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An Introduction Anthropology, Psychology & Sociology.

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1 An Introduction Anthropology, Psychology & Sociology

2 Social Science A multi-disciplinary field of study that focuses on explaining human behaviour using research and analysis A multi-disciplinary field of study that focuses on explaining human behaviour using research and analysis Concerned with what people think & how they act Concerned with what people think & how they act includes the disciplines (areas of study) of: includes the disciplines (areas of study) of: anthropology*economics anthropology*economics family studieshistory family studieshistory human geographypolitical science human geographypolitical science psychology*religion psychology*religion sociology* sociology*

3 When investigating an issue, Social Scientists ask 4 fundamental questions: When investigating an issue, Social Scientists ask 4 fundamental questions: 1. What happened? 1. What happened? 2. How did it happen? 2. How did it happen? 3. Why did it happen? 3. Why did it happen? 4. How can people change what happened? 4. How can people change what happened?

4 How are they the same? Anthropology, Psychology & Sociology Anthropology, Psychology & Sociology all study human behaviours all study human behaviours

5 Social Sciences Anthropology PsychologySociology

6 How are they different?

7 Anthropology The study of the human species & its origins, & the development of its language & culture throughout the world Human cultures consist of the ways of living of a group of people (community, society or nation), including their traditions, arts, inventions, and conventions (habits, behaviours) There are different types of anthropology, for example:- physical, cultural, forensic There are different types of anthropology, for example:- physical, cultural, forensic

8 Anthropology Fundamental Belief – Understanding our origins will help to explain how we live, communicate, & interact with our environment Fundamental Belief – Understanding our origins will help to explain how we live, communicate, & interact with our environment

9 Anthropological Questions How was human culture developed? How was human culture developed? What symbols do cultures share? What symbols do cultures share? How did humans learn to manipulate their environment? How did humans learn to manipulate their environment? How was language established? How was language established?

10 What are examples of Canadian culture? What are examples of Canadian culture?

11 Examples of Canadian culture Maple leaf Maple leaf Beavers, loons Beavers, loons Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Hockey, lacrosse Hockey, lacrosse Inukshooks Inukshooks ‘Loonie’, ‘Toonie’ ‘Loonie’, ‘Toonie’ ‘Eh?’ ‘Eh?’ Politeness Politeness Totem poles Igloos Tim Horton’s Stompin’ Tom Connors Justin Beiber (singer) Shania Twain (singer) Avril Leveigne (singer) William Shatner (actor)

12 Joey Votto (Red’s baseball) Joey Votto (Red’s baseball) Wayne Gretzky (hockey) Wayne Gretzky (hockey) Mario Lemieux (hockey) Mario Lemieux (hockey) Mike Weir (golf) Mike Weir (golf) Hailey Wickenheiser (hockey) Hailey Wickenheiser (hockey) Steve Nash (Laker’s basketball) Steve Nash (Laker’s basketball) Tristen Thompson (Cavalier’s basketball) Dan Aykroid (actor) Alex Trebec (tv personality) Martin Short (actor) Pamela Anderson (actress)

13 What are examples of Canadian culture? What are examples of Canadian culture? Molson I am Canadian – YouTube Molson I am Canadian – YouTube Molson I am Canadian – YouTube Molson I am Canadian – YouTube Does this truly reflect Canadian culture? Does this truly reflect Canadian culture?

14 Typically, anthropologists use participant observation for research What groups can be studied from an anthropological perspective? What groups can be studied from an anthropological perspective? Amish, Mennonite communities Amish, Mennonite communities Polygamous communities Polygamous communities Motorcycle gangs Motorcycle gangs

15 Ethnocentrism - the tendency to evaluate other cultures in terms of your own, typically judging others as inferior Ethnocentrism - the tendency to evaluate other cultures in terms of your own, typically judging others as inferior Examples: Examples: In England, they ‘drive on the wrong side of the road’ In England, they ‘drive on the wrong side of the road’ In Japan children are taught to show respect by looking down instead of looking into the eyes of the person with whom they are speaking In Japan children are taught to show respect by looking down instead of looking into the eyes of the person with whom they are speaking

16 Psychology The study of the human mind, behaviours, emotions, cognitive processes, & personality Different types of psychology include experimental & clinical (and variations of these) Different types of psychology include experimental & clinical (and variations of these)

17 Psychology Fundamental Beliefs – Behaviour is both learned & innate. Both factors influence & shape how individuals will behave, feel, act, or respond to external stimuli Fundamental Beliefs – Behaviour is both learned & innate. Both factors influence & shape how individuals will behave, feel, act, or respond to external stimuli

18 Psychological Questions Why do humans behave as they do? Why do humans behave as they do? How does personality develop? How does personality develop? What is intelligence? What is intelligence? How can we control our emotions? How can we control our emotions?

19 Psychology Typically, psychology Typically, psychology uses experiments in laboratories for research (animal & human)

20 Sociology Looks at the development & structure of human society, & how society works (behaviours) Examines how people act in group situations

21 Sociology Fundamental Belief – The groups to which an individual belongs will determine the roles & expectations that he/she will learn & emulate in his/her private life Fundamental Belief – The groups to which an individual belongs will determine the roles & expectations that he/she will learn & emulate in his/her private life

22 Sociological Questions What function does society serve in the lives of individuals? What function does society serve in the lives of individuals? What role do social institutions have in society? What role do social institutions have in society? How do individuals learn to adapt to the specific rules & modes of behaviour that govern groups? How do individuals learn to adapt to the specific rules & modes of behaviour that govern groups?

23 Sociology Typically, sociology Typically, sociology uses statistical analysis for research to understand rates/frequency of behaviours

24 Discipline 1: _________________________ Practitioners of this social science would ask how accurately this poem reflects what we know about the development and functioning of human society. They might conduct a statistical analysis to find out whether children do in fact tend to develop into the kind of adults that the poem suggests they do. Alternatively, they might track a sample of people from childhood to adulthood to find out what links, if any, connect childhood experiences with adult personality.

25 Discipline 2: _________________________ These social scientists would ask how accurately this poem reflects what we know about human culture. They might participate as observers in a number of cultures in different countries to see how children are treated and to try to establish a possible link in each culture between childhood experiences and the resulting adult behaviour.

26 Discipline 3: _________________________ Social scientists from this discipline would consider people’s feelings about how they were treated as children. They would examine how these feelings affect the development of the individual’s adult personalities. These social scientists might focus on a manageable number of individual subjects, recording in detail their experiences as children and as adults. In this way, they would try to understand how the minds of their subjects work.

27 Children Learn What They Live If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn. If children live with hostility, they learn to fight. If children live with ridicule, they learn to feel shy. If children live with shame, they learn to feel guilty. If children live with encouragement, they learn confidence.

28 If children live with tolerance, they learn patience. If children live with praise, they learn appreciation. If children live with acceptance, they learn to love. If children live with approval, they learn to like themselves. If children live with honesty, they learn truthfulness.

29 If children live with security, they learn to have faith in themselves and those about them. If children live with friendliness, they learn that the world is a nice place in which to live. By Dorothy Law Nolte (1998)

30 What Do You Think? 1. As you reflect on your own experiences, which lines in this poem are meaningful to you? Why? 2. Summarize the main ideas contained in this poem. 3. What is your opinion of the main message of this poem? Explain your reasoning. 4. Can we know from our own experiences whether are not the main ideas are valid? Would we be better to suspend our judgement until we have researched the findings of social scientists who have investigated the subject? Explain your reasoning.

31 Jazz for Cows - YouTube Jazz for Cows - YouTube


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