11 Arteries: carries blood Away from heart LargeThick-walled, MuscularElasticOxygenated bloodException Pulmonary ArteryCarried under great pressureSteady pulsatingArterioles: smaller vessels, enter tissue
23 Your Blood: Fluid Transport Liquid Portion CarriesBlood cellsErythrocytes (RBC - red blood cells)Leucocytes (WBC - white blood cells)Platelets (non cellular particles)ProteinsEnzymesHormones – Endocrine SystemNutrients - Digestive SystemGases - Respiratory SystemInorganic saltsa Tissue50% water4% dissolved substances
24 Oxygen in the Blood Hemoglobin, iron containing molecule Loosely picks up oxygen in the lungsLoses oxygen in areas low in oxygen (diffuses)
25 Carbon Dioxide in the Blood Hemoglobin carries CO2 alsoCO2 is a waste product of cellular work70% of CO2 combines with waterThe rest travels to the lungs
26 What does blood contain? 50% Water45% Erythrocytes4% Plasma with Substances1% Leukocytes + Platelets
27 Erythrocytes (RBC) Transporters of RBC OxygenCarbon DioxideRBCLack a nucleusContain hemoglobinDisk-shapedRBC are produced in red bone marrow ofribs,humerus,femur,sternum, and other long bonesLives for 120 daysOld RBC are destroyed in liver and spleen
28 Leukocytes (WBC) WBC fight infection Less abundant Large cells Attack foreign substancesLess abundantLarge cellsSome live for monthsMost just a few daysSeveral typesALL contain nuclei
29 Platelets PLATELETS are for CLOTTING blood Cell fragments Produced in bone marrowShort life span (1 week)Fibrin (sticky network of protein fibers)Form a web trapping blood cells
30 Blood Clotting Break in Capillary Wall Blood vessels injured. Clumping of PlateletsPlatelets clump at the site and release thromboplastin. Thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin..Clot FormsThrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which causes a clot. The clot prevents further loss of blood..
33 Your Heart: The Vital Pump At REST, the heart pumps about 5 QUARTS of blood a minute.During EXTREME EXERTION (exercise) it can pump 40 quarts a minute.
34 Heart: Structure and Function Keeps blood movingLarge organ composed ofcardiac muscle,rich in mitochondriaEnclosed by a sacPERICARDIUM
35 The Structures of the Heart Inferior Vena CavaVein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atriumTricuspid ValvePrevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventriclePulmonary ValvePrevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary arteryPulmonary VeinsBring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atriumSuperior Vena CavaLarge vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atriumAortaBrings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the bodyPulmonary ArteriesBring oxygen-poor blood to the lungsAortic ValvePrevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aortaMitral ValvePrevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricleLeft AtriumRight AtriumLeft VentricleSeptumRight Ventricle
36 Structure of Heart (cont) Four chambersTwo upper (Atria)Walls thinnerLess muscularTwo lower (Ventricles)Walls thickerMore muscularDo more work
39 Bloods Path Through the Heart Both Atria fill at same timeRt atrium receives oxygen POOR blood from body from vena cavaLeft atrium receives oxygen RICH blood from lungs through four pulmonary veinsAfter filled with blood atria contract, pushing blood into ventricle
40 Both ventricles contract Right ventricle contracts and pushes oxygen-poor blood toward lungs,against gravity,through pulmonary arteries
41 Bloods Path Through the Heart (cont) Left ventricle contracts and forces oxygen rich bloodout of heart throughaorta (largest vessel)
43 Control of the Heart (Nervous System) Medulla oblongata regulates rateSensory cells stretch when too fastPressure drops when beat is too low
44 Heartbeat RegulationForce of blood from left ventricle into arteries (pulse)Pacemaker (SA Node), group of cells at top of right atriumElectrical impulse, signals BOTH atria to contractTriggers 2nd set of cells (AV Node)-base of the right atrium to send message to ventricles, they contractEkG – record of electrical changes in the heart
45 The Sinoatrial Node Contraction of Atria Contraction of Ventricles Sinoatrial (SA) nodeConducting fibersAtrioventricular (AV) node
47 Blood Pressure Blood against the blood vessel’s walls The systolic pressure refers tothe pressure recorded while the ventricles pump the blood.The diastolic pressure refers tothe pressure recorded as the ventricles fill with blood.A normal blood pressure is 120/80
48 DISORDERS ATHEROSCLEROSIS Fatty deposits called plaque Builds up in walls of arteriesObstructs flowAlso a risk if clot breaks free and blocks flow elsewhere
49 Disorders (cont) Hypertension High blood pressure Hearts works harder than necessaryIncreases risk of heart attack or stroke
50 Disorders (cont) Heart Attack Atherosclerosis in coronary artery Heart muscle begins to dieSymptomsNauseaShortness of breathSevere chest painIMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION NECESSARY
51 Disorders (cont) Stroke Blood clot gets stuck in blood vessels leading to brainBrain cells die due to lack of oxygenOr blood vessel burstCan lead to paralysis,loss of ability to speakdeath
52 Current PREVENTION Recommendations Regular exerciseWeight controlWell balanced dietDo not smokeDiet low in saturated fat
53 ElaborationBlood Typing: To Clump or Not to Clump?
54 Blood Types Massive loss of blood requires a transfusion Four Types ABOInherited from your parents
56 What happens when you mix blood types? Plasma contains proteins that correspond to the shape of the different antigensIf you mix one type with the wrong one, you get CLUMPINGType O is the universal donorType AB is the universal acceptor
58 Blood Transfusions Blood Type of Recipient Blood Type of Donor A B AB OABABOUnsuccessful transfusionSuccessful transfusion
59 Rh Factor Rhesus factor (Rh), also inherited Rh+ (have antigen)Rh- (NO antigen)Can cause complications in pregnanciesmother Rh- 1st baby Rh+ : blood mixes with mother; mother’s body makes anti-Rh+ antibodies2nd Rh + body attacks babyNow have medicine to prevent antibody formation
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