2SI (système internationale) Physical QuantityUnitSymbolVolumeCubic Metre(litre)m3LengthMetremMassKilogramkgTimeSecondsTemperatureKelvinKAmount of substanceMolemolElectric currentAmpereALuminous intensityCandelacd
3Scientific NotationScientists have developed a shorter method to express very large numbers.Scientific Notation is based on powers of the base number 10.
4Scientific notation 123,000,000,000 in s.n. is 1.23 x 1011 The first number 1.23 is called the coefficient. It must be betweenThe second number is called the base . The base number 10 is always written in exponent form. In the number 1.23 x 1011 the number 11 is referred to as the exponent or power of ten.This large number only has 3 significant digits
5To write a large number in scientific notation: ex: 36 000 First put the decimal after the first digit and drop the zeroes. Ex: 3.6Next, count the number of places from the decimal to the end of the number. Ex: 4Finally, put it together. Ex: 3.6 x 104only has two significant digits
6To write a small number in s.n. ex: 0.03064 First move the decimal after the first real number and drop the zeroes. Ex: 3.064Next, count the number of places moved from the original decimal spot to the new decimal spot. Ex: 2Numbers less than 1 will have a negative exponent. Ex: -2Finally, put it together. Ex: x 10-2has four significant digits
7Precision: to describe how well a group of measurements made of the same object or event under the same conditions actually do agree with one another.These points are precise with one another but not accurate.
8Accuracy: represents the closeness of a measurement to the true value. Ex: the bulls-eye would be the true value, so these points are accurate.
9Why Significant Figures? When we take measurements or make calculations, we do so with a certain precision. This precision is determined by the instrument we use to take those measurements. So, when we do calculations based on our measurements, the calculations must be only as precise as the measurements.
10Using sig figs: The Rules! 487All significantDigits from 1-9 are always significant.Zeros between two other significant digits are always significantOne or more additional zeros to the right of both the decimal place and another significant digit are significant.Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal point (placeholders) are not significant.2002All significant6.00All significant47 000Only two significant digits
11EXAMPLES# OF SIG. DIG.COMMENT453kg3All non-zero digits are always significant.5057L4Zeros between 2 sig. dig. are significant.5.00Additional zeros to the right of decimal and a sig. dig. are significant.0.0071Placeholders are not sig.
12Problems: Indicate the number of significant figures... ____________________________________________________________
13Multiplying and Dividing RULE: your answer may only show as many sig figs as the multiplied or divided measurement showing the least number of significant digits.Example: cm x 3.10 cm = 69.3 only 3 sig figs allowed.
14Multiplying and Dividing Practice x ______x 0.23 ______÷ ______÷ 4.1 ______x ______x ______÷ ______x 23 ______÷ ______x 12 ÷ 12.5 ______
15Adding and Subtracting: RULE: your answer can only show as many decimal places as the measurement having the fewest number of decimal places.Example:3.76 g g g = 20.7 g
16Adding and Subtracting Practice ____________________________________________________________