greenhouse gas to the warming of the atmosphere depends on three factors:1.The abundance of the gas in the atmosphere2.The ability of the gas to absorb infrared radiation3.The lifetime of the gas molecules in the atmosphere, before being removed by chemical processesThe 2nd and 3rd factors are often combined to give a figure called the Global Warming Potential (GWP)
43 GH Gases – H2O•Most important GH Gas, has a GWP of 0.1•Percentage of H2O(g) in atmosphere 1-4%, ranges•Absorbs IR over a broad range of frequencies•Increased atmospheric temperatures lead to more rapid evaporation of the oceans, and larger capacity of the air to carry water vapor (humidity)•Estimates of H2O’s contribution to Global Warming is 36%-75%
44 GH Gases – CO2 •Percentage of CO2 in atmosphere is 0.035% •CO2 has a GWP of 1.More efficient than water in absorbing IR radiation•Absorbs IR in a “window” that H2O does not•[CO2] rise due to the following human activities:Combustion of fossil fuelsManufacture of cement (CaCO3 → CaO + CO2)Deforestation in tropics, lower rate of photosynthesis, meaning CO2 is entering atmosphere more quickly than removed
45 GH Gases – CH4•Percentage in atmosphere CH4 = 1.7x10-4•It’s GWP is 25 (compare to H2O=0.1 and CO2=1)•Estimates say 4%-9% contribution to Global Warmíng•It is removed from the atmosphere relatively quickly•Formed when cellulose (plant fiber) decomposes anaerobically via bacteria (CH2O)n → CH4 + CO2•Occurs on large scale as a result of human actions:- Rice cultivation (paddy fields)- Fermentation of grass in cows, and rotting manure- Leaking gas pipelines- Fermentation of organic materials in covered landfills
46 GH Gases – N2O•GWP of 296. It’s less efficient at absorbing IR than CO2 but it’s high number comes from a long residence in the atmosphere•Percentage in atmosphere 0.031%•Accounts for 5% of Global Warming effects•Human activity only accounts for 10-12% of it’s production, but anthropogenic NO2 from:- Industrialized agriculture, N fertilizers- Industrialized livestock farming, poor handling of animal waste- Chemical industry, HNO3 and nylon production
47 GH Gases – CFC’s•Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) have largely been replaced in aerosols, propellants, and refrigerants by hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC’s) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC’s)These gases are less damaging to the ozone layer but still have GWP values much higher that CO2 and are important contributors to global warming
48 E3.3 – Influence of Greenhouse Gases Rising Sea Levels•As atmospheric temperature increases, sea levels will rise for two reasons:The increased atmospheric temperature causes accelerated meltingThis does not include floating ice in the arctic as it already displaces water while it floatsAs oceans warm up, the water in them will expand, occupying more volume (even minor amounts could be significant due to the quantity of water in the ocean!)
49 Glacier Retreat•Glaciers undergo a seasonal melting and freezing as temperatures vary throughout the year.•In the Himalayas glacial melt water is an important source of fresh water, feeing the rivers of South Asia•Increased melting increases erosion and risk of flooding downriver, a particular problem in low-lying countries
50 Changing Patterns of Agriculture •In temperate regions (such as Europe) yields of grain will most likely increase due to higher temperature, longer growing season and increased [CO2] available for photosynthesis•But, increased humidity and rainfall could lead to increased incidence of fungal crop diseases, and migration of tropical insects to higher altitudes.•At higher latitudes, more workable land may become available due to thawing and temperature changes.Worldwide, the possibility of extreme weather increases the likelihood of ruined harvest
51 CO2 Increases• Atmospheric CO2 levels have been recorded with increases shown at right• A comparison was also studied from data collected from the analysis of air bubbles trapped in Arctic ice.Shows an increase in CO2 content over the last 150 years or more
52 E3.3 – Greenhouse Gas Correlation to Temperature Change • Analysis of polar ice in the Greenland Ice Core Project, showed evidence for long-term climate changes (correlated to CO2 and CH4)
55 E4.1 – Ozone Formation and Depletion •The processes of formation and depletion of ozone in the stratosphere is normal.•The rates of formation and depletion are equal in “normal” circumstances•This delicate balance must be maintained for the ozone to be effective•Ozone FormationFrom O2 and UV energy•Ozone DepletionFrom O3 and UV energy
56 E4.1 – Natural Ozone Formation •Diatomic oxygen absorbs a photon with λ < 242nm which is in the UVc regionO2 (+UV 242nm) → O• + O•O2 + O• + M → O3 + MM is used as a catalyst (third body) for the reaction. It carries away excess energy.
57 E4.1 – Natural Ozone Depletion •The UV photon can cause an ozone molecule to dissociate into a diatomic oxygen as well.•This process requires a photon λ = nm which is the UVb regionO3 (+ UV nm) → O2 + O•O3 + O• → 2O2•These two processes (formation, depletion) lead to a steady concentration of ozone and UVc and UVb are largely filtered out in this process if the ideal!
58 •UV region of the spectrum is divided into three regions: E4.1 – UV Radiation•UV region of the spectrum is divided into three regions:•UVa: nm-Not harmful-Not blocked•UVb: nm-Less Harmful-Less blocked•UVc: nm-HARMFUL-blockedSmall changes in Ozone can lead to a significant rise in UVb , resulting in increased incidence of skin cancer
59 E4.1 – Ozone Layer• Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent• When formed in the air, it’s considered a pollutant since it can reach concentrations harmful to humans and exist outside of the ozone layer• Ozone is formed by the photochemical reactants that lead to smog• The Ozone layer is considered “good” ozone as it absorbs harmful UV radiation which leads to skin cancer. Without the ozone layer, we could not have evolvedMajor impacts to the ozone layer due to human activity can be seen at the polar regions
60 E4.1 – Stratospheric Ozone •The stratosphere is the layer lying above the troposphere at altitudes around 12km(~39,000ft)-52 km.•Over 90% of all ozone (O3) found in stratosphere•Exists even in ozone layer in [O3] of <5ppm•In the stratosphere, the level of ozone is maintained by a cyclic series of processes, in which ozone is continuously created and destroyedThese processes involve the absorption of UV
61 E4.2 – Ozone-depleting Pollutants • Examples include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).• In 1985, the British Antarctic Survey published research showing that the ozone concentration over Antarctica was lower than expected.• This unexpected lowering of the ozone concentration became known as the “hole”Suspected cause of the hole in the ozone was the use of CFC’s
62 E4.2 – What are CFC’s•Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) were designed as propellants for aerosol sprays and as refrigerants•These chemicals are volatile and chemically inert in the troposphere which is why they were used in aerosols as they didn’t contaminate the liquid•When released at ground level, they slowly mix throughout the troposphere. They remain unreactive in the upper troposphere since UV light that can illicit a reaction is absorbed by ozone•Once the CFC’s reach the stratosphere, they react with large amounts of radiation from the sun and produce chlorine radicals Cl•
63 E4.2 – Ozone Depletion (CFC’s) •When the CFC molecules eventually reach the stratosphere, they dissociate by UV radiation:CFCl3 + UV → CFCl2• + Cl•CF2Cl2 + UV → CF2Cl• + Cl••A chain reaction is initiated in which Cl• destroy an ozone molecule, and are then regenerated in another reaction, allowing further depletion
64 E4.2 – Ozone Depletion (N2O) • Most nitrogen oxides formed in the troposphere are sufficiently reactive that are used up in chemical reactions, such as those which produce smog, or acid rain.• BUT, N2O (nitrous oxide), is relatively unreactive allowing it to rise to the atmosphere where it can combine with a O•O• + N2O → 2NO•• NO participates in similar chain reactions to chlorine atoms, and so is regarded as a serious ozone-depleting pollutant as well
65 E4.3 – Alternatives to CFC’s •Alternatives include hydrocarbons (CxHy) , fluorocarbons (FC’s) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).•Include toxicity, flammability, the relative weakness of the C–Cl bond and the ability to absorb infrared radiation.
66 E4.3 – CFC Alternative (HCFC’s) •The presence of weaker C-H bonds in the molecule affects the reactivity of the molecule.- CFC’s exists as stable molecules until the stratosphere- HCFC’s react in troposphere by attack from OH•- The H-atom combines with OH• to form H2O and the remainder of the molecule (CFCl2•) is able to break down further and release water-soluble compounds into the atmosphere which can be removed by rain
67 E4.3 – CFC Alternative (HFC’s) •Hydrofluorocarbons (HFC’s) are preferable to HCFC because they contain no chlorine.•The C-F bond is much shorter than the C-Cl bond and is thus much stronger so UV photons carry insufficient energy to break the C-F bond.•HFC’s are broken down in the troposphere in a similar way to HCFC’s, but the absence of chlorine means that HFC’s have no tendency to deplete the ozone
68 E4.3 – CFC Alternative (CxHy’s) •Mixtures of propane and butane have been marketed as alternatives to CFC’s, especially in refrigeration and air conditioning applications•Appliances must be carefully designed to minimize the possibility of the hydrocarbon being ignited, for example by an electrical spark.
70 Enviro Chemistry Part 5 – Dissolved Oxygen in Water
71 E5.1 – Biochemical Oxygen Demand •Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) describes the quantity of oxygen used when the organic material in the water is decomposed by microorganisms.
72 E5.1 - [O2]• The solubility of O2(g) in water is quite low- 8.3 ppm (~0.009g dm-3) at 25oCSolubility can be altered by changes in temperature, concentrations of dissolved materials, and quantities of biological wasteIf the [O2] falls below 5 ppm fish will start to dieIf the [O2] falls below 3 ppm fish cannot survive
73 E5.1 – Biological Wastes•Anthropogenic Biological wastes- Human and animal waste (sewage/manure)- Food processing factory waste- Slaughterhouses- Paper mills• Organic material will gradually decay by the action of microorganisms. It consumes O2 as:*(CH2O)n(aq) + nO2(g) → nCO2(g) + nH2O(l)*(CH2O)n is an empirical formula representing carbohydrates such as cellulose which form the structure of plants
74 E5.1 – BOD Values•The previous process,(CH2O)n(aq) + nO2(g) → nCO2(g) + nH2O(l),is called aerobic decomposition, as the microorganisms involved require O2. As decay occurs, the O2 available for other organisms such as fish is decreased•Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) describes the quantity of O2 used when the organic material in the water is decomposed by microorganisms.- Small BOD = small amount of organic matter present, water is quite pure- Large BOD = impure water, much of the O2 present is used up in decomposition, less for fish
75 E5.1 – BOD Values•BOD [pure water] ≈ 1 ppm•BOD [polluted water] > 5 ppm•The [H2O] at 25oC ≈ 8 ppm, if the BOD is 5 ppm it lowers the [O2] ≈ 3 ppm where it can no longer sustain fish•BOD values can be measured using a dissolved oxygen probe or via a redox titration
76 E5.2/3 - Eutrophication• Eutrophication is defined as ‘an increase in the level of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem.’ However the terms if often used to mean the resultant increase in plant growth, lowering of [O2] and decline of fish populations•Lake environments typically favor fish over plant life. (Due to levels of P and N being low, which results in limited plant growth and little decaying vegetation)- Lake water has a low BOD, therefore fish populations are able to reach a high level!
77 E5.3 – Algal Bloom•Human activities can lead to increases of nutrients in rivers and streams.- Use of fertilizers on farmland- Release of sewage onto rivers•Both result in a large increase in [nutrient], and phosphorus in particular in the water they feed•This excess of nutrients leads to excess growth of primitive plants called algae, which float on the surface of the water, a ‘green scum’ known as an algal bloom
78 Eutrophic lakes can be recognized by a green tint to the water
79 Algae blooms result in unpleasant tasting water and may release harmful toxins. •The color, taste, and toxicity of the water affect human activities such as fishing and boating.•Water clogged with algae is more difficult to treat for drinking.•Biggest problem is AFTER the algae die.- Dead algae is consumed by aerobic bacteria which use up the dissolved O2 in the water.- [O2] falls below necessary level for life. Lake is nearly useless for fishing and has an effect on local communities
80 After the algal bloom, [O2] falls so low that aerobic bacteria cannot survive • Instead, anaerobic bacteria decompose the remaining dead algae, forming foul-smelling products such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methane and thioalcoholsBacteria may release dangerous toxins lethal to animals
81 E5.4 – Thermal Pollution•The temperature of water highly affects the solubility of gases.At 25oC the solubility is 8.3 ppmAt 30oC this falls to 5 ppm when fish begin to die
82 Human activities can lead to an increase in water temperature known as thermal pollution • This occurs near power stations where water is drawn to cool the steam from the turbines in devices called heat exchangers. When water leaves it could be 20oC warmer• [O2] is decreased when temperature rises becauseSolubility of O2 is decreased with higher TempsMicroorganisms respire more quickly - using more O2
83 High temperatures also cause enzymes in microorganisms to denature and as a result they cannot digest their food molecules• Changing temperatures may also alter the cycle of fish such as:Spawn (lay eggs) earlierEggs hatch earlierAt this time in the cycle the necessary nutrients may not be available in the systemThermal pollution may also be reduced trickling water through a porous material and blowing air in the opposite direction to transfer heat to air instead of water.
86 E6.1 – Water and its Pollutants • Water is an excellent solvent and dissolves many different chemical substances• As water falls through the atmosphere it dissolves gases, such as CO2, and pollutants such as SO2 and NOx.• Chemical fertilizers washed off the farmland will add NO3- and PO43- ions• River water may contain pesticides, bacteria and oil• All of these impurities must be removed before it can be used for drinking
87 E6.1 – Types of Water Pollutants •Water pollution falls into two broad categories:- Point sources – occurs when the source of pollution is clearly identifiable at one pointFor example: a chemical factory releasing toxic substances into a river- Non-point sources – describes situations in which water collects pollutants over a larger area, and thus cannot be attributed to a single sourceExamples: Acid rain polluting a lake, fertilizer run-off which accumulates N and P in compounds in rivers
88 The primary pollutants found in waste water are: Heavy metals (toxic metals)Pesticides (insecticides and herbicides)Chemical wastes (dioxins, PCB’s)Organic Wastes (sewage)Fertilizers
91 E6.2 – Waste Water Treatment •The treatment of waste water before it can be safely re-introduced to rivers takes place in three stages:- Primary treatment – screening to remove solids, followed by sedimentation of sand, grit and sludge- Secondary treatment – use of oxygen and bacteria to remove organic matter- Tertiary treatment – chemical precipitation of remaining organic compounds, heavy metals, nitrates and phosphates
92 E6.2 – Primary Treatment•Water is sent through coarse mesh screens:- Raw waste water contains floating and suspended solid material. This may include paper, rags, wood and plastic rubbish that may cause blockage elsewhere in the treatment plant.•Water is passed through grit channel- The speed of the water is slowed so sand and grit settle out. A spinning centrifuge could also be used.•Water is then passed into large holding tanks to settle- Fine solid particles form sludge at bottom, insoluble grease floats to top and is skimmed offSometimes this treatment alone is enough
93 E6.2 – Secondary Treatment •Secondary treatment focuses on lowering BOD by removing organic matter•The principal secondary treatment involves allowing aerobic bacteria to oxidize the organic matter- One method involves pouring of the waste over a bed of small stones covered in microorganisms- More effective method called the activated sludge process. Bacteria and sewage are mixed and blasted with air allowing for the bacteria to multiply rapidly and feed on the organic material. This process removes 90% of the BOD from waste water
95 B6.2 – Tertiary Treatment• Tertiary treatment is sometimes called advanced water treatment and removes the remaining inorganic pollutants from the water (PO43-,N- complexes, heavy metal ions).• This process is very important where industrial point sources such as metal works or chemical plants have led to high [pollutants]• Nitrogen compounds are removed so they do not contribute to eutrophication of rivers and lakes. There are two common types (ammonium ions, and nitrate ions.)
96 E6.2 – Tertiary, NH4+ removal •In the tertiary treatment, water is first treated with nitrifying bacteria, which oxidize the NH4+ ions to nitrate ions•This is a two-step process:NH4+(aq) + 1½ O2(g) → NO2-(aq) + 2H+(aq) + H2O(l)NO2-(aq) + ½ O2(g) → NO3-(aq)
97 E6.2 – Tertiary, NO3- removal •The nitrate ions originally present in waste water, along with those formed in the treatment of NH4+, are then reduced (by different strains of bacteria) to nitrogen gas, which is released into the atmosphere•2NO3−(aq) + 10e− + 12H+(aq) → N2(g) + 6H2O(l)
98 E6.2 – Tertiary, PO43- removal •Phosphates are removed by either biological or chemical processes.•Water treated with biomass containing specific bacteria which absorb the PO43- ions, and the product can later be used as fertilizer•Alternatively, PO43- ions can be removed by chemical precipitationFe3+ (aq) + PO43-(aq) → FePO4(s)Al3+ (aq) + PO43-(aq) → AlPO4(s)
99 E6.2 – Tertiary, Heavy Metal removal •Heavy metals can be removed by chemical precipitation or ion exchange.•Most transition metal ions have insoluble hydroxides, so Ca(OH)2 or Na2CO3 are addedCr3+ (aq) + OH-(aq) → Cr(OH)3(s)A coagulant can then be added to clump and collect insoluble particles together• Ion exchange resin is a material that binds reversibly to particular cations or anions as they are more attracted to heavy metals than original ions2Na+(resin) + Cd2+ (aq) ⇌ 2Na+(aq) + Cd2+ (resin)
100 E6.3 – Fresh water from the Sea •Osmosis is a natural process which serves to equalize the concentrations of solutions.•If two solutions (one salt water, one water) are placed on two sides of a semi-permeable membrane, the water will tend to flow to the salt solution side until concentrations are in equilibrium•If pure water is desired, we want the opposite and the solution must flow against the osmotic flow. This process is called reverse osmosis.
101 Reverse osmosis requires that a pressure be applied to the salt water, greater than the osmotic pressure. This high pressure forces the solvent, water, through the membrane, leaving the solute, salt, behind.•This process takes energy because you must force the water through the membranes
102 E6.3 – Thermal Desalination •The most commonly used method to date is multi-stage flash distillation (MSF).•Sea water is heated under high pressure and then passed into a chamber at lower pressure :- Rapid decrease in pressure causes water to ‘flash’ evaporate- After each ‘flash’ the steam is cooled in another chamber- The cycle takes advantage of the steam to heat more water, keeping energy consumption minimized
103 E6.3 – Advantage of Different Methods of Attaining Fresh Water
105 Soil is composed of organic and inorganic components in varying proportions Organic component is called the humus and consists of plant material that has been partly decayed by bacteria and fungiInorganic component includes mineral particles (gravel, sand, silt, and clay), water, and air.Water trapped between soil grains contains ions (from dissolving of minerals) which can be absorbed by plant roots.This liquid containing dissolved ions and organic substances, is called the soil solution
106 Soil supports a variety of living organisms, including bacteria, insects and worms which by growth and decay and the circulation of water and air, modify the soil structure.•Composition by volumeof typical surface soil:45% inorganic (rock)5% organic25% water25% air
107 Soil contains rotting organic matter in various stages of decomposition Early states of decomposition:- Plant tissue (cellulose): broken down into shorter polysaccharides- Animal tissue: broken down into their proteinsFurther decay:- Breaks polysaccharides into simpler sugars and proteins into amino acidsWhen soil is aerated- Aerobic bacteria and fungi can decompose most of these molecules still further, forming CO2 and H2O
108 Soil Organic Matter (SOM) is beneficial to soil in the following ways: Products of partial decomposition replenish the soil by turning large molecules to smaller ones and soluble ones which plant roots can take upPartially decayed organic material helps to hold soil together. When soil is bound together, water (and thermal) retention is improvedDark-colored SOM-rich soil absorbs heat better than lighter-colored (low SOM) soil
109 In wet soils, O2 is less able to reach the organic material In wet soils, O2 is less able to reach the organic material. As a result, anaerobic bacteria take over, and form more complex organic compounds such as phenols and carboxylic acids These are ‘humic substances’ and the mixture is called humus In cold/wet climates. Up to 95% organic matter known as ‘peat soils.’• The phenols and carboxylic acids in the humus (weak acids) help to buffer the soil pH Important since pH affects the solubility of metal cations in the soil
110 Much of the SOM is insoluble in water but helps to retain water and water-soluble plant nutrients so that they can be taken up by plants roots.Nutrients include inorganic minerals such as phosphorus, nitrogen and sulfur, which are needed for healthy plant growth.SOM also has many other important physical functions. There are spaces or pores that exist between the SOM which act to hold water (much like a sponge), oxygen and nitrogen.Some of the SOM along with fungi create aggregates thatallow for a more stable structure of the soil.This creates a soil layer that is more resistant to erosion; therefore, soils with greater amounts of SOM haveless degradation.
111 Soil degradationSoil degradation takes place when actions result in the soil being unhealthy or infertile.This degradation can take place naturally as well as a result of human activity.Natural sources of soil degradation include wind and water erosion. The rates of these types of erosion can be increased by improper land usepractices.- For example, when small shrubs are removed to make way forfarming, the roots that once held soil in place are no longer there, which means that wind and water erosion increase and valuable soil is lost.The three main anthropogenic forms of soil degradation are salinization, nutrient depletion, and soil pollution.
112 Salinization:The build-up of salts in the soil often becoming toxic to plants.Can arise from :- Irrigation: water is diverted from waterways to farmland to support crops where rainfall is limited. The irrigation water may contain some dissolved salts.- The natural water tableThe water transports salts to the soil as they are dissolved. As the water evaporates, the salt is left behind and can build up over time.
113 Nutrient DepletionThe nitrogen cycle requires that the minerals taken up during plant growth will re-enter the soil when the plants die and decay.If, through cultivation and harvesting, crops are continuously removed, the nutrients and minerals go along with them.Nutrient depletion can be avoided by crop rotation over a number of years (and some off years where the crops are plowed back into the soil for nutrients).
114 Soil PollutionSoil nutrient depletion is often addressed by the use of chemical fertilizers which contain nitrates (NO3-) and phosphates (PO43-)•These excess nutrients can lead to environmental issues on their own•As well as inorganic pollutants, organics can be soil pollutants as well.
115 Soil pollution can also occur when harmful air pollutants settle onto the topsoil, get turned under and contaminate the soil food web.These contaminants can be released into our water supplies and back into theatmosphere in the form of particulate matter.Soil pollution can also result when hazardous waste from industry is placed in landfills and leaches into the surrounding soil.
118 Anything you throw away in your rubbish bin is called waste Anything you throw away in your rubbish bin is called waste. As the world population and the standard of living increases, larger and larger amounts of waste are produced.Once your garbage is driven away in the garbage truck there are two main ways in which it is: Landfill sites (burying the waste)Incineration (burning the waste)- Both methods are potentially damagingRecycling waste is advantageous because it removes the need to dispose of waste and cuts down on the need for non-renewable resources
119 Solid Waste falls into five categories Food and kitchen waste and plant waste – biodegradableRecyclable materials – glass, plastic, paper, etcComposite wastes – mixtures of materials such as clothing and packaging materials – difficult to recycleInert wastes – rubble, debris, etcHazardous wastes – paints, garden chemicals, batteries, light bulbs, medicines
120 E8.1 - Landfill•Landfills are designed to limit surface water (rain, runoff, etc) from passing through and leaching out harmful materials.•Sites chosen are often made of clay – a low permeable soil so ground water movement is small•Pits are lined with plastic, gravel, and a drainage systemThis ensures that polluted water that accumulates (leachate) can be collected and disposed of properlyWhen full, the site is covered with the same layer to keep rain water out.
122 When waste is added to site At first, when O2 is present, aerobic bacteria work on the organic material producing CO2When O2 used up, anaerobic decomposition occurs and generates CH4, H2S, and H2.- These gases can accumulate below ground so an ventilation system must be constructed- Air can be pumped into the landfill in order to increase the aerobic bacteria decomposition
123 The liquid leachate can contain heavy metals and cyanide and must be extracted from the landfill via the drainage system.•The liquid must be treated by chemical or biological means to remove pollutants before re-entering waterways (discussed previously)- Heavy metal precipitation (E6)• The cyanide can be removed by oxidation with sodium chlorateNaCN + NaOCl → NaCNO + NaCl2NaCNO + 3NaOCl + H2O → 3NaCl + N2 + 2NaHCO3
124 E8.1 - Incineration•Incineration has many advantages- Removes bulk from solid waste- Resultant ash has a uniform composition that can be more densely packed into landfills- Can be burned for power generation•However, the flu gas must be thoroughly cleaned before being allowed to enter the environment as it contains CO, HCl, HCN, organics, heavy metals, and particulates- Two types of incinerators are the Rotary-kiln and Fluidized-bed.
125 Rotary-kiln Incinerator •Rotating chambers are used to allow movement of waste and to ensure that all of the waste is exposed to air.•Most of the waste is combusted to form gasesPassed to ‘afterburner’ to ensure that solid particulates are fully combustedGases are then ‘scrubbed’ to remove pollutants•Remaining solid waste drops out of the kiln and is cooled with water, recyclable materials can be reclaimed from this solid waste.
126 Fluidized-bed Incinerator •A sand bed is used to allow hot air to be basted in.Separates the sand grains, allowing air between themThe sand is suspended on the air currents and it behaves like a fluid, flowing and circulating.Ground-up waste is introduced to the sand bed where it’s suspended and the air is mixed throughout ensuring that maximum surface area of the waste particles is exposed to air for combustion
127 Incinerator Air Pollution •Most of the carbon present in waste (mostly in organic material and plastics) is converted into CO2 in the incinerator.•This is arguably preferable to landfills where methane is formed.If the methane is not reclaimed as fuel it enters the atmosphere as a green house gas with a very high GWP (higher than CO2)•Other flu gas pollutants are removed in procedures described in E1.
128 RecyclingOne of the best ways to minimize the influence waste has on our environment and to provide a sustainable environment is to recycle.Recycling can be an expensive way of dealing with problematic waste and not all waste can be recycled; separating the different recyclables can be time consuming and difficult.
130 E8.3/4 – Radioactive Wastes Radioactivity is the release of radiation from the nucleus of an atom as it changes, or decays, into a different element .Nuclei decay in order to stabilize their structureReduces neutron:proton ratio in nucleusThree types: alpha, beta, gamma
131 Nuclear power plants have many advantages over other sources of energy Nuclear power plants have many advantages over other sources of energy. They do not contribute to air pollution or greenhouse gases, and their fuel source, uranium, is abundant enough to supply energy for the next 1000 years.One of the major problems of nuclear power plants is the disposal of the spent fuel rods that provided the energy for the nuclear fission reactor.These spent fuel rods are sources of high-level waste (HLW) because they give off large amounts of ionizing radiation for a long time.These spent fuel rods must be cooled for several years in deep pools inside the plant or in special shielded storage facilities at another site.It is said that this waste must be stored for tens of thousands of years before it can be disposed of safely.
132 A second category of radioactive waste is low-level waste (LLW), which refers to waste that gives off small amounts of ionizingradiation for a short amount of time.Low-level waste is waste that may have come into contact with radioactive substances directly and therefore has become contaminated.It includes radioactively contaminated industrial or research waste such as paper, rags, plastic bags, rubber gloves, protective clothing and packaging material.Hospitals, medical schools and radiopharmaceutical schools allproduce large amounts of LLW.This waste can be placed in steel drums and buried in landfills.
133 Disposal of radioactive waste There are very different disposal requirements for radioactive wastethat depend on whether it is LLW or HLW.The difference in disposal methods is primarily based on the amount of radioactivity remaining in the waste.Low level waste is the least contaminated and therefore requires less complicated means of disposal. It can simply be stored on site until it has sufficiently decayed and then disposed of with the regular waste.
134 The spent fuel that is used to fuel a nuclear power plant is initially stored in deep pools of water on the nuclear power plant site. The water in these pools acts to absorb the heat energy that is released by the spent fuel and to protect the workers from the radiation.These spent fuel rods are then reprocessed to recover the unfissioned uranium ore.This liquid waste is then classified as HLW and must be disposed of safely.
135 The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, for example, has designed a HLW disposal site in the Yucca Mountains in Nevada.
136 Nuclear Medical Waste•Radioactive isotopes are used in numerous medical applicationsMedicines or diagnostic tools – short ½ life substances are used. Technetium is used as a tracer. Iodine-131 is used to treat thyroid cancers (since the gland absorbs iodine)Radiotherapy – long ½ life substances like cesium-137 are used to generate radiation in machines used for radiotherapyX-rays for radiography – long ½ life substances such as cobalt-60 and iridium-192 are used to generate X-rays for imagine•Medical gloves and clothing are considered low-level, isotopes from defunct X-ray machines are considered high-level