Presentation on theme: "Anthropology, Psychology & Sociology"— Presentation transcript:
1Anthropology, Psychology & Sociology An IntroductionAnthropology, Psychology & Sociology
2Social ScienceA multi-disciplinary field of study that focuses on explaining human behaviour using research and analysisConcerned with what people think & how they actincludes the disciplines (areas of study) of:anthropology* economicsfamily studies historyhuman geography political sciencepsychology* religionsociology*
3When investigating an issue, Social Scientists ask 4 fundamental questions: 1. What happened?2. How did it happen?3. Why did it happen?4. How can people change what happened?
4How are they the same? Anthropology, Psychology & Sociology all study human behaviours
7AnthropologyThe study of the human species & its origins, & the development of its language & culture throughout the worldHuman cultures consist of the ways of living of a group of people (community, society or nation), including their traditions, arts, inventions, and conventions (habits, behaviours)There are different types of anthropology, for example: - physical, cultural, forensic
8AnthropologyFundamental Belief – Understanding our origins will help to explain how we live, communicate, & interact with our environment
9Anthropological Questions How was human culture developed?What symbols do cultures share?How did humans learn to manipulate their environment?How was language established?
11Examples of Canadian culture Maple leafBeavers, loonsRoyal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)Hockey, lacrosseInukshooks‘Loonie’, ‘Toonie’‘Eh?’PolitenessTotem polesIgloosTim Horton’sStompin’ Tom ConnorsJustin Beiber (singer)Shania Twain (singer)Avril Leveigne (singer)William Shatner (actor)
12Joey Votto (Red’s baseball) Wayne Gretzky (hockey)Mario Lemieux (hockey)Mike Weir (golf)Hailey Wickenheiser (hockey)Steve Nash (Laker’s basketball)Tristen Thompson (Cavalier’s basketball)Dan Aykroid (actor)Alex Trebec (tv personality)Martin Short (actor)Pamela Anderson (actress)
13What are examples of Canadian culture? Molson I am Canadian – YouTubeDoes this truly reflect Canadian culture?
14Typically, anthropologists use participant observation for research What groups can be studied from an anthropological perspective?Amish, Mennonite communitiesPolygamous communitiesMotorcycle gangs
15Ethnocentrism - the tendency to evaluate other cultures in terms of your own, typically judging others as inferiorExamples:In England, they ‘drive on the wrong side of the road’In Japan children are taught to show respect by looking down instead of looking into the eyes of the person with whom they are speaking
16PsychologyThe study of the human mind, behaviours, emotions, cognitive processes, & personalityDifferent types of psychology include experimental & clinical (and variations of these)
17PsychologyFundamental Beliefs – Behaviour is both learned & innate. Both factors influence & shape how individuals will behave, feel, act, or respond to external stimuli
18Psychological Questions Why do humans behave as they do?How does personality develop?What is intelligence?How can we control our emotions?
19PsychologyTypically, psychology uses experiments in laboratories for research (animal & human)
20SociologyLooks at the development & structure of human society, & how society works (behaviours)Examines how people act in group situations
21SociologyFundamental Belief – The groups to which an individual belongs will determine the roles & expectations that he/she will learn & emulate in his/her private life
22Sociological Questions What function does society serve in the lives of individuals?What role do social institutions have in society?How do individuals learn to adapt to the specific rules & modes of behaviour that govern groups?
23SociologyTypically, sociology uses statistical analysis for research to understand rates/frequency of behaviours
24Discipline 1: _________________________ Practitioners of this social science would ask how accurately this poem reflects what we know about the development and functioning of human society. They might conduct a statistical analysis to find out whether children do in fact tend to develop into the kind of adults that the poem suggests they do. Alternatively, they might track a sample of people from childhood to adulthood to find out what links, if any, connect childhood experiences with adult personality.
25Discipline 2: _________________________ These social scientists would ask how accurately this poem reflects what we know about human culture. They might participate as observers in a number of cultures in different countries to see how children are treated and to try to establish a possible link in each culture between childhood experiences and the resulting adult behaviour.
26Discipline 3: _________________________ Social scientists from this discipline would consider people’s feelings about how they were treated as children. They would examine how these feelings affect the development of the individual’s adult personalities. These social scientists might focus on a manageable number of individual subjects, recording in detail their experiences as children and as adults. In this way, they would try to understand how the minds of their subjects work.
27Children Learn What They Live If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn.If children live with hostility, they learn to fight.If children live with ridicule, they learn to feel shy.If children live with shame, they learn to feel guilty.If children live with encouragement, they learn confidence.
28If children live with tolerance, they learn patience. If children live with praise, they learn appreciation.If children live with acceptance, they learn to love.If children live with approval, they learn to like themselves.If children live with honesty, they learn truthfulness.
29If children live with security, they learn to have faith in themselves and those about them. If children live with friendliness, they learn that the world is a nice place in which to live.By Dorothy Law Nolte (1998)
30What Do You Think?1. As you reflect on your own experiences, which lines in this poem are meaningful to you? Why?2. Summarize the main ideas contained in this poem.3. What is your opinion of the main message of this poem? Explain your reasoning.4. Can we know from our own experiences whether are not the main ideas are valid? Would we be better to suspend our judgement until we have researched the findings of social scientists who have investigated the subject? Explain your reasoning.