Presentation on theme: "Photo journal The Shantaia Broeckx. Post-War Problems Workers were laid off and women were under pressure to return to house-hold duties so that men could."— Presentation transcript:
Photo journal The Shantaia Broeckx
Post-War Problems Workers were laid off and women were under pressure to return to house-hold duties so that men could have jobs, even though it was difficult for them to find work. War-time industries had shut down, and war veterans were bitter about the lack of jobs and support from the country they had defended.
Post-War Problems Rapid inflation became a problem around 1919. The prices of basic items like clothing had increased greatly, while wages had not. The immediate post-war years saw a short, but severe, recession as the economy readjusted to the end of wartime production.
Post-War Problems Workers from all over Canada started strikes. Many men joined unions to fight for better working conditions and living standard.
Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 Trade workers had voted to strike, and near thirty thousand others walked off the job in support. Almost all key industries and services were shut down. Ottawa sent Mounties and soldiers to shut down the strike.
Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 Violence erupted in Winnipeg on June 21 st. The day came to be known as Bloody Saturday. Shots were fried by mounted police, and one striker was killed.
Winnipeg General Strike of 1919 H.A. Robson, head of Commission, concluded that the strike was cause by the high cost of living, poor working conditions, and poor wages.
Foreign Investment in Canada At the beginning of the 20 th century, the biggest investors in Canada were Birtish. Because of the uncertainty of profit, less was invested into industrial enterprises and more into Canadian government bonds and railroads.
Foreign Investment in Canada After WW1 the British investment declined, and Americans moved in as Canada’s number one foreign investor. American investors put money into expanding the Canadian economy into areas like mining, pulp and paper, and hydro-electric power.
Foreign Investment in Canada Americans introduced the Branch Plant System, where American companies were set up in Canada. This allowed American companies to put Made in Canada on their products, and avoid the high tariffs charged for shipping over the border. Many saw this as Manifest Destiny, the belief that America should take control of all of North America. Many Canadians feared that Americans would completely take over Canada’s economic system.
Effects of the Boom Years Financial success stories inspired ordinary citizens to believe that they too could get rich by two dollar bets on horses, investing in stocks and bonds and hockey pools. Some people even borrowed money to invest in stocks. This was called buying on margin, which was very risky, and could result in a double loss for the investors. Toronto Stock Exchange Bay Street, Toronto
Politics of the 1920s After Robert Borden had resigned, Arthur Meighen, a conservative, was sworn in as Prime Minister of Canada.
Politics of the 1920s Meighen had a short term as prime minister, after William Lyon Mackenzie King accused him of seizing power “unconstitutionally”. This accusation won King a majority vote, and was prime minister for most of the 20s. King’s political genius lay in making liberal policies acceptable to various group and nations across the nation. He often put off making a decision until he worked put compromises among the diverse interests.
Politics of the 1920s King was extremely cautious and careful. He was pudgy, and what some would say as “dumpy” in appearance. King also had a strong interest in spiritualism and sometimes tried to contact the dead through mediums and séances.
Prohibition and Rumrunners Prohibition started in Canada in 1916 and 1917 during World War 1. This made the production and sale of alcohol illegal. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union worked to ban the use of intoxicating liquor. They argued that the grain should be used to feed soldiers and civilians. Also, money was needed to feed families instead of being spent on alcohol.
Prohibition and Rumrunners Even when prohibition was introduced you could still find “bootleg booze”, which was illegal liquor made and sold by organized bootleggers, like Rocco Perri. There were even private clubs called “speakeasies”.
Prohibition and Rumrunners Prohibition had positive social effects such as the decrease in crime and arrests for drunkenness. More workers took their pay cheques home to their families rather that to the taverns, and industrial efficiency improved because fewer work days were missed. Provincial governments realized though that they were losing money in potential taxes on liquor sales and people argued that legalizing liquor under strict government conditions would be easier to enforce than total prohibition Gradually, individual provinces dropped Prohibition throughout the 20s. P.E.I. was the last to eliminate this law in 1948.
Women and the Persons Case By 1918 women in Canada had won the right to vote in federal elections, but still did not have the same privileges that men had. Women’s groups asked the Prime Minister to appoint a woman to the Senate. The BNA Act stated that qualified persons could receive appointments but the question was raised, was a women a “person” in the eyes of the law? The famous Persons Case underlined the inequality women still faced.
Women and the Persons Case The Famous Five (Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney, Henrietta Edwards, and Irene Parlby) put up a huge fight to gain acceptance for women in the Senate and by Canadian Law. After a long battle, the Supreme Court of Canada declared that the word persons did not refer to women. Therefore, a woman was not a person and thus not able to sit on the Senate.
Women and the Persons Case Though discouraged, the Famous Five appealed to the only court higher than the Canada Supreme Court – The Privy Council in Britain. After three months, the Privy Council announced its decision… The word persons did indeed refer to women as well as men. The Famous Five had won! Cairine Wilson, from Montreal, was the first woman elected to Senate.
Struggles of Native Peoples Throughout the 1920s and 30s, Natives struggled to keep their own culture and heritage. The government wanted them to give up their traditions and be absorbed into the Canadian culture (assimilation). Traditional Native ceremonies were banned Natives that tried to live off the reserves faced discrimination and prejudice Given few good job opportunities
Struggles of the Native Peoples 1920 – League of Indians formed by Fred Loft. This draws attention to the economic and social problems of the Native peoples. This league demanded that Natives should have the right to vote without giving up their status. 1921 – Some west coast Natives were thrown in jail for taking part in a potlatch ceremony. Masks and other sacred items were seized by the police. 1931 – Native Brotherhood of British Columbia was created to defend Native land and fishing rights. From the 1920s to 80s children were sent to special boarding schools hundreds of kilometers away from their homes. Their own traditions were not taught and they were not allowed to speak in their own native language. This caused many Native children to lose touch with their traditions and families as well.
The Automobile One of the most obvious signs of prosperity in the 1920s was the growth of the automobile. It was one of the biggest changes to the way of living in the 1920s.
The Automobile Henry Ford wanted to make cheap, affordable vehicles for everyone. He applied car manufacturing mass production, and set up an assembly line. Each worker on the assembly line had a different job. Each car had all the same parts, so all were the same.
The Automobile The automobile also brought on many problems. It polluted the air, caused traffic jams, and caused death to thousands each year. In addition, criminals also took advantage of the automobile.. They could now make faster getaways after a robbery.
Entertainment Jazz moved north from New Orleans and was made popular by such musicians as Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong. Charleston was the dance of decade that emerged out of African American culture.
Entertainment “Talkies” arrived in Canada in 1927. The stars of these films were idolized (Charlie Chaplin, Rudolph Valentino, and Greta Garbo). Mary Pickford was called “America’s Sweetheart”, and she came to represent the wealth the film industry brought to it’s stars. By the end of the decade, there were more than 900 movie houses across Canada. Going to the movies was the most popular form of entertainment at the time.
Radio Radio was the number one form of entertainment still. Families would sit around the radio after dinner and listen to music or radio plays. The radio brought the outside would to Canadians. Many towns only had American stations to listen to, which contributed to the ‘Americanization’ of Canada in the 1920s.
Fads and Fashions One fad was the Chinese game, Mahjong. To accentuate the experience, many people ordered Chinese furniture, robes, and other Chinese items. This fad wore off around 1927. Another craze was crossword puzzles. Dictionary sales soared, and some railways had them to entertain passengers. Dance marathons were also quite popular.
Fads and Fashions Women of the 20s wore “flapper” dresses. In the winter, they wore galoshes with buckles unfastened. They wore dresses above the knees (oh my!) and their stocking were rolled down. They also wore their hair in a “bob”.
Fads and Fashions Men wore baggy pants, bright, snappy hats, and bow ties. Their hair was greased down, and parted in the middle.
Canada’s Growing Independence In 1926, all the countries of the British Empire met at an Imperial Conference. At this conference, Canada and the other dominions were declared self-governed, while at the same time remaining a part of a Commonwealth of Nations. By the statute of Westminster, Canada became fully independent in all but two legal details. Canada still had to ask the British Parliament to amend the Canadian constitution.
After the fun times of the 20s, the stock market crash of 1929 led Canada, and the rest of the world, into the Great Depression.