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The Circulatory System

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Presentation on theme: "The Circulatory System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Circulatory System
You Gotta Have Heart The Circulatory System

2 Engage Walt Disney’s Hemo the Magnificent Scene 3 – The Heart
Scene 4 – Lubb-Dubb

3 Explore How does exercise affect heart rate? Circulatory System Relay
Color Your Heart

4 Hemo the Magnificent Scene 6 – The Capillaries

5 Circulatory System Consists of…
Blood Vessels Blood Heart

6 Circulatory System BLOOD VESSELS

7 Two Pathways Pulmonary Circulation Systemic Circulation
Carries blood to lungs and back Systemic Circulation Carries blood to body and back

8 Capillaries of head and arms
Capillaries of abdominal organs and legs Inferior vena cava Pulmonary vein Capillaries of right lung Superior vena cava Aorta Pulmonary artery Capillaries of left lung

9 Your Blood Vessels: Pathway of Circulation
3 types of vessels Arteries Capillaries Veins

10 Artery vs. Vein

11 Arteries: carries blood Away from heart
Large Thick-walled, Muscular Elastic Oxygenated blood Exception Pulmonary Artery Carried under great pressure Steady pulsating Arterioles: smaller vessels, enter tissue


13 Capillaries Smallest vessel Microscopic Walls one cell thick
Nutrients and gases diffuse here

14 Veins: Carries blood to heart
Carries blood that contains waste and CO2 Exception pulmonary vein Blood not under much pressure Valves to prevent much gravity pull Venules: larger than capillaries

15 Varicose Veins Damaged Valves in Veins

16 Circulatory System BLOOD

17 What is Blood? Blood Simulation

18 The Blood Body contains 4-6 L Consists of Water Red Blood Cells Plasma
White blood cells and platelets

19 Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells Whole Blood Sample Sample Placed in Centrifuge Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

20 Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells Whole Blood Sample Sample Placed in Centrifuge Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

21 Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells Whole Blood Sample Sample Placed in Centrifuge Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged

22 Parts of the Blood

23 Your Blood: Fluid Transport
Liquid Portion Carries Blood cells Erythrocytes (RBC - red blood cells) Leucocytes (WBC - white blood cells) Platelets (non cellular particles) Proteins Enzymes Hormones – Endocrine System Nutrients - Digestive System Gases - Respiratory System Inorganic salts a Tissue 50% water 4% dissolved substances

24 Oxygen in the Blood Hemoglobin, iron containing molecule
Loosely picks up oxygen in the lungs Loses oxygen in areas low in oxygen (diffuses)

25 Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
Hemoglobin carries CO2 also CO2 is a waste product of cellular work 70% of CO2 combines with water The rest travels to the lungs

26 What does blood contain?
50% Water 45% Erythrocytes 4% Plasma with Substances 1% Leukocytes + Platelets

27 Erythrocytes (RBC) Transporters of RBC
Oxygen Carbon Dioxide RBC Lack a nucleus Contain hemoglobin Disk-shaped RBC are produced in red bone marrow of ribs, humerus, femur, sternum, and other long bones Lives for 120 days Old RBC are destroyed in liver and spleen

28 Leukocytes (WBC) WBC fight infection Less abundant Large cells
Attack foreign substances Less abundant Large cells Some live for months Most just a few days Several types ALL contain nuclei

29 Platelets PLATELETS are for CLOTTING blood Cell fragments
Produced in bone marrow Short life span (1 week) Fibrin (sticky network of protein fibers) Form a web trapping blood cells

30 Blood Clotting Break in Capillary Wall Blood vessels injured.
Clumping of Platelets Platelets clump at the site and release thromboplastin. Thromboplastin converts prothrombin into thrombin.. Clot Forms Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin, which causes a clot. The clot prevents further loss of blood..

31 Circulatory System HEART


33 Your Heart: The Vital Pump
At REST, the heart pumps about 5 QUARTS of blood a minute. During EXTREME EXERTION (exercise) it can pump 40 quarts a minute.

34 Heart: Structure and Function
Keeps blood moving Large organ composed of cardiac muscle, rich in mitochondria Enclosed by a sac PERICARDIUM

35 The Structures of the Heart
Inferior Vena Cava Vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the lower part of the body to the right atrium Tricuspid Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium after it has entered the right ventricle Pulmonary Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle after it has entered the pulmonary artery Pulmonary Veins Bring oxygen-rich blood from each of the lungs to the left atrium Superior Vena Cava Large vein that brings oxygen-poor blood from the upper part of the body to the right atrium Aorta Brings oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body Pulmonary Arteries Bring oxygen-poor blood to the lungs Aortic Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after it has entered the aorta Mitral Valve Prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium after it has entered the left ventricle Left Atrium Right Atrium Left Ventricle Septum Right Ventricle

36 Structure of Heart (cont)
Four chambers Two upper (Atria) Walls thinner Less muscular Two lower (Ventricles) Walls thicker More muscular Do more work


38 Blood Flow Through the Heart
©COPY 1997 HeartPoint

39 Bloods Path Through the Heart
Both Atria fill at same time Rt atrium receives oxygen POOR blood from body from vena cava Left atrium receives oxygen RICH blood from lungs through four pulmonary veins After filled with blood atria contract, pushing blood into ventricle

40 Both ventricles contract
Right ventricle contracts and pushes oxygen-poor blood toward lungs, against gravity, through pulmonary arteries

41 Bloods Path Through the Heart (cont)
Left ventricle contracts and forces oxygen rich blood out of heart through aorta (largest vessel)

42 Hemo the Magnificent Scene 7 – Gatekeepers

43 Control of the Heart (Nervous System)
Medulla oblongata regulates rate Sensory cells stretch when too fast Pressure drops when beat is too low

44 Heartbeat Regulation Force of blood from left ventricle into arteries (pulse) Pacemaker (SA Node), group of cells at top of right atrium Electrical impulse, signals BOTH atria to contract Triggers 2nd set of cells (AV Node)-base of the right atrium to send message to ventricles, they contract EkG – record of electrical changes in the heart

45 The Sinoatrial Node Contraction of Atria Contraction of Ventricles
Sinoatrial (SA) node Conducting fibers Atrioventricular (AV) node


47 Blood Pressure Blood against the blood vessel’s walls
The systolic pressure refers to the pressure recorded while the ventricles pump the blood. The diastolic pressure refers to the pressure recorded as the ventricles fill with blood. A normal blood pressure is 120/80

48 DISORDERS ATHEROSCLEROSIS Fatty deposits called plaque
Builds up in walls of arteries Obstructs flow Also a risk if clot breaks free and blocks flow elsewhere

49 Disorders (cont) Hypertension High blood pressure
Hearts works harder than necessary Increases risk of heart attack or stroke

50 Disorders (cont) Heart Attack Atherosclerosis in coronary artery
Heart muscle begins to die Symptoms Nausea Shortness of breath Severe chest pain IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION NECESSARY

51 Disorders (cont) Stroke
Blood clot gets stuck in blood vessels leading to brain Brain cells die due to lack of oxygen Or blood vessel burst Can lead to paralysis, loss of ability to speak death

52 Current PREVENTION Recommendations
Regular exercise Weight control Well balanced diet Do not smoke Diet low in saturated fat

53 Elaboration Blood Typing: To Clump or Not to Clump?

54 Blood Types Massive loss of blood requires a transfusion Four Types
AB O Inherited from your parents

55 Blood Types

56 What happens when you mix blood types?
Plasma contains proteins that correspond to the shape of the different antigens If you mix one type with the wrong one, you get CLUMPING Type O is the universal donor Type AB is the universal acceptor

57 What Makes Our Blood Type?

58 Blood Transfusions Blood Type of Recipient Blood Type of Donor
A B AB O A B AB O Unsuccessful transfusion Successful transfusion

59 Rh Factor Rhesus factor (Rh), also inherited
Rh+ (have antigen) Rh- (NO antigen) Can cause complications in pregnancies mother Rh- 1st baby Rh+ : blood mixes with mother; mother’s body makes anti-Rh+ antibodies 2nd Rh + body attacks baby Now have medicine to prevent antibody formation

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