Presentation on theme: "Chemical Equilibrium 7.1.1 Outline the characteristics of chemical and physical systems in a state of equilibrium 7.2.1 Deduce the equilibrium constant."— Presentation transcript:
1Chemical Equilibrium7.1.1 Outline the characteristics of chemical and physical systems in a state of equilibrium7.2.1 Deduce the equilibrium constant expression (Kc) from the equation for a homogeneous reaction7.2.2 Deduce the extent of a reaction from the magnitude of the equilibrium constant
2Intro:Many chemical reactions go to completion (where all reactants are consumed to form product)This topic deals with reactions that do not completely convert all reactants to products.
3Chemical EquilibriumA dynamic state where the rate of the forward chemical reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse chemical reactionA static state occurs in many physical systems when all movement ceases once equilibrium has been reached. (like a see-saw)Double displacement arrow show that a system is at equilibrium
5Characteristics of a system at equilibrium Reversible reaction must be possibleThere is a dynamic state of balance between both the forward and backward reactionThere is no change in concentration of reactants or products once chemical equilibrium is reachedThere is no bulk change in properties of the system (ex: no colour or pressure change)
6It is a closed system (no heat or matter in or out) The temperature of the system remains constantIt can be reached from either directionAny change to the system at equilibrium can be reversed if restored back to original equilibrium conditions.
7Examples at Equilibrium Water evaporating and condensing in a jar with lidA supersaturated solution with a few crystals addedA bottle of unopened Pepsi, carbon dioxide is in equilibrium in solution and air above pop.
8Homogeneous reactionAll the reactants and products are in the same phase.Phase: similar to state (s, l, g) but there are physically distinct boundaries between two phasesEx: Two phases, one state = oil and water mixture.
15Calculating Kc N2 + 3Cl2 <--> 2NCl3 Temp remains constant in 5 L flask.Equilbrium was reached and the following was found: mol N2 , mol Cl2 and 0.95 mol of NCl3. Calculate the Kc for this reaction.Find molar concentration of everything (mol/L)Use equilibrium expression based on chemical equation
16Answer[N2] = mol / 5 L = M[Cl2] = mol / 5 L = M[NCl3] = 0.95 mol / 5 L = 0.19 MKc = [NCl3]2 = [0.19]2[N2][Cl2]3 [0.0014][ ]3= 3.0 x 10 11
17CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g) 1. Write an expression for Keq2. Calculate K at a given temperature if [CH4] = M, [O2] = M, [CO2] = M, and [H2O] = M at equilibrium. (include units)
18The value of KThe value or magnitude of K tells us the extent to which reactants have been converted into products.Remember in the ratio for K, the concentration of products divided by the concentration of reactants.
19A small value for K means that very little of the reactants were converted into products before equilibrium was reached.This is stated as “reactants are favoured”.A large value of K means that most of the reactants were converted into products before equilibrium was reached.This is stated as “products are favoured”.
20The Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants If K >1, then products dominate at equilibrium and equilibrium lies to the right.If K <1, then reactants dominate at equilibrium and the equilibrium lies to the left.
21If K = 1 neither reactants nor products are favoured. The value of K does not indicate how long it takes for equilibrium to be reached.The value of K varies with temperature and that’s why its usually mentioned with K
222NO2 (g) <--> N2O4 (g) Four experiments were performed.The initial concentrations of the two chemicals weredifferent in each experiment and the concentration of each gas was measured once the system reached equilibrium.At EquilibriumExp #[NO2][N2O4]10.1041.1920.0480.25430.1362.0440.2024.48
23CalculateUsing the data on the previous page, calculate the K for each experiment.What did you find?