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Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Surface Tension.

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Presentation on theme: "Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Surface Tension."— Presentation transcript:

1 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Surface Tension

2 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Surface Tension Ability of the surface of a liquid to act like a thin, flexible film. Practical Examples Mercury drop Rain drop without air friction effect Intermolecular metallic (electrostatic) bonds Surface tension at 20°C is 4.6 x 10-1 J/m2 Intermolecular hydrogen bonds Surface tension at 20°C is 7.29 x 10-2 J/m2

3 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension This unequal attraction causes the water at the air-water interface to act as a cohesive surface. A water molecule deep within the liquid is pulled equally from all sides net force = zero A water molecule at the surface lacks neighboring water molecules (toward the interface) net force is not zero! and the liquid to shrink to the smallest possible surface area.

4 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension The smallest surface possible high surface tension, in order to achieve the lowest possible energetic state. Temperature matters? Water molecule representative low Thigh T Weaker intermolecular forces Increasement of surface area Lower Surface Tension

5 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Solid material - more dense than water Surface Behaviour water’s surface what happens? hydrophilic it has a surface to which water is attracted hydrophobic it has a surface to which water is “afraid” material’s nature

6 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension hydrophilic The adhesion of water to the surface of this material coats the surface of the object with water. reduces the surface tensioncauses the object to sink hydrophobic The unfavorable interactions between the water surface and the object make it difficult to wet the surface.

7 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Two forces now come into play - the energy it would take to overcome this repulsion and the force of gravity. ! If the gravitational force is less than the surface tension then the object will float on the surface of the water. If the force of gravity is strong enough, it will prevail and the object will sink g σ g σ

8 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Surfactants Surfactants can interact with water in a variety of ways, each of which disrupts or modifies the hydrogen bonding network of water. organize themselves into 3-dimensional spheres called micelles which have a hydrocarbon core and sulfate groups around the outer surface. "like dissolves like" Class of molecules which contain hydrophobic (non-polar) hydrocarbon "tails" and a hydrophilic (polar) "head" group. Why? Since this reduces the cohesive forces in water, this leads to reduction in the surface tension and our sulfur sinks.

9 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Eg: Detergents Without detergent, we can not remove an oily stain from clothing because grease and oil are large, non-polar, hydrophobic molecules. However, the interior core of a micelle is quite greasy just like an oily stain. When we add detergent to our wash water, the oil or grease on our clothes can dissolve in the interior of the micelles and thereby go into solution. The human body does not start to produce lung surfactants until late in fetal development. Therefore, premature babies are often unable to breathe properly, a condition called Respiratory Distress Syndrome. -administration of artificial surfactants virtually eliminates this health problem Human body - lungs The body uses surfactants to reduce surface tension in the lungs.

10 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Measuring Methods Capillary Action  water can move up a thin capillary, against the force of gravity - Surface tension "pulls" neighboring water molecules along.  The liquid climbs until the adhesive and cohesive forces are balance by the force of gravity The liquid surface adjacent to the wall of the capillary tube and the tubing wall form an angle .  = (r h d g)/ 2 cos  = (r h d g)/ 2 cos  r = radius (m) h = height of liquid column (m) d = density of liquid (kg/m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s²)

11 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Du Noüy Ring method A ring of thin wire is submersed but slightly under the surface plan The ring is then gently pulled out of the water and the equilibrium state between surface tension and gravity is measured  = F / 2l If F is the force applied at the dynamometer and l the lengt of the wire curled, surface tension is calculated using the equation

12 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Dropping method Measurement of the surface tension of a fluid which is posteriorly related with an already known surface tension of a standard fluid The less surface tension, the less mass of liquid will be droped  2 /  1 = m1 / m2 1- known liquid 2- unknown liquid

13 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension defined as Surface tension - Scientificaly measured in Newtons per meter (N·m -1 ) represented by the symbol σ or γ or T the energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid by a unit area. the force along a line of unit length perpendicular to the surface.

14 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Thank You

15 Charles University in Pilsen - Biophysics dep - Surface Tension Surfactants Energia interna vs T ???? Measurement viscosity/surf tension Curiosidade dos pulmoes


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