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You Gotta Have Heart The Circulatory System Engage Walt Disney’s Hemo the Magnificent Walt Disney’s Hemo the Magnificent  Scene 3 – The Heart  Scene.

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Presentation on theme: "You Gotta Have Heart The Circulatory System Engage Walt Disney’s Hemo the Magnificent Walt Disney’s Hemo the Magnificent  Scene 3 – The Heart  Scene."— Presentation transcript:

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2 You Gotta Have Heart The Circulatory System

3 Engage Walt Disney’s Hemo the Magnificent Walt Disney’s Hemo the Magnificent  Scene 3 – The Heart  Scene 4 – Lubb-Dubb

4 Explore How does exercise affect heart rate? How does exercise affect heart rate? Circulatory System Relay Circulatory System Relay Color Your Heart Color Your Heart

5 Hemo the Magnificent Scene 6 – The Capillaries

6 Circulatory System Consists of… Blood Vessels Blood Vessels Blood Blood Heart Heart

7 Circulatory System BLOOD VESSELS

8 Two Pathways Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary Circulation –Carries blood to lungs and back Systemic Circulation Systemic Circulation –Carries blood to body and back

9 Capillaries of head and arms Capillaries of abdominal organs and legs Inferior vena cava Pulmonary vein Capillaries of right lung Superior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary artery Capillaries of left lung

10 Your Blood Vessels: Pathway of Circulation 3 types of vessels 3 types of vessels –Arteries –Capillaries –Veins

11 Artery vs. Vein

12 Arteries: carries blood way from heart Arteries: carries blood Away from heart –Large –Thick-walled, Muscular –Elastic –Oxygenated blood  Exception Pulmonary Artery –Carried under great pressure –Steady pulsating Arterioles: smaller vessels, enter tissue

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14 Capillaries –Smallest vessel –Microscopic –Walls one cell thick –Nutrients and gases diffuse here

15 Veins: Veins: Carries blood to heart –Carries blood that contains waste and CO 2  Exception pulmonary vein –Blood not under much pressure –Valves to prevent much gravity pull Venules: larger than capillaries

16 Varicose Veins Damaged Valves in Veins

17 Circulatory System BLOOD

18 What is Blood? Blood Simulation Blood Simulation

19 The Blood Body contains 4-6 L Body contains 4-6 L Consists of Consists of –Water –Red Blood Cells –Plasma –White blood cells and platelets

20 Whole Blood Sample Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Plasma Sample Placed in CentrifugeBlood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

21 Whole Blood Sample Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Plasma Sample Placed in CentrifugeBlood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

22 Whole Blood Sample Red blood cells White blood cells Platelets Plasma Sample Placed in CentrifugeBlood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

23 Parts of the Blood

24 Your Blood: Fluid Transport a Tissue a Tissue 50% water 50% water 4% dissolved substances 4% dissolved substances Liquid Portion Carries  Blood cells –Erythrocytes (RBC - red blood cells) –Leucocytes (WBC - white blood cells)  Platelets (non cellular particles)  Proteins –Enzymes –Hormones – Endocrine System  Nutrients - Digestive System  Gases - Respiratory System  Inorganic salts

25 Oxygen in the Blood Hemoglobin, iron containing molecule Hemoglobin, iron containing molecule Loosely picks up oxygen in the lungs Loosely picks up oxygen in the lungs Loses oxygen in areas low in oxygen (diffuses) Loses oxygen in areas low in oxygen (diffuses)

26 Carbon Dioxide in the Blood Hemoglobin carries CO 2 also Hemoglobin carries CO 2 also CO 2 is a waste product of cellular work CO 2 is a waste product of cellular work 70% of CO 2 combines with water 70% of CO 2 combines with water The rest travels to the lungs The rest travels to the lungs

27 What does blood contain? 50% Water 50% Water 45% Erythrocytes 45% Erythrocytes 4% Plasma with Substances 4% Plasma with Substances 1% Leukocytes + Platelets 1% Leukocytes + Platelets

28 Erythrocytes (RBC) Transporters of Transporters of –Oxygen –Carbon Dioxide RBC RBC –Lack a nucleus –Contain hemoglobin –Disk-shaped RBC are produced in red bone marrow of RBC are produced in red bone marrow of –ribs, –humerus, –femur, –sternum, and other long bones Lives for 120 days Lives for 120 days Old RBC are destroyed in liver and spleen Old RBC are destroyed in liver and spleen

29 Leukocytes (WBC) WBC fight infection WBC fight infection –Attack foreign substances Less abundant Less abundant Large cells Large cells Some live for months Some live for months –Most just a few days Several types Several types ALL contain nuclei ALL contain nuclei

30 Platelets PLATELETS are for CLOTTING blood PLATELETS are for CLOTTING blood Cell fragments Cell fragments Produced in bone marrow Produced in bone marrow Short life span (1 week) Short life span (1 week) Fibrin (sticky network of protein fibers) Fibrin (sticky network of protein fibers) –Form a web trapping blood cells

31 Blood Clotting Break in Capillary Wall Blood vessels injured. Clumping of Platelets Platelets clump at the site and release thromboplastin. Thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin.. Clot Forms Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which causes a clot. The clot prevents further loss of blood..

32 Circulatory System HEART

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34 Your Heart: The Vital Pump At REST, the heart pumps about 5 QUARTS of blood a minute. At REST, the heart pumps about 5 QUARTS of blood a minute. During EXTREME EXERTION (exercise) it can pump 40 quarts a minute. During EXTREME EXERTION (exercise) it can pump 40 quarts a minute.

35 Heart: Structure and Function Keeps blood moving Keeps blood moving Large organ composed of Large organ composed of –cardiac muscle, –rich in mitochondria –Enclosed by a sac  PERICARDIUM

36 The Structures of the Heart Right Ventricle Right Atrium Left Atrium Inferior Vena Cava Vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium Tricuspid Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventricle Pulmonary Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary artery Pulmonary Veins Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium Superior Vena Cava Large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium Aorta Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body Pulmonary Arteries Bring oxygen-poor blood to the lungs Aortic Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aorta Mitral Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricle Left Ventricle Septum

37 Structure of Heart (cont) Four chambers Four chambers –Two upper (Atria)  Walls thinner  Less muscular –Two lower (Ventricles)  Walls thicker  More muscular  Do more work

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39 Blood Flow Through the Heart ©COPY 1997 HeartPoint ©COPY 1997 HeartPoint

40 Bloods Path Through the Heart Both Atria fill at same time Both Atria fill at same time –Rt atrium receives oxygen POOR blood from body from vena cava –Left atrium receives oxygen RICH blood from lungs through four pulmonary veins After filled with blood atria contract, pushing blood into ventricle After filled with blood atria contract, pushing blood into ventricle

41 Both ventricles contract Right ventricle contracts and pushes oxygen-poor blood toward lungs,  against gravity,  through pulmonary arteries

42 Left ventricle contracts and forces oxygen rich blood  out of heart through  aorta (largest vessel) Bloods Path Through the Heart (cont)

43 Hemo the Magnificent Scene 7 – Gatekeepers

44 Control of the Heart (Nervous System) Medulla oblongata regulates rate Medulla oblongata regulates rate Sensory cells stretch when too fast Sensory cells stretch when too fast Pressure drops when beat is too low Pressure drops when beat is too low

45 Heartbeat Regulation Force of blood from left ventricle into arteries (pulse) Force of blood from left ventricle into arteries (pulse) Pacemaker (SA Node), group of cells at top of right atrium Pacemaker (SA Node), group of cells at top of right atrium Electrical impulse, signals BOTH atria to contract Electrical impulse, signals BOTH atria to contract Triggers 2 nd set of cells (AV Node)-base of the right atrium to send message to ventricles, they contract Triggers 2 nd set of cells (AV Node)-base of the right atrium to send message to ventricles, they contract EkG – record of electrical changes in the heart EkG – record of electrical changes in the heart

46 Sinoatrial (SA) node Atrioventricular (AV) node Conducting fibers Contraction of Atria Contraction of Ventricles The Sinoatrial Node

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48 Blood Pressure Blood against the blood vessel’s walls Blood against the blood vessel’s walls –The systolic pressure refers to  the pressure recorded while the ventricles pump the blood. –The diastolic pressure refers to  the pressure recorded as the ventricles fill with blood. A normal blood pressure is 120/80 A normal blood pressure is 120/80

49 DISORDERS ATHEROSCLEROSIS ATHEROSCLEROSIS –Fatty deposits called plaque –Builds up in walls of arteries –Obstructs flow –Also a risk if clot breaks free and blocks flow elsewhere

50 Disorders (cont) Hypertension Hypertension –High blood pressure –Hearts works harder than necessary –Increases risk of heart attack or stroke

51 Disorders (cont) Heart Attack Heart Attack –Atherosclerosis in coronary artery –Heart muscle begins to die  Symptoms –Nausea –Shortness of breath –Severe chest pain IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION NECESSARY

52 Disorders (cont) Stroke Stroke –Blood clot gets stuck in blood vessels leading to brain –Brain cells die due to lack of oxygen  Or blood vessel burst –Can lead to paralysis,  loss of ability to speak  death

53 Current PREVENTION Recommendations Regular exercise Regular exercise Weight control Weight control Well balanced diet Well balanced diet Do not smoke Do not smoke Diet low in saturated fat Diet low in saturated fat

54 Elaboration Blood Typing: To Clump or Not to Clump? Blood Typing: To Clump or Not to Clump?

55 Blood Types Massive loss of blood requires a transfusion Massive loss of blood requires a transfusion Four Types Four Types –A–A–A–A –B–B–B–B –AB –O–O–O–O Inherited from your parents Inherited from your parents

56 Blood Types

57 What happens when you mix blood types? Plasma contains proteins that correspond to the shape of the different antigens Plasma contains proteins that correspond to the shape of the different antigens If you mix one type with the wrong one, you get CLUMPING If you mix one type with the wrong one, you get CLUMPING Type O is the universal donor Type O is the universal donor Type AB is the universal acceptor Type AB is the universal acceptor

58 What Makes Our Blood Type?

59 Blood Type of Donor A B AB O Blood Type of Recipient A B AB O Unsuccessful transfusion Successful transfusion Blood Transfusions

60 Rh Factor Rhesus factor (Rh), also inherited Rhesus factor (Rh), also inherited –Rh + (have antigen) –Rh - (NO antigen) Can cause complications in pregnancies Can cause complications in pregnancies –mother Rh - 1 st baby Rh + : blood mixes with mother; mother’s body makes anti-Rh + antibodies –2 nd Rh + body attacks baby –Now have medicine to prevent antibody formation


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